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MEANING AND MESSAGE 
OF THE TRADITIONS 



MAULANA MUHAMMAD MANZOOR NO'MANI 



Volume Three 



DARUL-ISHAAT 

KARACHI - PAKISTAN 




r 



MEANING AND MESSAGE 
OF THE 

TRADITIONS 

(MA'ARIFUL HADITH) 



Volume Three 
Part V & VI 



By 

Maulana Mohammad Manzoor Nomani 

Translated by (Part vi only) Completed & Revised by 

Mohammad Asif Kidwai Rafiq Abdur Rehman 

M.A., Ph.D. 



CONTENTS 

PART-V 



1 Publisher's Submission 19 

2 Introduction 21 

(Mawlana Sycd Abu ul-Hasan Nadawi) 

3 Preface (to the Urdu Edition) 29 

4 About This Volume 32 

5 A Final Request 32 

6 KITABUJL AZKAAR WAD DA'WAAT 33 
(The Book of Azkaar and Ad Da'waat) 

7 The Significance of Zikr And its Blessings 37 

8 Significance of Zikr in Relation to Other Deeds 47 

9 The Excellence of Zikr by the Tongue 49 

1 0 To Neglect Zikr is to Neglect 5 1 

11 The Words of Zikr and Their Blessings 53 

1 2 The Excellence of in *i\ *l\ y 60 

13 Significance And Blessings of Kalimah Tawhced 63 

14 The Merit of bWipi) J ft 64 

15 Al-Asmaal-Husna 65 

1 6 The Ninety-nine Names all From the Qur'an 70 

1 7 Al-Ism Al-A'Azam (The Great Name) 73 

1 8 " Recital of the Noble Qur'an 77 
!9 The Greatness and the Excellence of the Qur'an 77 

20 About the Teacher and Student of of Qur'an 8 1 

2 1 Envy for the Men with the Qur'an 8 1 

22 The Rights of Quran 82 



8 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



23 Rise and Falls of Nations Through the Qur'an 83 

24 Reward on Recital of Qur'an 83 

25 Recital of Qur'an is Polish for the Hearts 84 

26 The Station of One Skilled in Qur'an 85 

27 Reward Against Recital & Practicing What is Recited 86 

28 The Intercession of The Qur'an 86 

29 The Blessings of Specified Verses & Surah 89 

30 Surah Al-Fatihah 89 

31 Surah Al-Baqarah 90 

32 Surah Al-Kahf 91 

33 Surah Yaseen 92 

34 Surah Al-Waqiah 93 

35 Surah Al-Mulk 93 

36 Surah AlifLaam Meem Tanzeel 93 

37 Surah Al-A'ala 93 

38 Surah Al-Takathur 94 

39 Surah Az-Zilzal, AUKafiroon & Al-Akhlas 94 

40 Surah Al-Ikhlas 96 

41 Ma'oozatayn 98 

42 Merits of Some Specified Verses 101 

43 AyatAl-Kursi 101 

44 The Last Verse of Surah Al-Baqarah 1 02 

45 Last Verses of Surah Aal-Imran 104 

46 Du'a (Supplication) 107 

47 The Position of Du'a and Its Importance 110 

48 Approval of Supplication 113 

49 Guidance Concerning Du 'a 114 

50 Do not Be Impatient for a Response 116 

51 Supplication is Not Granted If the Supplicant Survives 117 
on The' Unlawful 

52 Supplications That are Disallowed 1 1 8 

53 Etiquettes of Supplication 120 

54 Preface Du'a With Praise of Allah Be Blessings on The 121 
Prophet 0 

55 Saying Aameen At the Conclusion of Supplication 122 

56 The Youngers Should be Asked to Pray for Us 1 22 

57 Supplications That Meet Approval 123 



Contents 



9 



58 The Particular Conditions And Moments of Approval 125 



of Supplications 

59 What It Means to Have an Answer t a Supplication 1 28 

60 The Supplications of The Messengers of Allah H 131 

61 Supplications Made in As-Salah or After Offering It 1 32 

62 Initial Dua After Takbeer Tahreemah 132 

63 Supplications While Bowing & Prostrating 135 

64 Some Supplications of the Last Qa'dah (Sitting 136 
Posture) 

65 Supplications After As-Salah (Prayer) 140 

66 The Prophet's 0 Comprehensive Supplication After 144 
Tahajjud 

67 Supplications at Different Hours and Situations 149 

68 Supplications in the Morning And in The Evening 149 

69 Supplications At the Time of Sleeping 1 57 

70 Supplications for Sleeplessness 164 

7 1 Supplication When Getting a Nightmare 1 65 

72 Supplication on Arising From Sleep 166 

73 Supplication At the Time of Istinja 1 68 

74 Supplication At the Time of Coming Out of The 170 
House & Entering It 

75 Supplication on Entering & Going of the Mosque 1 72 

76 Supplication on Getting up From an Assembly 173 

77 Supplication on Going to The Market 1 77 

78 Zikr in the Evil Atmosphere of The Market Fetches 177 
Extraordinary Reward 

79 Supplication on Seeing Anything in Distress 1 79 

80 Supplications Before & After Meals 1 8 1 

81 Supplication For the Host 182 

82 Supplication on Donning New Garments 1 84 

83 Supplication on Beholding Oneself in The Mirror 1 85 

84 Supplications At the Time of Wedding 1 85 

85 Supplication At the Time of Sexual Inercourse 1 86 

86 Supplication Before And After Journey 1 87 

87 Supplication During Transit 191 

88 Supplication on Entering A Town 191 

89 Supplication for & Advice To a Traveller 192 



!() 



Meaning and Message of (he Traditions Pari V 



90 Supplication in Times of Severe Danger 193 

9 1 Supplication At the Time of Worry & Anxiety 195 

92 Supplications When Faced With Probmels, Difficulties 198 
& Distress 

93 Supplication Against A Tyrant Ruler 201 

94 Supplication For Relief From Debt 202 

95 Supplication In Time of Sorrow & Happiness 204 

96 Supplication At the Time of Anger 204 

97 Supplication On Visiting The Sick 205 

98 Supplication on Sneezing 207 

99 Supplication During Thunder And Lightening 209 

1 00 Supplication When the Wind Blows Violently 2 1 0 

1 0 1 Supplication When Clouds Are Over Head & It Rains 2 1 2 

102 Supplication For Rain 213 

1 03 Supplication on Observing The New Moon 2 1 3 

1 04 Supplication on The Laylat-ul-Qadr 2 1 5 

105 Supplication At Arafah 216 

106 Comprehensive Supplications 219 

107 Seeking Refuge in Allah 251 

108 Refuge From Illness & Hvil Influence 262 

109 Seeking Forgiveness & Repenting 265 

1 10 Tawbah & Istighfar Are Means to Highest Station 266 



II 1 The Lovable Examples of The Prophet Hi In This 268 

Regard 

III The Stain of Sins Washed Away By Tawbah & 270 



Istighfar 

112 Sins Disclose Allah's Forgiving Attribute 272 

1 1 3 Those Who Presist in Sin & Then Make Istighfar 213 

1 14 Tawbah Is Accepted Upto A Certain l ime 275 

1 1 5 istighfar is The Best Gift For the Dead 276 

1 16 Istighfar For General Body of Believers 277 

1 17 Gravest Sins Are Forgiven If One Repents 279 



118 Murderer of Hundred Men Gains Pardon On 279 
Repentance 

1 19 Mercy Is Available to The Polytheists & Disbelievers 282 
Too 

120 Expressions of Tawbah & Istighfar 283 



Contents 



121 Sayyid al-Istighfar 284 

1 22 The Istighfar of Khizr f& 287 

123 Blessings of Istighfar 289 

124 Islighfar Brings Peace for The Ummah 290 

125 Allah is Much Pleased With Anyone's Tawbah & 292 
Istighfar 

•26 As-Salatu Wa As-Salam 299 

{Blessings & Peace on The Prophet) 

127 Blessings on The Prophet A Doubt Answered 300 

128 The Greatness & Significance of As-Salalu Wa 301 
As-Salam 

129 Opinions of Jurists On lnvocating Blessings & Peace 30 1 

1 30 The Distinctive Nature of As-Salalu Wa As-Salam 302 
13 1 The Objective of As-Sakttu Wa As-Salam 303 

132 Wisdom Behind The Blessings 303 

133 Ahadith That F.xort us to Invocatc Blessings & That 304 
Relate Its Merits 

134 To Neglect Blessings on His 0 Mention Spells 309 
Destruction 

135 None of the Muslims Gathering Should Go Without 312 
Mention of Allah & Blessings on The Prophet 

136 Abundance of lnvocating Will Procure Nearness to 312 
The Prophet S on The Day of Ressesuction 

137 If Anyone Continues to Invocate Blessings Instead of 314 
Making A Supplication That Would Get His Purpose 
Served 

138 Durood Gets Supplications Answered 316 

139 No Matter In Which Corner of The World One Calls 317 
For Blessings On Him It Dows Reach The Prophet & 

140 Hxpressions of Durood 320 

141 The Wisdom for Asking Barkah After Asking for 323 
Salah 

142 The Word Aal (Ji) 323 

143 The Comparison in The Durood 325 

144 The Beginning & Conclusion of The Durood 326 

145 Comments on The Transmission of This Durood 327 



12 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



PART-VI 

146 KITAB UL MA AMLAAT WAL MUASHRAT 343 
(The Book of Affairs And Society) 



147 Importance 345 

148 Elementary Obligations of Parents 349 

149 Calling of Azan in the Ear ofaNew-Born Child 349 

150 Tahnik 350 

151 Aqiqah 351 

152 Tasmiyah (The Giving of a Name) 356 

153 Good Breeding and Religious Upbringing 358 

1 54 Importance of Showing Kindness to Daughters 360 

155 Equality of Children in Liberality and Beneficence 363 

156 Responsibility of Marriage 365 

157 Rights of Parents on Children 367 

158 Parents Are the Heaven and Hell of the Children 367 

159 The Good Pleasure of The Lord is Related to The 368 
Good Pleasure of the Parents 

160 Claim of Mothers is Greater 368 



161 Unfortunate is He Who is Not Regardful of Needs and 370 

1 62 Comforts of His Aged Parents 

163 Service of The Parents is Preferable Even to Jihad In 370 
Certain Circumstances 

1 64 Heaven Lies Under the Feet of the Mother 3 7 1 

165 Service of The Mother Can Atone for Major Sins • 372 

166 Even an Infidal or Polytheist Mother Has a Claim to 373 
Kindly Feelings and Sympathy 

167 Special Rights of Parents After Their Death 374 

168 Worldly Advantages of Showing Kindness and 376 
Obedience to Parents 

169 Disobedience and Cruelty Towards Parents is A Most 376 



Grievous Sin 

170 Rights of Other Relatives 378 

171 Other Blessings 379 

172 Serving is An Impediment to Salvation 380 



173 Showing Kindness Even to Those Who Server The 381 



Contents 



13 



Ties of Kinship 

174 Mutual Rights And Duties of Husband And Wife 383 

175 The Foremost Claim on Wife is of Her Husband 384 

176 If Prostration Was Allowed Before Anyone Besides 384 
Allah a Wife Would have Prostrated Before Her 
Husband 

177 Prostration is Only for Allah 386 

178 Obedience And Loyalty to Husband 387 

179 Rights of Wives & Respicting Them 388 

180 Advice Concerning Kindly Treatment to Wives 389 

181 Good And Kindly Treatment to Wives is A Condition 391 
of Perfection in Faith 

1 82 Behaviour of Holy Prophet Towards His Wives 391 

183 The Question of Doll & Pictures 392 

184 Competition in A Race 393 

1 85 Showing A Sport to Sayyidah Ayshah 393 

186 The Sport Was in The Nature of A Drill, And That 394 
Was Why the Prophet Had Watched it Himself 

187 The Question of Hijab 394 

188 Rights of Neighbours 397 

189 Continuous Exhortation of Jibrail (Gabriel) With 397 
Regard to the Rights of Neighbours 

190 Love of Allah And His Prophet Depends On 398 

191 Good and Kindly Treatment Towards The Neighbours 398 
. is An Essential Condition of Faith 

192 He is Not a True Believer And Will Not Go to Heaven 399 
Whose Neighbours Do not Feel Secure on His Account 

193 He is Not a Muslim Who Eats His Fill While His 400 

194 Neighbour Goes Hungry 

Some Specific Rights of Neighbours 400 

195 Three Categories of Neighbours: Non-Muslim 402 
Neighbours, Too, Have Their Rights 

196 Caring for The Instruction of The Neighbours 403 

197 Rights of Weaker And Poorer Sections 407 

1 98 Carsing for The Indigent, The Widow And the Orphan 407 

199 Attending to The Needs of The Poor, The Sick and 410 
The Distressed 



Meaning and Massage of the Traditions Part V 



200 Slaves and Servants 413 

201 Basic Rights of Slaves 413 

202 Brotherly Treatment 414 

203 The Slave or Servant Must Be Given The Food to Eat 414 
Which He Cooks for The Master 

204 Slaves Should Be Forgiven If They Commit a Mistake 4 1 5 

205 Revenge Will be Taken From The Oppressors of 416 



Slaves On The Day of Resurrection 

206 Atonment of Cruelty to Slaves 4 1 7 

207 Last Testament of The Prophet W> Concerning Slaves 417 

208 Loyalty of Slaves to Their Masters 4 1 8 

209 Behaviour of The Old and The Young Towards Each 419 
Other 

2 1 0 Rights of Islamic Fraternity 42 1 

211 A Strong Building 422 

212 Some Special Claims 425 

2 1 3 Defence of The Honour of A Muslim 426 

214 A Muslim is Muslim's Mirror 428 

215 Attitude Towards Mankind, in General, And All 428 
Created Being 

216 Kindness to Animals 431 

217 Rules And Proprieties of Meeting 435 

218 Importance of Salaam 437 

219 Divine Reward 438 

220 Salaam on Meeting Anyone 440 

221 Salaam on Coming Into or Going Out of One's Own 441 
House or Any other Place 

222 Some Other Rules and Regulations 442 

223 When not to Salute? 443 

224 Shaking Hands 444 

225 Propitiousness And Reward 444 

226 Embracing, Kissing and Standing 445 

227 Taking Permission Before Entering a House 447 

228 Offering of A seat to Visitors Next to Oneself 45 1 



229 No One Should Be Told to Vacate His Seat for Oneself 452 

230 No One Should Sit Between Two Persons Without 453 
Their Permission 



Contents 



15 



231 Whoever Likes People to Stand up For Him, Out of 453 
Respect, Is Doomed to Hell 

232 The Messenger of Allah S Did Not Like People to '453 
Stand up In His Honour 

233 Everyone Ought to Rise When The Head of The 454 
Assembly Rises to Leave 

234 Teachings of The Prophet 0 Concerning Lying, 455 
Sitting, Sleeping and His Own Practice 

235 Forbidding Sleeping on A Flat Roof 455 

236 Forbiddig Sleeping With The Thigh of One Leg in An 456 
Upright Position And The Other Leg Resting on It 

237 Forbidding Lying on Stomach 456 

238 How Did The Prophet Lie? 457 

239 Miswak on Waking Up 458 

240 Manner of Sitting 459 

241 Those Who Come to A Meeting or Assembly Should 459 
Sit At the Edge 

242 Wrong to Sit in The Middle of A Group of Persons 460 

243 Forbidding People From Sitting in Separate Groups 460 

244 One Should Not Sit in Such A Way That A Part of His 46 1 
Body Was in The Sun, And the Other in The Shade 

245 Guidance Regarding Talking, Laughing, Sneezing 463 



and Yawing In Company 

246 Speech Should Not be Prolonged Unnecessarily 463 

247 Speech Can Be A Cause of Felicity And Happiness As 464 
Well As of Misery 

248 Care Should Be Taken Even While Praising Anyone 464 

249 Poetry 466 

250 Wit And Humour 469 

25 1 Laughter 470 

252 Sneezing And Yawing 472 

253 Eating And Drinking 477 

254 Lawful And Unlawful Food 479 

255 Liquids For Drinking 491 

256 Prohibition of Strong Drink 49 1 

257 Warning of Punishment 497 

258 Even A Small Quantity of Wine is Forbidden 499 



16 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Pari V 



259 Wine Should not be used Even as Medicine 499 

260 Waging War Against A Community Which Insists On 500 
Drinking 

261 Severe Denunciation 500 

262 All Intoxicants Are Forbidden 501 

263 A Prophecy Regarding Indulgence In Wine By 502 
Muslims 

264 Some Exceptional Rules And Commandments 503 

265 Nabeez is A Pure And Lawful Beverage, And The 505 
Messenger of Allah HI, Too, Used to Drink it 

266 The Prophet % Liked A Cool And Sweet Drink 506 

267 Sweet Water for the Messenger of Allah H 506 

268 Proprieties 507 

269 Washing Hands Before And After A Meal 507 

270 Wiping And Drying Hands 509 

271 Remembering God And Taking His Name before 510 
Commencing To Eat 

272 Eating With The Right Hand 5 1 2 

273 Taking Off Shoes While Sitting Down To A Meal 5 1 3 

274 Food Should Not Be Taken Too Hot 514 

275 Auspiciousness of Eating Together 514 

276 Eating From The Sides of Vessel 515 

277 Food Left Over in The Plate or On Fingers 516 

278 The Morsel That Drops From The Hands Should Also, 517 
Be Eaten 

279 If a Fly Drops In a Meal 5 1 9 

280 TheProphet'sAttitudeofHumblenessWhileTakingAMeat 520 

281 Forbidding The Use of Gold or Silver Vessels 522 

282 The Prophet 0 Never Found Fault With Food 522 

283 The Prophet's Favourite Dishes 522 

284 Praising The Lord and Expressing Gratitude to Him 523 
After A Meal 

285 Forbidding Drinking In One Breath 524 

286 Forbidding Breathing Into The Vessel From Which 525 
One is Drinking 

287 Forbidding Drinking In The Standing Posture 525 

288 Dress 527 



Contents 



17 



289 Clothes Are A Blessing of The Lord • 528 

290 Forbidding A Dress That Does Not Cover The Body 529 
Properly or Is Unfit In Any Other Way 

291 Forbidding An Excessively Thin Dress to Women 529 

292 A Thin Dress, Also, is Permitted To Women With 530 
Certain Conditions 

293 Ostentation in Dress 53 1 

294 Vanity 532 

295 Forbidding Gold And Silk to Men 534 

296 Forbidding Bright Red Colour to Men 534 

297 Men Should Not Dress Like Women, Nor Women 535 
Like Men 

298 While Clothes Are Preferable for Men 535 

299 It is Not Proper for The Well-to-do To Live Miserably 536 

300 Live Well Without Being Vain and Wasteful 537 

301 Do Not Look Clumsy or Awkward 538 

302 Keeping The Hair Neat And Tidy 538 

303 Simplicity And Destitution, Too, Is an Aspect of Faith 539 

304 -Reward on Simplicity in Dress 539 

305 Dress of The Prophet H 541 

306 The Prophet S Began With The Right Side When 545 
Putting On A Dress 

307 The Prayer of The Prophet S At the Time of Wearing 546 
A New Garment 

308 Wearing Shoes 547 

309 Wearing A Ring or Seal 547 

310 Beard, Moustache And Other Personal Characteristics 549 

3 1 1 Using Henns By Women 552 
32 Satr And Hijab 554 

313 Necessary Satr 555 

314 Hiding Nakedness Even When Alone 556 

3 1 5 Observing Hijab By Women 557 

316 Casting Amorous Glances 557 

3 1 7 Seeing A Naa-Mahram Woman By Chance 558 

318 Getting seized With An Evil Desire on Seeing a Woman 559 ' 

319 Forbidding Meeting A Non-Mahram Woman In 559 
Privacy 



INTRODUCTION 1 

Mawlana Sayed Abu Al-Hasan Nadawe 



The greatness of Prophethood of the Khataman Nabiyeen, and 
his mission may be divided into two works. 

1. The correction and proper enforcement of the relationship 
between the worshipper and the worshipped. 

2. The petmanence and proper maintenance of the relationship 

between the workshipper and the worshipped. 
The relationship between the worshipper and the worshipped 
needed to be corrected and set on proper lines,and administered 
firmly because it had gone wrong. The definitions had been mixed 
up and there was a confusion in the distinction between the slave 
and Allah, the created and the Creator, and the worshipper and the 
worshipped. It had fallen prey to changes, foolishness, mgnorance 
superstition and mischief. There was a complete unawareness of 
Allah and His attributes and if a people or nation were conscious of 
that then their awareness was very incomplete and in improper. His 
creatures were made partners in His attributes. On the one hand, 
He was said to possess many of the characteristics and defects of 
His creatures, and on the other many of His peculiar Divine 
attributes were handed over to His creatures. Most of the wrong 
ways of the Days of Ignorance, their ills and their shortcomings 
were born out of this weakness and gradually it led to idol-worship 
and open polytheism. 

If again, there were some instances of the blessings oi the 
teachings of Prophets ^ <*M and remnants of light thrown by 
them to enable a proper relationship between the worshipper and 
the worshipped then it was not properly shaped and managed. The 
first distinction and achievement of Prophet M uhammad m is that 
O.To the Urdu Edition 



22 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



he corrected the relationship with a proper awareness and belief in 
the uniby of Allah. He purified it of all unhealthy ideas, removed 
the curtains that had concealed it and threw away the polytheistic 
ideas and suspicions from it. He showed them its purity and 
sacred ness in such a way that there was no grade above it. The 
result was that divine uinity and the call of 

"Behold since faith is for Allah only" (AzZumar, 39:3) 
came out so effectively that apart from those who were hard- 
hearted and arrogant no one could give the excuse of having 
misunderstood or being misinformed. 

"That he who was to perish, should perish by a clear sign, and 
he who was to remain alive, should live by a clear sign". 

(Al-Anfal,8:42) 

This is how he corrected the relationship between the 
worshipper and the worshipped. As for its proper enforcement, he 
did it through (the lman Mufassal) a detailed exposition of faith, 
beliefs, fara'id (absolute obligations), do's and donf s (commands 
of the approved and forbiddance of the disapproved) and mutual 
dealings. This exposition and set of injunctions is known as 
Shari 'ah, and this is how the relationship between the worshipper 
and the worshipped was managed and perfected. 

The second aspect of the mission of Prophet Muhammad is 
the proper maintenance and permanence of the relationship 
between the worshipper and the worshipped. This relationship was 
very weak in practice. It was a soul-less relationship and simply a 
shadow. It could not endure faith and lacked the fever of love. The 
worshipper and no link with the worshipped nor did he present his 
petition humbly and decorously. He had no realisation of his own 
helplessness or of the attributes and powers of Allah. Only a 
semblence of this relationship could be witnessed on special 
occasions like national festivals or at times of severe distress. It 
had become a custom to supplicate the worshipped only on such 
occasions. Even among people who prefessed any religion, those 



Introduction 



23 



people were scarce who remenbered God at all times, be lived in 
His omnipresence and all-seeing nature and had a vital relationship 
with Him whereby they regarded Him as their Helper and Remover 
of difficulties. Those people were few who believed firmly that He 
was All-Powerful and loving in the same way as a child is 
confident of his mother s ability and love,or a, slave is of his strong 
king. Prophet Muhammad S gave this theoretical relationship a 
practical form, and the shadow a reality. The deed that was 
performed twice or thrice in a man's life or once every few years 
came to be done every morning and evening and it became as 
necessary for a Believer as water and air were for him. Life was 
impossible to sustain without these things. While those people had 
previously fallen under the description of this verse: 

"And they remember not Allah but little" (An.Nisa: 4:142) 
they began to fit the description of this verse: 

0 \\ :r j' j** J^) tfiy* J* j tSjiSjii^ all ojj^i ci$ 

"Who remember Allah, standing and sitting and (lying) on their 
sides". (Aal Imran3:l9l) 

Those who were given to remember Him only in times of 
severe distress 

"And when a wave covers them like awnings, they call upon 
Allah keeping their faith sincerely in Him " (Luqinan 3 1 :32) 

began to be recognised as 

.*-{»,**'. >*******.* iT'ii ****** \\f"» 
(\ VVY «JL*-Jl) UU?jld y p# j dj^^i ^rwioJi j* pas*- ^>*> 

"Their sides forsake thier beds as they call on their Lord in fear 
and in hope" (As Sajdah, 32: 1 6) 

Those people, to whom rememberance of Allah called 
extraordinary effort and was an unnatural conduct, turned into 
those to whom it became unnatural to forget Allah and it was very 
painful to them. The Qur'an describes the former: 

"As if he were climbing to the heaven"(Al An'am, 6:125) 



24 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



but the latter were like birds in a cage if they were outside the 
atmosphere of worship and remembrance of Allah. If they were 
restrained from mentioning Allah and making supplications to Him 
then they looked like fish that writhers out of water. 

To properly maintain and perpetuate the relationship between 
the worshipper and the worshipped, Prophet Muhammad 0 
adopted certain means which may be divided into two headings: 

Zikr and Du % a. Zikr is the remembrance of Allah, His praise 
and glorification. 

DiCa is supplication made to Him. The Messenger of Allah m 
laid emphasis on Zikr, related its merits and advantages and 
revealed its hidden benefits. To those who understand and value 
these revelations of the Prophet S Zikr is no more an obligation or 
way of life but it is a basic need of life, a peculiarity of human 
nature, food for the soul and medicine for the heart. The Prophet 
H then suggested the times and moments when the Zikr may be 
practised. He also suggested methods and words and these things 
breathed a spirit in the mould and form of worship enlightening the 
heart, gave peace to life and provided blessings and light to the 
surrounding atmosphere. Then Zikr was so general and 
interspersed over 4 man's entire life, practiced during different 
hours of their days and nights that if anyone observed it even a 
little bit then his life became a continuous involvement in Zikr, and 
there is barely any moment in his life when he is not engaged in 
Zikr} 

Although Zikr covers everything which recalls Allah and is 
done without negligence, and dua (Supplication) is its most 
excellent form, yet Prophet Muhammad % has put supplication 
(du a) as an entirely separate department of religion. If we look at 
the history of nations and religion, we can assert, without fear of 
being rejected that Prophet Muhammad % has revived the aspect 
of supplication and perfected it. He has given it a power and made 
it a source of spiritual uplift. A worshipper gains storng hope 
though it. Just as the prophethood of Muhammad Rasool Allah s» 
perfected religion and its different sections, so too it perfected the 
O. Details of references in this paragraph to Zikr are found in different pages of 
this Book. 



Introduction 



25 



section of supplication and laid a strong stress on it. This 
department of religion too is an evidence of the finality of 
prophethood with sayyidina Muhammad $1. 

Muhammad Rasool Allah £H gave the deprived humanity once 
again the blessings of du a (supplication). It is the savor of worship 
— in fact, of life itself, for it gave man the means of conversation 
with Allah. Mankind once again received permission to 
communicate with Allah and the fugitive son of Sayyidina Aadam 
Sga once again returned to the sanctuary of his Creator and 

Owner. 1 ' 

The perfection does not end at that. Prophet Muhammad m 
also taught us how to make a supplication. He taught us the 
choicest of prayers the like of which cannot be found beyond the 
Divine Books. He prayed to his owner in words the like of which 
cannot be found as far as their style end effectiveness is concerned. 
There cannot be more appropriate words. These supplications by 
themselves are a miracle of the Prophet 0 and a clear evidence of 
his prophethood. These words bear testimony that they were 
spoken by a Prophet 0. There is light of prophethood in there and 
the fire faith' of a Messenger 0 and a perfect worshipper behind 
the supplications . They tell us of the confidence of the beloved of 
the Lord of the worlds and the innocence of Prophets ?%J\ p*!*. 
There is the infomality of a pained heast. There is the persistant 
plea of the needy and his restlessness. Yet the etiquettes due to the 
Divine Being are carefully observed. There is the murmur of a 
troubled heart and the whisper of unseen pain. 

The Messenger of Allah S has made such a careful selection 
of supplications that there is a supplication for every person, for his 
needs, in every time and on every occasion and situation, until the 
last Hour. Man will find one suited to his condition, an expression 
of his heart's desire and a means to obtaining peace and 
satisfaction. Many such needs are covered which are not possible 
for our minds to pre-conceive. 2 

Thes e are the facts that are presented in this volume of 

O. The Foregoing maerial is adapted from my thesis Seerat Muhammadi Dua 
kay aainay may. 

©. This paragraph is taken from my essay Seerat Muhammadi Dua kay aainay 
may 



26 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



MaarifAl Hadith in an appealing, easy to understand manner. They 
are drawn from the treasure of authartic Ahadilh. As far as 
possible, reliance has been placed on the main books, sahah, their 
expositions and works of prominent Ulama, and the author's own 
deep study and long experience. This is not merely a translation 
and explanation of a selection of authentic ahadilh but it is the 
product of a scholar's understanding of hadith and attachment to it 
which he derived from his learned teachers (notable among them 
Mawlana Sayeed Anwar Shah Kashmiri aJ* i&\ i^-j) with devoted 
effort and concentration. 

Then, he has been teaching the subject for years together to 
students of the Madaris (plural of madrasah, a religious 
institution). He has drawn from research and explanations of 
ahadith and has been occupied in preaching and reforming, and 
writing. In this way, he could find out the comprehensive power of 
the different levels of Muslims and their needs. He could thus 
abide by the instructions 

"Speak to the people according to the levels of their intellects." 

Further this subject of supplication is particularly suited to him, 
and Allah has given him a strong understanding and attachment 
with it. Without sounding praise, it may be said that he has done 
full justice to the subject. This is a book in Urdu which is at once 
compreshensive and useful, effective and appealing on the subject 
of supplication. It compresses hundreds of pages and voluminous 
books within its covers and their essence is found within these 
covers. 

We also observe in this book confirmation of the Mawlana's 
ability to speak the concluding authoritative word. Whatever has 
been written on the Asma Al Husna (the Beautiful Names of 
Allah), their hidden meanings and commands about them, the 
invocation of blessings and peace on the holy Prophet il in this 
book form its praiseworthy and invaluable points. The discussion 
on invocating blessings and peace on the holy Prophet ^ is a very 
precious asset of this book and is beyond compare, and the 
treatment of the word Aal (JT) is very fair and balanced. 



Introduction 



27 



Moderation is exercised in the argument. (The word Aal is not 
conclusively translated here beyond saying that it is rendered as 
family, or descendants but the conclusion is left to the pages where 
it is discussed). 

Of the salient features of this book is that conclusion are based 
on the opinion of Shah Waliullah aJ* &\ Often is profit derived 
from his dissertation. The power of drawing conclusions and 
understanding religion and hadith that Allah had granted him 
alongwith the ability to satisfy minds of People of his generation 
are not unknown to any one possessing sound judgement. 

This makes the book more valuable and beneficial as a 
scholarly work. The Mawlana has also drawn heavily from Hafiz 
[bn Qayyim. Ibn Tayniyyah and Ibn Hajar particularly his Fath Al 
Bari, In this way, this book lets the reader who is unacquainted 
with the language benefit from the works -of as many as eight 
honourable and prominent predecessors and thus acts as a bridge 
between the present generation and those Ulama of the past. 

May Allah cause the Muslims to benefit from this useful work 
particularly this volume which is devoted exclusively to Zikr and 
dxCa and calls, for a practical approach. May He help us to attain 
the virtue of Zikr and supplication and thus establish a real 
relationship with Allah. Aameen. 

Abu Al Hasan AH Nadwi 

Junadi Al Aakhar 1391 AH 
31st July 1971 
Raj Bareli. 



PREFACE (TO THE URDU EDITTION) 



In the Name of Allah the Beneficent, the merciful) 

With praise for Allah and peace on the Prophet £&! 

The entire life of the Messenger of Allah 0 is, as it is, a clear 
evidence of his Prophethood and Messengership, just as his 
guidance and teachings are. However, one department of his life 
stands out distinctly in this respect. That department is to know 
Allah always, to love and fear Him, and to be aware and hopeful of 
His Mercy, Majesty and Omnipotence. These feelings were a 
perpetual part of his life.They were there persistently in the form of 
Zikr or Du a. This aspect of his life is apparent from the 
supplications and modes of remembrance for the different 
situations and times that were ever found on his lips, and which he 
taught to his Ummah, encouraging them to imitate him in this 
regard. The noble Companions \ and the transmitters of hadith, 
after them, were careful to preserve his teachings, word for word 
almost as carefully as the Qur'an was preserved. By the Grace of 
Allah the entire treasure is safe and intact. 

This, indeed, is his living miracle which is available even today 
with all its brilliance, and anyone with a little commonsense can 
receive from it the same degree of belief and satisfaction in his 
mission as when he was alive. 

In fact, whenever I have had the opportunity to speak to a non. 
Muslim who seemed receptive to serious talk on the subject, I have 
delved on this aspect of the Prophet's S life and teachings, First, I 
trace before these people, the historical background reflecting the 



30 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Pari V 



conditions in Arabia, the place of his birth, over fourteen hundred 
years ago. and the Prophet's $1 own life. He was unlettered not 
having learnt to read or write from anyone. He grew up among a 
people who had not known Allah and who practiced idolatry and 
disbelief. It is easy for anyone to imagine how anyone growing up 
in these conditions should be. 

After the breif introduction in this manner. I translate and 
explain to them some of the supplications and other devotional and 
glorifying words of the Prophet £H recommended by him to be 
observed at different moments of the day and occasions in one s 
everyday life. These included the words of forgiveness known as 
isfighfar, seeking help known as istighatha and trust and reliance. 
Having done that, I ask my listeners to be inpartial and remove 
from their minds all pre conceived notions and then tell me 
sincerely " how did the Prophet come to know Allah in this way 
and keep himslef occupied with these feelings continuously and 
persistently, always awere of His presence and mercy and ever 
attached to Him with the words and phrases of supplication and 
remembrance?" If anyone is not stubborn and insistent on refusal 
then he will be compelled to concede that only Allah could favour 
him with this attitude of mind and these words of prayer and 
remembrance. There could be no other way for him to know that. 

It has been my experience that all the people whom I presented 
this argnment confirmed that thhe Prophet S possessed 
extraordinary spiritual power and some of the fortunate ones 
among them professed belief in Islam and Muhammad H as 
Allah's Prophet and Messenger Hk. 

This is the experience that I went through with non-Muslims. 
As for myself if the Satan sometimes prompts evil thoughts I ward 
them off and renew and referesh my faith with this very 
prescription: 

(that my heart may rest at ease). (Ai-Baqarah 2:260) 
I reflect on the words of Zikr and Du 'a as taught by the 
Messenger of Allah $1 and praise belongs to Allah, every evil 
prompting is removed in this way and my mind and heart gain 
peace and become easy. 



Preface (To the Urdu Edition) 



31 



Also, it is a known fact in the light of the Qur'an and the 
Ahadith that the pith of religion and Shari'ah lies in Zikr and Du « 
which also is its main objective. So much so that the real aim 
behind the great forms of worship like prayer and pilgrimage (as 
Salah and Hajj), and their spirit, is Zikr and Du 'a. We are also told 
that no matter what deeds a slave performs and sacrifices he offers, 
and whoever value is attached to these in this life, nothing is equal 
to Zikr, and Du o in the sight of Allah: Just as any diet is 
incomplete without salt, pepper, fermentation or sweet, so too no 
deed meets the approval of Allah unless there is the flavour of Zikr 
and Du \i in it. 1 * 

It is also a fact that Zikr and Du\i are significant means to 
attain nearness to Allah and to the saintly station Those billions of 
Muslims who have gained that position in life have, indeed, relied 
mainly on Zikr and Du o. 

In view of thos particul or significance of Zikr and Du er, it was 
My deep longing to be able to translate and explain the ahadith, on 
the sujbject of Zikr and Dud for the Ma'arif al-Hadith and have 
the effort credited to my record of deeds. Al Hamdu lillah, My 
desire has been achieved and this book, a separate volume by itself 
indeed, is ready entitled, Kitab al Azkar wa Al-Da'wat. 2 

I know very well my own condition and I am happy, beyond 
words, for the inclination created in me by Allah towards this 
work. 

Say: "In the bounty of Allah, and His Mercy, therein let them 
therefore rejoice!" (Yunus, 10:58) 

The sinner that I am, I have full confidence in the mercy of my 
Benevolent Lord that He will cause this book a means of receiving 
His mercy and forgivness for myself and all the innumerable 
readers who value the teachings of the Messenger of Allah 0 and 
benefit from it. 

Surely my Lord is Forgiving, Appreciating. 

O. In the initial pages of the text, the verses of the Qiu-'an and Ahadith on Zikr 

and Dua will be presented to the readers. 
6. Book of Azkar (Remembrances) and Da'wat (Supplications) 



32 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



About This Volume 

1. In this volume, 322 ahadith on Zikr and Du a have been 
translated and explained. As with the other volumes of Ma'rif Al 
Hadith, Most of the ahadith of this volume too have been picked 
up from Mishkat Al Masbeeh and Jama' Al Fawaid, while some 
have been chosen from Kanz Al Ammal. For refernces to the 
original sources, these books themselves have been relied upon. 
However, some ahadith have been chosen directly from the Books 
of Sahah, namely, Bukhari, Muslim, Jami Tirmizi, Sunan Abu 
Dawood and so on. 

2. The ahadith that are taken from Bukhari or Muslim may 
also be found in other Books of hadith but we have sufficed with a 
refernce to these two books alone. If a hadith is found in either of 
these two books then that itself is proof of its authenticity. The 
ulama are almost agreed on this point. 

3. Since the real aim is to remember and understand, the 
translation does not follow a literal sense but is based on conveying 
the meaning of the original. 

A Final Request 

We have asserted in the earlier volumes that the ahadith should 
not be read with a view to increase our knowledge or to have a 
scholarly leisure but to refresh our religious link with the 
Messenger of Allah Hand to receive guidance and to behave 
accordingly. When we take the lessons and read the book, we must 
be aware of the greatness of the Messenger of Allah iH and we 
must love him. We must imagine, while we read the ahadith or 
listen to them, that we are in the assembly of the Holy Prophet 
and he is dictating, the words which we listen from him. If we 
follow this procedure then we will receive, Insha Allah, some of 
the blessings and conditions of faith in our heart which the 
fortunate ones received in the times of the Prophet W>. 

The last words from are praise of Allah and request for His help 
in completing the work and forgiveness for mistakes and sins. 

The needy of the mercy of Allah and prayers of His slaves, the humble. 

Muhammad Manzoor Numani 
10 Muhurrum 1389 AH 
. 29 March 1969 



31 jpuJi j jiTiVl obT 

KITABUL-AZKAR 
WADDA'WAT 

(BOOKOFAZKARANDDA'AWAT) 



( i r - n : r r » j «j£ «>4--j 

O You who believe! Remember Allah 
with much remembrance, and glorify 
Him morning and evening. 

(Al Ahzaab, 33:41-42) 



Call upon Him in fear and hope. Surely 
the mercy of Allah is nigh to the 
good-doers (Al-Aaraf,7:56) 



In the series of Ma^arif Al Hadith in the Kitab At-Taharah, we 
have reproduced the words of Shah Waliullah in as found 
in Hujjat Allah Al Baligah: 

"Allah has been most merciful to me in explaining to me that 
the invitation to success that the Prophets f^-Jt ^-1* were sent 
for is divided into many headings and sub-hearings. However, 
in spite of the large number of these headings they are divided 
mainly into four sections Taharah (Purification), Akhbat 
(humility), Samahat (generosity) and Adalat (justice)." 

He has then spoken on each of these four at length so that it 
becomes clear that indeed Shari'ah is based on these four 
principles. 

In the volume three {Kitab At Taharah) we had only 

reproduced briefly what he has said on Taharah. 

Whatever he has said about Akhbat is reproduced here briefly. 

Akhbat is to humble oneself Allah. 

"It is an open and tacit demonstration before Allah, tne 
Glorious, the Omnipotent, of worship, acquiescene sence 
submission and helplessness in a state of fear and love and a 
craving for His pleasure and favours." 

In other words, it is worship which is the main purpose of the 
creation of man. 

And I have not created the jinn and mankind but to worship Me. 

(Az zariyat 5 1 :36) 

Shah Waliullah has written in Hujjat Allah Al 

Baligha under the head Al Ihsan "For accomplishing the first, the 



36 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Taharah (purification), we have the commands of Wudu (ablution) 
and ghusl (Purifying bath) etc. while the second, Akhbat is 
obtained through prayer Zikr and recital of the Qur'an". 

So we may say that remembrance of Allah (Zikr) is the main 
means to gain Akhbat while prayer and recital of the Qur'an and 
Du a are its special forms. 

Prayer, mention of Allah and recital of the Qur'an have the 
object of producing Akhbat in the worshipper. They may, therefore, 
be bracketed together as of one nature. 

We have already presented ahadith of the Messenger of Allah 
ti^fe on prayer in the third volume of this book. In this volume we 
will present ahadith on Zikr, Du a and recital of Qur'an. May Allah 
cause this sinful writer, and the readers of this book to benefit from 
them and to put them into practice. Aameen. 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF 
ZIKR AND ITS BLESSINGS 



As we have stated already that in its widest sense Zikr 
encompasses prayer, recital of the Qur'an, Du a and istighfar. All 
these are its forms. However, in common prctice and terminology, 
Zikr is to glorify and sanctify Allah, to mention His unity and 
majesty, His greatness and omnipotence and His perfect attributes, 
and to meditate and think on these. We will see in the ahadith to 
follow that it is a means to attain nearness to Allah and His 
pleasure, and get spiritual progress and bridge the path to the 
higher world. 

Shaykh Ibn Al-Qayyim has written a very inspiring article in 
Madarij-As-Salikeen on the subject of Zikr. We will prsent here a 
summary of one of its sections for this will help us understand the 
ahadith on the significance of Zikr that will follow in this book. He 
has said. 

We find the following ten headings in the Qur'an on 
remembrance of Allah (Zikr). 

1 . The Believers are particularly commanded in some verses to 
observe Zikr for instance 

O you who believe! Remember 
Allah with much remembrance, 
and glorify Him and morning 
and evening (Al Azhab,33:41-42) 

And remember your Lord 
within youself with humility 
and fear. (AlAraf 7:205) 

2. Some verses severely forbid us to forget Allah and neglect 
His remembrance. This is another way of laying stress on Zikr. 
Some of these verses are: 



(t T'i \:TT V 1 .^!) 
(Y . o:v (Jl j*ty ail^-j 



38 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



And be not among the heedless -JUiUjt U -JyJ*A 

(Al Araf 7:205) . & J 

(Y • orVtJI^M) 

And be not like those who 

3 _| ^ 9 9 9 ^ * 

forget Allah, so He makes them %\ »j~J tyjP- 3 
forget their own souls , , , **■ 

(AIHader,59:19) 0 J*^> (*~«V U,l, 

3. Some verses tell us that the secret of success lies in 
frequently remembering Allah. For instance, 

And remember Allah much, 

that you may prosper. ' wJtsL) 

(AUumu ah 62:10) (^.it^ojj-) 

4. Some verses praise those who observe Zikr. They assure 
them of mercy and forgiveness and a great reward. The 
characteristics of the Believing men and women are mentioned in 
surah Al Ahzab, and them it is said: 

And the men who remember 

Allah much and the women iiJl OijC^J 

who remember — Allah has >>\^ t . .-^.Ii,* 

prepared forgiveness and a ~ , j-, j 

mighty reward for them. (r*:rr -»1>>-Vi) l*3a*$s-1j 

(Al Ahzab 33:35) 

5. Some verses warn those who lose themselves in worldly 
pursuits and forget Allah that they will be unsuccessful and 
hopeless. We see in surah Al Munatiqoon, for instance: 

O you who believe, let not your Jlfcj Ijlii jJiSl 

children divert you from the r , ' ff J 

remembrance of Allah: and fb 'J> 
whosoever does that, so those „ jgfc v. r y ^ 
they are the losers. <** ' ' ^' " 

(Al Munafiqoon 63:10) (^nr Oj^k*^) Ojjr?^' 

6. Allah has also said that those slaves who remember Him, He 
will remember them. 

So remember Me, I shall ti , , , _ 

remember you: and give thanks J&'J^J tiiJ./'^ 
to Me, and be you not 

ungrateful to Me. 0»«TW* Ooj^ 

(Al£aqarah2: 152) 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



39 



Glory be to Allah, and praise! what better success and 
auspiciousness could a slave hope for than that the Creator and 
Master of all the universe should remember him! 

7. Some verses tell us that Zikr, is superior and greater than 
everything else. It is higher than everything in the universe. 

And the remembrance of Allah 

is the greatest ( I o : Y <\ o j£ 1 ^ £ JJ j 

(AlAnkabut, 29:45) 

Surely, if a slave gains awareness and knowledge then he 
knows that Zikr is greater than everything else in the universe. 

8. It is mentioned in some verses about the elevated deeds that 
they should be followed by Zikr, So, remembrance of Allah must 
form the conclusion of these deeds. For instance, it is said about 
prayers: 

So when you have finished ,, ,,,,,, , - , , 
as-Salah (prayers), remember iUty^Tili SjUdl bis 
Allah, standing and sitting and &^Jj#yjSj&Q 
reclining on your sides. n • 

(AlNisa4:103) O'T^UJt) 

It is specially mentioned about the Friday prayers. 

Then, when as salah (the J/^iM 5 jl*H C^& ty 
prayer) is ended, disperse in the / \ , tr 
land and seek Allah's bounty. <AJt J-ia» & S J& S ) i#J* 
and remember Allah much, that ^g\A &%/&iV 
you may prosper(AI Jumah 62:10) " * 

(^.nYW?Jt) £j*4** 

It is stated about Hajj, the pilgrmage: 
And when you have performed 

your devotional rites, 'ihHjjS 3u »SowU* ^tal* " ^ 
remember Allah, like your * ;> , ; ,a^i ,a a,^ 

remembrance of your - J r ~f ' 

forefathers or even with a (y..:y 
stronger remembrance. 

(Al Baqarah, 2:200) 

These verses tell us that a worshipper is not allowed to neglect 
Zikr even after such important forms of worship as prayer and 
Hajj. He must have Allah's remembrance on his lips and in his 
heart as the concluding act of these forms of worship. 



40 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



9. Some verses describe those who do not neglect the worship 
of Allah as intelligent people and men with insight. It clearly means 
that those who are neglectful of Zikr are deprived of intellect and 
insight. We are told in surah, Aal Imran: 

Surely in the creation of the * J r .. it ,, * t< J£ >j 

heavens and the earth and in ' \ \ ' 
the alteration of night and day, oUSl jl^J'j JJUl i-tyosMj ■ 
there are signs for men of ^ Aj, , J 

understanding who remember J - r " t ^' ; * *^ J * 

Allah, standing and sitting and p&S*r J^J l f}**J 

(lying) on their sides. 

(Aal Imran 3:190-191) 0 * ^ * ■ * £>V* Jb 

10. Some of the verses tell us that the purpose behind the most 
significant of the reighteous deeds and the spirit behind them is 
remembrance of Allah. For instance, we are told about prayer: 

And establish salah for My ( , ; , # 

remembrance (Ta Ha ,20: 1 4) 0 * : * • >4 fy <S?Q 5l_jUJl g)1 

About the rites of Haji, the Messenger of Allah has said: 
"Indeed the circumambulation 

of the House, the walk between c42W J«r UjI 

as safa and Al Marwah and the . * . «.\ 

casting of pebbles at the Jimar U-HV* <A** l J 
are appointed only for the Jjl^Ti iill^ jUa^Ji 

remembrance of Allah" " 
(Abu Dawood# 1883) 
And Allah has said about y7/itfd: 
O you who believe, 

whensoever you encounter a iii ^jjl til T^ii ^jJll$jfo 
host (of the enemy in battle), ,l*, f . ' ,,,, 

then stand firm, and remember r J * J * 'Jj»*'j V*** 
Allah much, that you may (to^^^S) Qj^ ffi 
triumph. (Al Anfal, 8:45) 

We also learn from a hadith qudsi (a hadith that is traced to Allah): 
Indeed, My slave — the perfect -si, \> *.>t f, 

slave is he who remembers Me ^ 
even when he meets his enemy Liji 
in battle. (Tirmizi) 

These texts of the Qur'an and ahadith make it clear that the 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 



41 



spirit behind, all deeds ranging from prayer to jihad, is 
remembrance of Allah (Zikr). It is Zikr and the mention of Allah by 
the heart and lips that is a sign of nearness to Allah which causes 
anyone who gets it to become close to Allah, a friend of Allah. He 
who does not get that attitude distances himself from Allah and is 
foresaken and lonely. Zikr is food for the hearts of men of Allah 
and source of life and if they do not get it their bodies are graves 
for their hearts. In Zikr lies the survival of hearts and if hearts are 
deprived of it, they become desolate. Zikr is the weapon with 
which they confront the highwaymen of spiritualism, and it is the 
cool water with which they extinguish the fire within them. It is the 
medicine for their ills and if they will not get it, their hearts begin 
to crumble. And Zikr indeed is the bond between them and their 
Lord, knower of the secrets. Someone has said very well 

"When we fall ill we find cure in Your remembrance, and when 
we become neglectful of remembering you we begin to die". 

Just as Allah enlightened the seeing eyes with sight and glow 
so too He has adorned the tongues that remember with Zikr. The 
tongue that neglects remembrance of Allah is like the eye that is 
deprived of sight, or the ear that is deaf, or the hand that is 
paralysed. 

Remembrance of Allah is the only door that is left open 
between Allah and His slave through which the slave can make it 
to His elevated court. But, if a slave is neglectful of Zikr then the 
door is shut. What beautiful words are these that someone has 
spoken: 

"To be forgetful of Zikr of Allah is death for thier hearts. Their 
bodies are graves for their dead hearts even before the earthly 
graves.And their souls are strictly tired of their bodies, and there 
is no life for them before Qiyamah and Hashr". 

(summarised form Madarij As Salikeen, Ibn Qayyim). Let me 
submit that apart from the ten headings of Zikr suggested in the 



42 



Meaning and Message of (he Traditions Part V 



foregoing quotation from Ibn Qayyim, the Qur'an has urged its 
readers to engage in Zikr through other headings too. For instance, 
we learn from it that the hearts (of those people who keep contact 
with Allah) find peace and comfort in Zikr alone. 

Behold \n the remembrance of Allah, hearts do find satisfaction 

(Ar Rad, 13:28) 

We may also go on reading a few quotations from another 
scholar and a Sufi, author of Tarsee Al Jawahir Al Makkiyah for 
these would be helpful in understanding the ahadith that are to 
follow. 

"Of all forms of obedience and worship, remembrance of Allah 
{Zikr) is the quickest way to enlighten hearts and make conducts 
praise worthy. 

Allah has said it Himself: 

Surely as salah (prayer) forbids XLtih j. yfi 5 jj^, 
indecency and evil. And the 
remembrance of Allah is the 
greatest (consolation of soul). (io:Y"\ Oj£aJ») 
(Al Ankaboot 29:45) 

Our elders have said.'The utility of Zikr in cleaning hearts is 
like that of sand in cleaning copper while that of other forms of 
worship in cleaning hearts may be compared to soap in cleaning 
copper". (Taseer* al Jawahir al Makkiyah) 

The preliminary discourse over, let us now read the valuable 
sayings of the Messenger of Allah 0 about the significance and 
blessings of Zikr or remembrance of Allah. 

%\ J^p & j_^3 jii w [J> ) ^ j* ( \ • ta\ ) 

cJjij li^Ji a&UJi f jS i«£ *i 'fa 3 

(1044/1) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4$> and Sayyidina Abu Saeed 
al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah iH said 
"Whenever and wherever people sit and remember Allah, angels 
surround them surely, mercy of Allah covers them, peace 
descends on them and Allah mentions them among the angels 



Book of Azkar and Da 'wat 



43 



who are near to Him. (Muslim) 

Commentary: This hadith tells us very clearly that if some people 
gather together at any place and mention Allah then there are 
special blessings of Allah on them. Shah Waliullah Up h a-^-j has 
explained this hadith, saying: 

"There is no doubt at all that the gathering together of Muslims 
and remembering Allah is a distinct means of attracting mercy 
and tranquility, and the angels are drawn near". 

(Hajjat Allah Al Baligah) 

This hadith mentions four distinct blessings for those who 
remember Allah. 

1 . The angels of Allah surround them from all sides. 

2. The mercy of Allah envelops them under its shade and 
embrance. 

As a necessary corollary of these two blessings, they receive the 
third. 

3. Peace descends on their hearts which is among the greatest of 

blessings. Sakeenah, which has been rendered peace in this 
passage is truly solace and satisfaction of the heart and 
spiritual tranquillity which is a special favour from Allah for 
His dearest slaves. The mystics call this condition ^-U c...«<>r 
{JamVat Qalbi) or peace of heart. This blessing is sensed by 
him on whom it descends. 

4. Allah mentions His slaves who remember Him to His angels 
who are near to Him. For instance, He says "Look! These too 
are my slaves from the children of Aadam who have not seen 
Me and yet believe in Me. Not only that, look, with what love 
and fear and eager desire they remember Me. Surely, if the 
Master of the kingdoms remembers anyone in this way before 
His close angels then that is the biggest of blessings beyond 
which no other bounty, favour or blessing can be imagined. 
May Allah not let us be deprived of that. 

Observation: There is an indication in this hadith that if anyone 
does not get the feeling of peace in his heart after observing Zikr 
then he must know that he has not yet attained the station which 
entitles anyone to these blessings. Or, there are some deficiencies 
within him which obstruct receipt of blessings. So, he must work 



44 



Meaning and Message of (he Traditions Part V 



to reform himself for the promises of the Lord are always true. 

li At i\ j£ll# U>l Jli >j£L' Life $15 (^Llfe-i 

j^^J^uj ^iT ^ U^ji^i^li ^ ^Jl Lil Jll k'Js- Life* 

'At Ju> & 5i3 ii ife* **■ J*' (i^j jU> At jji5 

Life- ijjii d4^b j^ifeiu jui 4*1^1 aife ^Ip ( JLj ai* 

j^lfet U AT Jll L&- 44 £i j f -sC^ UIJLA tf oiUi j A^Oi 

u«j ^ ^ Ui Jll 33b V) illfe-i u At tjiil ?j£jtS «f» 

(1045/2) Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed Al-khudri has narrated that 
Sayyindina Muawiyah 4^£> found a circle of men in the mosque. 
He asked them why they sat together and when they said that 
they had sat down to remember Allah, he asked them, "I adjure 
you by Allah, is there no other reason for your sitting together? 
They said "By Allah, there is nothing else but to remember 
Allah that we are sitting here." He said, "You must realise that 1 
did not adjure you because I suspected you. The truth is that in 
my position with relation to the Messenger of Allah ill, no one 
has narrated fewer ahadith than I have. (I am very careful in 
transmitting a hadith, more careful than other people, but I will 
now narrate to you a hadith and had adjured you in abiding by 
it). The Messenger of Allah went out to a circle of his 
Companions qfe> and asked them what had made them sit there. 
They replied that they had sat down to remember Allah and they 
praised and thanked him for guiding them to Islam and thus 
bestowing on them a great favour. He reiterated his question. "I 
adjure by Allah , has nothing else prompted you to sit together?" 
They said. "By Allah, we are sitting here for that purpose only 
and are remembering Allah. "The Prophet iH said, "You must 
know that I did not adjure you because I suspected you, but 
Jibril #5§B came to me telling me that Allah speaks of you 
proudly to the angels." (Muslim) 

Commentary: The sitting together of the slaves of Allah to 



Book of Azkar and Da 'wat 45 

remember Him sincerely and mention Him and recall His favours 
with praise is very dear to Allah. He then expresses His pleasure 
before His close angels. p^uJU*-i (O Allah! Cause us to be of 
them!) 

% l\ j 4* %\ JU > Jl5 JtS 5>:> ^ ^ ( \ . tVT) 

(1046/3) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4&> reported the Messenger 
of Allah ill as saying that Allah, the Exalted, has said. "1 am 
with My slave when he remembers Me and his lips move 
mentioning Me." {Bukhari) 

Commentary: Allah is near everyone and everything in this 
universe, good or bad, a believer or an unbeliever. Nothing is ever 
distant from Him. He surrounds everything and He is there every 
moment and sees always. But there is also another way in which 
Allah is with anyone. This is a hadith qudsi and it speaks of Allah 
being with one who remembers Him and it means that He is 
pleased and approves (and is with His slave in this way too). The 
hadith means to say that if a slave of Allah remembers Him so that 
he may be near to Him and to receive His pleasure then he gets the 
nearness and pleasure immediately. "He remembers Me out of love 
for Me and I am then right with him." In this way, he gets the 
wealth promptly which he hopes to get through Zikr. May Allah let 
us crave for this wealth and have it promptly! 

(1047/4) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4fa has said that the 
Messenger of Allah ill said that Allah says, "I live in the 
thought of My slave as he thinks of Me and I am with him when 
he remembers Me. If he remembers Me inwardly, I shall 
remember htm inwardly. If he remembers Me among an 
assembly, 1 shall remember him among an assembly that is 
better than they are". (Bukhari and Muslim) 



46 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Commentary: The first sentence of the hadith ^ ^-M- j& (I 
live in the thought of My slave as he thinks of Me) means, "I will 
treat My slave exactly as he will believe about Me. "For instance, if 
he imagines Allah to be Merciful and Benevolent them he will find 
that Allah is indeed Merciful and Benevolent. Hence, we must have 
a good conception about Him and behave accordingly. The last 
Portion of the hadith that if a slave remembers Allah in private 
without anyone knowing about it then Allah's blessings on him too 
will be bestowed quietly without anyone knowing. If he mentions 
Allah in public (inviting the people to Islam and preaching to them) 
then Allah lets the angels know about His connection with that 
slave and His approval of him, and the salve of Allah then receives 
general acclaim and approval in the world. 

It is a result of this practice of Allah that the great saints, who 
conceal their links with Allah , lead an unknown life and do not 
receive accelaim in the world although they have earned the 
approval of Allah. On the other hand, those where links with Allah 
are known universally and they openly invite people to religion are 
receipients of vide acclaim in the world. 

fa JU> J^»3 & & fc> 3* 0 ' lA/o) 

(1048/5) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4&> said that the Messnger of 
Allah m was travelling along the path leading to Makkah when 
he passed by a mountain called Jumdan. He said "Proceed on, 
this is Jumdan, Mufarridoon have gone ahead". Some one 
asked, "Messenger of Allah! Who are the Mufarridoon?" He 
said ,"Those men who remember Allah often and those" women 
who remember Him." (Muslim) 
Commentary: Jamdan is a mountain a day's distance from 
Madinah. It is learnt from a number of ahadith that when Zikr 
(mention of Allah) is made on any portion of earth, it does 
recognise and sense the Zikr. Accordingly, we know from a hadith 
that a mountain asks another "Did anyone go over you today, 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



47 



taking the Name of Allah?" when it affirms that someone did pass 
who remembered Allah, the first mountain congratulates the 
second over which such a person passed. It seems that while 
: passing by Jumdan, the facts were disclosed to Messenger of Allah 
S that the men and women who remember Allah frequently have 
attained high stations of approval and pleasure and progressed 
much ahead So he said that the Mufarridoon — those who 
remember Allah much — have gone ahead. The dictionary 
meaning of munfarridoon, (plural of munfarrid) is those who 
"Single themselves out" "separate themselves". Hence, it refers to 
those people who set themselves apart from the hustle and boustle 
of the world in their pursuit of nearness to Allah and His pleasure. 
They sever all ties and single themselves out for the sake of Allah. 
This is the station of Tafreed (singularity, uniqueness). In the 
terminology of the Qur'an this is Jv (Tabattut), to "detach onself 
from wordly things and devote oneself entirely to Allah." 

And remember the Name of your Lord and devote yourself to 
Him very devouty. (Al Muzammil,73:8) 

Thus, the words \'Jg iili (the men and women 

who remember Allah often) apply to the slaves who detach 
themselves from everything and devote themselves to Allah alone. 

Significance of Z/Ar, In 
Relation to Other Deeds 

(1049/6) Sayyidina Abu Ad Darda said, "Shall I not tell you 
the best of your deeds and the purest in the estimation of your 
Master, through which your ranks are raised highest, better for 
you than spending gold and silver and better for you than that 
you meet your enemy and Allans enemy and kill them and they 



48 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

kill you?" They said, "Yes, Messenger of Allah Si Do show us 
this precious deed." He said, "It is to memember Allah (Zikr)." 

(Ahmad, Tirmi, tbn Majah) 

Commentary: This hadith is really an explanation of the verse of 

the Qur'an 

And the remembrance of Allah is the greatest (Al Ankaboot, 28:45) 
Surely, remembrance of Allah is the greatest by its nature and 
reality for the noblest objective which is to secure the pleasure of 
Allah and nearness to Him. This statement does not contradict the 
significance of other deeds on certain occasions, like sadaqah 
spending for the sake of Allah, fighting for His sake, and so on. A 
deed may be more meritorious and important from one angle, and 
another deed from another angle. 

The two next ahadith related by Abu Sa'eed Al Khudri 4fe> and 
Abdullah bin Umar 4*> are of similar import. In fact, these ahadith 
are a commentary on one another. 

#k & fa 4ft JU ii Jjij s? j^i ^ 0 . 0 . /V) 
& 'At jis r^Js f >: i±y> gfo yifi 



(1050/7) It is related by Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed Al Khudri 4fc 
that the Messenger of Allah 0 was asked who would be most 
excellent and most exalted in the sight of Allah on the Day of 
Resurrection (as regards the deeds that one performs). He said, 
"The men and women who remember Allah often (they will 
gain excellence and ranks on the Day of Resurrection)." He was 
asked, "Would they be superior even to him who fought in the 
path of Allah?" He said," even if he plied his sword among 
infidels and polytheists till it was broken and smeared with 
blood, the one who made mention of Allah would have a more 
excellent degree than he." (Ahmad5 Tirmjzj) 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



49 



^ ^ ^ v'3 Jli> J^, ^5 Sl^Jl ijiil '> 

(1051/8) It is narrated by Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Umar 4& that 
the Prophet J& used to say, "Every thing has a polish, and the 
polish for hearts is remembrance of Allah. Nothing is as 
effective in rescuing from the punishment of Allah as 
remembrance of Allah". He was asked whether this did not 
apply also to jihad, in the path of Allah. He said. "Not even if 
one should ply his sword till it is broken. (Bayhaqi) 
Commentary: The fact is that of all the righteous deeds, Zikr 
(remembrance of Allah) is the most meritorious and the dearest in 
the estimation of Allah. The nearness to Allah that a worshipper 
senses and the auspiciousness that he derives at the time of 
remembrance of Allah are lacking when he performs any other 
deed provided his remembrance is with concentration and a 
realisation of Allah's greatness and with love and. 
Allah has said 

So remember Me, I shall remember you (Al Baqarah,2:l52) 
The words of a hadith qudsi are: 

I sit with My slave who remembers Me. 

(and) I am with My slave when he remembers Me and moves 
his lips with remembrance. 

While Zikr is the most excellent and the dearest of all deeds, we 
must bear in mind that prayer, recital of the Qur'an (and so on) are 
inculded in its definition. 

The Excellence of Zikr By The Tongue 

& % $ J\ ifitf ;* jii j tup ^( i . 0 y/o 



50 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



(cSJl.jJlj^Uljj) v* 1 ^ 
(1052/9) Sayyidina Abdullah bin Busr 4& has said that a desert 
Arab came to the Prophet iH> and asked him who was the best 
among men'(meaning, who could expect a successful next life.) 
He said "Those are happy whose lives are long and deeds are 
good". Then he asked, "Messenger of Allah 0, which deed is 
most excellent?" He said, "That you leave this world while your 
tongue is fresh with remembrance of Allah". (Ahmad, Tirnizi) 

Commentary: Whatever the Holy Prophet % said in reply to the 
first question means that the longer a man lives, the more he will 
do righteous deeds, and it he does that then he will progress that 
much and he will be entitled to as much pleasure and mercy of 
Allah. In answer to the second question, the Prophet 0 said that 
his tongue should be moist with mention of the name of Allah till 
he dies but particularly at the last moment. He should be repeating 
the name of Allah with eagerness and relish. This deed and such a 
condition is very dear and valuable and one who realises that 
would be willing to pay all he owns to get it, Obviously, only he 
may hope to achieve the distinction who has devoted himself to 
remembrance of Allah all his life so that Zikr is the nourishment of 
his soul. 

C>\y\ l\k 'S£i <t Jli j ^4 Au£ > 6 • ° ™ ' > 

(1053/10) Sayyidina Abdullah bin Busr ^ has narrated that 
someone said to the Messenger of Allah ill. "There are too 
many virtuous deeds for anyone to do and it is beyond me to 
perform all of them, so tell me of something to which I may 
cling strongly (and that should be enough for me): And, 
whatever you recommend should not be too much for me, for I 
might forget it." The Prophet iH said, "Let your tongue 
continue to be supple by mention of the name of Allah." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The Prophet $1 advised him that it was enough for 
him to succeed that his tongue should be occupied with 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



51 



remembrance of Allah. 

(1054/11) It is related by Abu Sa'eed Al-Khudri that the 
Messenger of Allah $1 said "Make mention of Allah frequently, 
so often that people may call you mad." (Ahmad, Abi Ya'la) 

Commentary: The people of this world are deprived of 
relationship with Allah so that when they see a man of Allah who 
is blessed with this wealth and he shows unconcern to the world 
but devotion to Allah then according to their standards these people 
suppose that he is mad. The truth, however, is that they are the 
ones who are mad, not he. 

To Neglect Zikr is To Regret 

(1055/12) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah has reported the 
Messenger of Allah $3$& as saying "If anyone sits at a place 
where he fails to remember Allah deprivation and loss will 
descend on him from Allah because of that neglectful sitting. 
And if anyone lies down somewhere and fails to remember 
Allah there then that lying down will bring on him deprivation 
and loss from Allah. (Abu Dawood) 

^^'^j^1^>J^jJl5Jl5^^^(^oV^r) 

(1056/13) Sayyidina Abdullah bin Umar 4&> said that the 
Messenger of Allah said "Do not speak much without 
mentioning Allah for much speech without mention of Allah 
produces hardness of heart. And he is the farthest from Allah 
who has a hard heart. (Tirmizi) 



52 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Commentary: The man who is used to speaking without 
mentioning Allah will be hard hearted. His heart will be deprived 
of feelings and light and he will lack nearness to Allah and His 
mercy. ^ iipi (O Allah, protect us from that:) 



THE WORDS OF ZIKR 
AND THEIR BLESSINGS 



Just as he has encouraged us to observe Zikr (remembrance of 
Allah), so too the Prophet 0 has told us what phrases to use in 
Zikr. If he had not done that, many of us might not have done 
justice to this worship because of lack of knowledge and 
awareness. We might have done the wrong thing instead of 
praising Allah. The people of Prophet Musa SKsB and the shepherd 
narrated by Roomi is an example of what we fear. 

The words and phrases taught by the Messenger of Allah i£& 
fall into the following classes. 

(i) They bring out the purity and sanctity of Allah. (That he is free 
of blemish of every kind). *AJi brings that out,for instance 
(meaning, Allah is without blenmish). 

(ii) They praise and glorify Allah (that all the good things are 
found in Him and all the perfect attributes belong to Him so 
only He is worthy of praise). *AJ -wJ> (All praise belongs to 
Allah) is an example of this class. 

(iii) They speak of the Unity of Allah and His Oneness. This is 
found in *UW*W (There is no god but Allah). 

(iv) They express the high and elevated nature of Allah. He is far 
above what we think of Him, more superior then our 
imagination of Him. jS\ -dJi (Allah is the Greatest) is exactly 
what we mean by this class. 

(v) They confirm that only He is the One who does everything, 
there is nothing anyone else can do. Hence, He is the only 
One whose help should be sought and who should be relied 
upon. The words that say these things are Sy^ Jy*sl 
(There is no power and might save with Allah ). 

In addition to such words and phrases, the Holy Prophet H> has 



54 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



also taught us supplications to be made at different times and for 
different needs and desires. We will write about them later on, 
Insha Allah. 

In the ahadith that follow, the Prophet 0 has urged upon us to 
recite the brief words which reflect upon the purity, sanctity, 
praise, unity and greatness of Allah, and His independence. These 
brief words and phrases are very blessed and we may say about 
them that they are doors to knowing Him intimately. 

Let us now look at some of the sayings of the Messenger of 
Allah ft. 

(1057/14) Sayyidina Samurah bin Jundub has said that the 
Messenger of Allah ft said. "The most excellent words are 
four: 

Glory be to Allah All Praise belongs to Allah, there is no God 
except Allah, and Allah is the greatest". (Muslim) 

Commentary: Another version of this hadith has the words 
gyi &\$ j instead of q\ Jjaii. The meaning would then be 
"The words dearest to Allah are four." 

(1058/15) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah has stated that the 
Messenger of Allah ft said , "To say m s <UJ( ju*jtj aJJi ^ 
AW j (Glory be to Allah. All praise belongs to Allah, There is 
no God but Allah, and Allah is the Greatest) is dearer to me than 
everything on which the sun rises (and throws its rays). (Muslim) 
Commentary: The meaning of these four words has been 
discussed in the introductory words of the hadith. These are very 
brief words but encompass the attributes that Allah possesses and 
those things of which He is free and independent. Some of the 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



55 



perfect Arifs (mystics, who have intimate knowledge of Allah) 
have assested that these four phrases have not missed the meaning 
of anyone of the Asma Al Husna (Beautiful Names of Allah) which 
reflect all the attributes of Allah. For example, Allah's Names 
^jjtft (Al Quddus), f*-Ji (As-salam), (Al Tahir) 

which assert that He is without any blemish or defect are covered 
in the meaning of aJi^bv* (Subhan Allah). Similarly. His Names 
j-UjIKAlRehman), <*-^ (Al Reheem), ^ (Al Kareem), 
pUi (Al Aleem), >JJl (Al Qadeer), ^—H (As Sami), 

(Al Baseer), jt)A (Al Azeez), ^>(A1 Hakeem) 
and such others which reflect on His attributes which He Possesses 
and are known as Positive are all encompassed within A 
(Al-'Hamdulillah). Again, His Names which point out to His Unity 
like jJt (Al Wahid) and (Al Ahad) are found in ii* «M (Laa 
ilaha illal lah). On the same line of discussion His Names like ^ 
(Al Aliyy) (Al Ala) (Al Kabeer) JusJi (Al Muta alee) 
-which mean that He is far above and higher tham what anyone ever 
imagined are expressed in jS\ *Ui (Allahu Akbar). 

Thus anyone who says these words sincerely, in fact recalls 
every praise and attribute of Allah, and affirms all the perfect 
attributes contained in the asma al husna 

Therefore, these four phrases are superior to the entire universe 
in respect of their value and greatness. 

Those People who have the power of faith know this fact very 
well. May Allah grant us that level of faith. 

u; fa 4*%\J*h Jp5 # ^ <S* 0 • ^ 

61^3 AiUii 1\ jut a>jftfi3 i*>* JjjJi ^ 

(1059/16) Sayyidina Anas & said that the Messenger of Allah 
% passed before a tree whose leaves had dried up. He showed 
its branches with his staff and the dried leaves fell on the 
ground. (His companions saw that). So, he said, "The words 



56 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



(Glori be to Allah, all praise belongs to Allah. There is no God 
but Allah, and Allah is the most Great) shed away the sins of a 
slave just as you see the leaves of this tree being shed." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The Qur'an also tells us of the peculiarity of pious 
deeds that they efface sins. Allah said: 

Surely good deeds will drive away the erildeeds (Hud,l 1:1 14) 

The Messenger of Allah iH has mentioned prayer and sadaqah, 
(charity) in particular as instrumental as hearing this characteristic, 
he has also mentioned other righteous deeds in this connection. In 
the above hadith he has disclosed that these phrases have the 
characteristic of removing a man's sins. He explained that to his 
Companions c$e> by striking his staff at the tree. May Allah cause us 
to realise these truths and to derive benefit from these four phrases. 

Ji* CJtf' li\ j «UUa^ cJa^- ijt JUL* £j£ ^9 d-U-xij &\ 

(,»i-u.j^UJlaljj) -j^^O 

(1060/17) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah has quoted the Messeger 
of Allah %i as saying that if anyone says a hundred times a day 

(Glory be to Allah, and I begin with praise to Him), 
then his sins will be forgiven for him even if they are like the 
foam of the sea. (Bukhari and Muslim) 

10 

jCommentary: The meaing of o.u*o)4Jt is the same as 
*Uu^Jij that is, Allah is without blemish and pure of all that is 
not worthy of Him and He is sanctified and pure of whatever 
smacks of fault or defect even a little bit. At the same time, these 
two phrases confirm that He possesses all qualities of perfect 
nature. This hadith tells us that if anyone repeats these two words a 
hundred times a day then all his sins are removed though they may 
be as the foam of sea — limitless and uncountable. Just as bright 
light drives away darkness and severe heat dries down moisture, so 
too piety exterminates the filth of sin. However, we have 
emphasised often in this book that when the Qur'an or the ahadith 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



57 



speak of piety removing sins, it does not include the kabirah 
(grave) sins. The grave sins are forgiven only through tawbah, 
(repentance) and istighfar (seeking forgiveness). But Allah knows 
best. 

(1061/18) It is reported by Sayyidina Abu Zarr Al-Ghifari 4$b 
that the Messenger of Allah & was asked, "Which words are 
most excellent? He said, "What Allah has chosen for His angels 
«.Wvj4Ji ab»^ (Glory be to Allah and I begin with praise of 
Him " (Muslim) 
Commentary: This hadith discloses to us that the Zikr of the 
angels is ax^j -ill ji^, and these words are described as most 
excellent while the hadith narrated by Sayyidjnah Samurah bin 
Jundub $b describes^ Jjij <dlw ^jjj x^Jij^b^ as the most 
excellent words as we have seen earlier. Yet another hadith tells us 
that *UHMi* is the best of Zikr. Nevertheless, there is no 
inconsistency in these three different statements. The truth is that 
these phrases are more excellent than every other phrase and more 
dear to Allah. 

(1062/19) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4& has said that the 
Messenger of Allah S said, "There are two expressions which 
are light on the tongue but heavy in the scale and very dear to 
Allah ji^'^i &\ d ^ (Glory be to Allah and 1 begin 

with praise to Him, and Glory be to Allah, the Omnipotent)". 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It is easy to understand how these two expressions 
might be light on the tongue and also that they may be dear to 
Allah: But, it might not be easy for some people to understand how 
they would weigh heavily in the balance. The truth is that just as 
material substances may be weighed as light or heavy. So too such 



58 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



things as are not physical bodies may be light or heavy and just as 
the former have an instrument to weigh them the latter too are 
weighed or measured in an instrument suitable for that purpose. 
Thus temperature is not a physical substance yet it can be measured 
by a thermometer. In the same way, on the Day of Resurrection, the 
Name of Allah will be wighed, phrases of Zikr will be weighed 
recital of the Qur'an will be weighed, prayer will be weighed and 
faith, fear of Allah and love for Him will be weighed. All these 
things will be weighed or measured. It will become very clear at 
that time that some of the very easy expressions will be 
considerably heavy. 

We learn from another hadith that the Prophet $jl said: 

v 

"Nothing will be comparable to the Name of Allah in weight". 
(Jii/il) (Timizi) 

The meaning of the expression 

^Ji».l1 4JJl j^-r^ • *AJ' (jbt^Mt is: 

"Glory be to Allah and I begin with His praise. Glory be to 
Allah the incomparably Great." 

c$*> ls*^ 1 p Ia**—- 9 tfi cs*, J Cr 5 " ' W 

jti dill ^31* iiSi JU- cJjU jil Lj\£ 

(1063/20) The Mother of the faithful, Sayyidah Juwayriyah 
if**Ui said that the Prophet iH> went out one morning at the time 
he effered the fajr prayer while she kept sitting at her place of 
worship reciting something. Then he returned at the time to the 
chasht prayers (forenoon) and found her seated on the prayer 
rug as when he had left her in the morning. So, he asked her, "Is 
it that you are sitting here as you were when I left you?" She 
answered in the affirmative and he said. "Since learning you, I 



Book of Azkar and Da 'wat 59 

have said four expressions three times which, if weighed against 
all you have said today, would prove hearvier. Those four 
expressions are: 

*JL fcjj «^4J> 6^ 

(Glory be to Allah, and'with praise for Him equal to the number 
of His creatures, as weighty as His throne, in accordance with 
His pleasure, and to the extent of His words)". (Muslim) 

£ft «ii ft j JS*i & Jiltfli j JS3»4 <9> 3* u 

(1064/21) It is reported by Sayyidina Sa'd Ibn Abu Waqqas 
that alongwith the Messenger of Allah S he once visited a 
woman who had before her some date-stones or pebbles which 
she used as a rosary to glorify Allah. The Prophet & asked her, 
"Shall 1 not tell you that which is easier for you than this (or 
more excellent)?" And, he asked her to say: 

Glory be to Allah as many i * &Z> 

times as the number of what He & ^ 
has created in the earth. Glory U V±s- k\ oUili j ...tUJJl 
be to Allah as many times as k , , 
the number of what is between & 0^ J • J*X& J, 
them. Glory be to Allah as j . . .iJCjtt j3 ti SA* 

many times as the number of ~ „ - , 

what He is creating. (Then) > U Sap Al 

Allah is the Greatest (in the same way from as many times), and 
All praise belongs to Allah (in the same way), and There is no 
God but Allah (in the same way), and There is no might and no 
power except with Allah (in the same way). (Tirmizi) 
Commentary: Just as observing Zikr, often is a source of great 
reward, so too these two ahadith disclose an easier way of getting 
plenty of reward by using such words as refer to a greater number. 



60 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

We must remember that the Prophet 0 has himself exhorted us 
to make Zikr frequently and has also said,as we have seen in a 
foregoing hadith that the repetition of ox*^vj At jl**- a hundred 
times is instrumental in getting the sins forgiven. Therefore, it is 
wrong for anyone to suppose that the hadith related by sad bin 
waqqas & and Sayyidah Juwayriyah if* Ai discourage excess 
indulgence in Z/Jfcr. Both these akadith merely disclose an easier 
way to get a greater reward particularly for those who are unable to 
devote more time because of their peculiar circumstances. 

Shah Waliullah Ai 3u^j has said, "As for one whose aim is to 
dye his living condition in the colour of Zikr, he has no alternative 
but to indulge in Zikr, excessively. But, if anyone aims only at 
gaining reward in the Hereafter then he must choose from these 
expressious". 

The narrative of Sayyidina Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas & also 
discloses to us that although the rosary was not used in the times of 
the Prophet & yet some people used seeds or pebbles to count. 
The Prophet 0 did not forbid them from doing that. There is no 
difference in this method and counting on the rosary which is an 
advanced and easier form of counting. Those who have said that 
the rosary is an innovation (bid*ah) and, therefore, disapproved, 
have indeed judged wrongly. 

The Excellence of Al **t d\ V 

/jji jiJi fa JL>> Jp3 J* Jts jfr jX \ . -\ oh x) 

(1065/22) Sayyidina Jabir 4& has said that the Messenger of 

Allah 0 said, "The most excellent Zikr (remembrance of Allah) 

is (to say) * *M (There is no God but Allah)." 

(Tirmizi Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: We have read already the hadith narrated by 
Sayyidina Samurah bin Jundub that four phrases are the most 
excellent of all expressions. 

jg\ Aij m\ Awyb j 6^ 

This hadith describes Aw as the best of expressions. 



Book of Azkar and Da 'wat 



61 



The truth is that the four expressions are the best of all and 
aUi Hi is the best of these four because it compresses within it the 
objectives of the remaining three, when a slave affirms that only 
Allah is worthy of worship (and no one besides Him) then it is 
obvious that He is free of blemish and defect and every unsuitable 
thing. He owns all the perfect attributes and has all the greatness. If 
He is Divine without any partner then surely He will possess all 
these qualities described in these expressions. Hence, he who says 
only Ai V -di V is as though he has said everthing that is in *»i ji?v- 
and &um1i and jfi Besides *JJW *W is the Kalimah (expression) 
of faith. Hence, it is the first lesson that every Prophet $££fl has 
taught, Again, it is the experience of every Arif and Sufi that 
inward purity and heart are turned away from everything towards 
Allah most effectively by this expression. The Messenger of 
Allah HI has said, therefore that the Kalimah, aUWi din should be 
repeated frequently to refresh the condition of faith in the heart and 
then improve upon it. 

(1066/23) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah has reported the 
Messenger of Allah 0 as saying, "No slave does utter AW 
(There is no God but Allah) sincerely but that the gates of 
heaven are opened for him until it comes up to the Throne as 
long as he avoids major sins. (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: This hadith defines the character of the exxpression 
that it reaches direct to the Throne if it is expressed 
sincerely and the grave sins that keep one away from Allah are 
awoided. It gets the reciter great approval. Another hadith also in 
Tirmizi tells us: 

"There is no barrier between 

4»»4M and Allah and it ±>\*> \$ J^l &\ *i\ tyi j 

reaches Him directly.'Thus, >> : >, >, 

this is a distinct characteristic 4*! J* 

of this expression in relation to the other expressions. 



62 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

Shah Waliullah *J*iiWj has stated in Hujjat Allah Al 
Balighah that there are many peculiarities of m -W ft distances 
one from opon polytheism and also the hidden form of it. The third 
peculiarity is that it removes harries and allows the slave to gain an 
intimate knowledge of Allah. 

ujj & j # ^ ^3 « * * ^ * # ^ u - 

i> S* cP» ^J^ 1 # 2 ir^ M 

d» v of, * * # i* fir" 

fl 067/24) Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed Al khudri has said that the 
Messenger of Allah ft said that Musa f» asked, "O lord! All 
your servants say this and 1 want something particularly tor 
myself" Allah said to him, "Musa W were the seven heavens 
and their inhabitants, apart from Me, and the seven earths put in 
a pan and 4M * A 1 in the other, the Kalimah « 1« *h * would 
outweigh them". (Sharah As Sunnah) 

Commentary: Sayyidina Musa had a very close relation ship 
with Allah as His worshipper and Prophet «&. Accordingly, he 
desired to have words exclusive to himself so that he may call 
Allah by those words. So, when Allah taught him the words la ilah 
a-ill Allah, he pleaded with Him that those were not exclusive 
words because all Allah's slaves used them. He was then told ot the 
value of the kalimah. It is the mercy of Allah on all people that He 
disclosed the value of this expression to them through His 
Messenger No other expression was more valuable even tor 
the Prophet and Messengers than &H\&H. 

We may show our gratitude to Allah for His highly valuable 
favours by making this very expression as our repeatedly chanted 
Zikr. The frequency of repetition should be a means to a special 
link with Allah. 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



63 



Significance And Blessings 
Of Kalimah Tawfteed 

XL*J- *jU 4J C4=5 j ^-iuP JAP rtj CJlT iy 4iU ^j^jj ^9 r ^jOS 

(1068/25) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah has said that the 
Messenger of Allah said. "If anyone repeats a hundred times 
in a day" 

(There is no God but Allah, the one; He has no partner. His is 
the dominion and to Him belongs alt praise, and He is 
Omnipotent), 

he will get a reward equal to the one for emancipating ten 
slaves. A hundred blessings will be recorded for him and a 
hundred evil deeds will be obliterated from him. It will be a 
protection for him from the devil all that day till evening and no 
one's deed will be more excellent than his unless he has done 
more than he has. (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: This is the kalimah tawheed which is an expansion 
on the kalimah -dJi'iMt'sl and it includes an explanation of its 
negative and positive expressions. The hadith tells us how great it 
is. We will know the truth of this statement after our death, lnsha 
Allah. Some people cast doubts on ahadith which speak of rewards 
on such expressions although they would have witnessed in 
everyday living how one evil and mischievous word spreads 
corruption and unrest. And that goes on generations after 
generations ruining their lives. Similarly, a sincere word of 
reformation works like water in extinguishing the fire of mischief 
and gives comfort to troubled lives. 

Thus, if a single human expression can change lives in this 
world, it should not be difficult for us to comprehend the long-term 



64 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



benefits in the Hereafter of these expressions. 
The Merit of 4b H\ 5 & j J jpH 

* jf j>V jia Js dia i ^£ uif > Jrtii is faj 

(1069/26) It is narrated by Sayyidina Abu Musa Al Ashari 4^£> 
that the Messenger of Allah said to him one day, "Shall I 
teach you an expression that is from the treasures of Paradise?" 
He said. "Yes Messenger of Allah do teach me!" He said 
that it was: "it (There is no power or night except 

with Allah) (Muslim and Bukhari) 

Commentary: That this expression is from the treasures of 
Paradise could mean that anyone who says it sincerely will have 
limitless reward accumulated for him in Paradise. He will be able 
to draw from it in the same way as one draws from one's treasures 
in this life when he needs it. It could also mean that the Prophet ill 
wished to describe its value as part of the treasures of Paradise. For 
, it is an excellent example of highlighting the significance of 
anything, But Allah knows best. 

The meaning of this phrase 4iktfi syVj Jj^ is that the effort, 
movement and ability to do anything is received from Allah alone 
and no individual can have it on his own. A third meaning is also 
suggested -"It is not possible to refrain from sin and to submit in 
obedience without the help of and motivation from Allah." 

fa 4*%\ JU > J^j ^ Jtl Jtf ^ 0 • v «/yy) 
£Ji j^i* i# «>w -is i'J * j j>r jjl ygs 

( 1 070/27) It is narrated by sayyidina Abu Hurrayrah ^g> that the 
Messenger of Allah said to him, "Repeat often the words 
aUi^i i jill ) J y*H for they are of the treasures of Paradise. "(Tirmizi) 

i\ fa 3 & k J* J* J> 0*( I • Y \ /Y A) 

*j J>r ^ j»>ji 3j utf Jip 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wal 



65 



(1071/28) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger 
of Allah iaH said. "Shall I not guide you to an expression from 
under the throne which is part of the treasure of Paradise, It is 
aJb 111 ayv j Ji*-1" He then explained that Allah says, "My slave 
has resigned and submitted himself to Me." (Bayhaqi) 

Commentary: The hadith informs us that the expression Jyt 
aJb'tfi is from the treasures of Paradise, and also from under 
the Throne. This is a way to emphasise the significance of the 
expression and it means that the words were revealed to the 
Prophet 0 from the Throne of Allah. But, Allah knows best. 
Observation: It is the suggestion of some of the revered saints that 
just as the Kalimah, AW (There is no God but Allah) is effective 
in fighting off open and secret polytheism and other ills of the self 
and heart, so the Kalimah. <3»y>h 3/¥j Jjrfl is helpful in reforming 
one's practical life, in fighting off disobedient, sinful and 
disapproved way of living. 

Al-Asma al Husna 

Truly, Allah has only one proper Name and that is Allah. 
Howerver, He has hundreds of attributes which are found in the 
Qur'an and ahadith. These are called Al Asma Al Husna (the 
beautiful Names). Jmam Hajr Asqualani has referred to JaTar bin 
Muhammad Sadiq and Sufyan bin Uyaynah and other scholars in 
his Fath Al Bari. 

"The ninety-nine names of Allah are found in the Qur'an itself. 

He has then mentioned the details from these men. Hafiz 
Mamdooh, has said about some of their names that they are not 
found in the Qur'an in their original form but in a derived form. He 
has then suggested other names from the Qur'an in their original 
form and has given the full list which we shall reproduce, Insha 
Allah, later on. 

Some of our contemporary scholars searched for the names in 
the ahadith and found more than two hundred. These Attributive 
names are doors to the perfect attributes of Allah and intimate 
knowledge of Him. Thus, in these we have a comprehensive way to 



66 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Zikr (remembrance of Allah) if we remember Him through these 
names. Let us now see some ahadith on the Beautiful Names. 

(1072/29) Sayyindina Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger 
of Allah $H said, "Surely Allah has ninety-nine Names,one less 
than a hundred. He who retains them will go to Paradise." 

(Bukhari, Muslim) 

Commentary: Only this much is found in the narratives of the 
hadith books Bukhari and Muslim. They do not give details or the 
Names. We will reproduce the narrative of Tirmizi which gives the 
ninety-nine Names. The commentators of hadith and the scholars 
are agreed almost unanimously that the Names of Allah are not 
limited to ninety-nine, for we can find more than that in the 
ahadith. The narration of Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah therefore, 
means that anyone who retains ninety-nine of these names in his 
memory and abides by them will be admitted to Paradise. 

The words of the hadith i*Ji J>J uu*-i j* is explained by the 
scholars variously. 

(i) That slave will go to Paradise who comprehends the Divine 
Name and gets an intimate knowledge of these and then 
believes in the attributes of Allah which these names point to. 

(ii) That slave will go to Paradise who behaves according to the 
demands of these Names. 

(iii) That slave will go to Paradise who remembers Allah by the 
ninety-nine Names and supplicates Him by these. 

Imam Bukhari has explained ULa*-i as and these 

words are found in some versions too. Thus if anyone with perfect 
belief and faith preserves the ninety-nine Names to obtain nearness 
to Allah and gain His pleasure and remember Him by that then he 
will go to Paradise. 



aj 5» *2*fci uW» J>*> J* J* s>:> i*» O • YY7r . ) 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 67 

tfS&s foCUi j-jiiii j£uii i^-»ib y ti\ i ^ii 

^jlA^ll jl^iJl jU«Jl j}viJl jjl»Jl j2c*Jl jL^Jt jijiJl ja^J» 

jiiii J^ji j&ai*j'i i-.di ^vili (^iiii <jij> 
^uS» jj&ji j^ii (^Ji ^ jaiLi jJLiS* jU^ii i^ii 

44? fc *-^ 44*^ (i J *^ 1 Js^' 4*8**^^ C..tuh JaltoJl ^IfXJl 

jjjt i ^jt j^jfi j^jt dpdi J^Ji ijijii 

'yfH\ Jjtfi >*>iJi fiUi JUJJi APii l^tjii JU-uit 

j£u Jij> ^ai (^Liii 4.1^1 *J\ ju^ii jtjli jtdi >ifti 
juji ^juj^ ^Liii ^ili £*i*Ji JLiiJi ji ^-Sliii 

jpjt J£j>> ^tfl £jJl } jS» ^3U)1 

(1073/30) It is related by Sayyindina Abu Hurayrah that the 
Messenger of Allah i$H said: Surely Allah has ninety-nine 
Names, one less than a hundred. He who retains them will go to 
Paradise. 



He is Allah besides whom no one is worthy of worship. 



1. 




The Compassionate 


2. 




The Merciful 


3. 




The King, The Sovereign 


4. 




The Holy 


5. 




The Author of Safety, 
Peace 


6. 




The Giver of Peace 


7. 


*. A ■ J A ll 


The Protector 


8. 




The Strong 


9. 




The Compeller 


10. 




The Majestic 


11. 




The Creator 


12. 




The Maker 


13. 




The Fashioner 


14. 




The Great Forgiver 


15. 




The Dominant 


16. 




The Bestower 


17. 




The Sustainer 


18. 




The Opener, 
The Judge 


19. 


^> 


The All-Knowing 


20. 




The With holder 



68 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



71 




The Fn larger 


22. 




The Pleaser 


7^ 


C? y 


The F levator 


24. 


J 


The Honourer 


7^ 


, IJuJi 


The Humiliator 

I k 1 V ■ 1 III J 1 11 IUIVI 


26. 




The All-Hearing 


77 




The All-Seeing 


28. 




The Judge 


29 




The Just 


30. 




The Subtle 


31. 




The Aware 


32. 




The Clement 


33. 




The Mighty 


34. 




The Forgiving 


35. 




The Appreciative 


36. 




1 he nign, 
The Sublime 


37. 




The Great 


38. 




The Preserver 


39. 




The Protector, 
The Guerdian 


40. 




The Reckoner 


41. 


II 1 1 


The Beneficient 


42. 




i ne tjouniiiui 
The Gracious 


43 




The Watcher 


44. 




The Responsive 


45 




The All-Embracing 


46. 


...IV 


The Judge 


47. 


m j* y 


The Loving 


48. 




The Glorious 


49. 




The Raiser from Death 


50. 


JLjlJLJI 


the Witness 


51. 


IT 


The True 


52. 




The Trustee 


53. 




The Strong 


54. 




The Firm 


55. 




The Protecting Friend 


56. 




The Praise worthy 


57. 




The Counter 


58. 




The Originator 


59. 




The Reproducer 


60. 




The Giver of Life 


61. 




The Destroyer 


62. 


o 


The Active 


63 




The Self-Sustaining 


64. 




The Perceiver 


65 




The Grand 


66. 




The One, The Unique 


67 




The One 


68. 




The Independent 


69. 


OlflJl 

J 


The Capable 


70. 


JlsiuJl 

■J 


The Dominant 


71. 




The Promoter 


72. 




The Retarder 


73. 


UJ * 


The First 


74. 




The Last 


75. 




The Manifest 


76. 




The Hidden 


77. 




The Governor 


78. 




TheExalted 


79 




The Righteous 


80 




The Relenting 



Book of Azkar and Da'wal 



69 



SI 
o I . 




I Jit n vciigci 


82 




The Fon?iver 


83. 




The Gracious 


84. 




The Owner of 
Sovereignty 


OJ. 


r > J 


The Lord of Maiestv 
& Bounty 


86. 




The Equitable 


87. 


C; • 


The Gatherer 


88. 




The Self-Sufficient 


89. 




The Enricher 


90. 




The With Holder 


91. 




The Distresser 


92. 




The Propitious 


93. 




The Light 


94. 




The Guide 


95. 




The Originator 


96. 




The Everlasting 


97. 




The Heir 


98. 




The Guide to Right Path 


99. 




The Patient 









(Tirmizi, Bayhaqi) 



Commentary: The initial portion of this hadith is exactly the same 
as the hadith transmitted by Bukhari and Muslim. So, many 
scholars hold that the hadith from the Messenger of Allah ft is 
only to the extent carried by Bukhari and Muslim (Surely Allah has 
ninety-nine Names, one less than a hundred. He who retains them 
will go to Paradise). Whattever Tirmizi has transmitted in the 
foregoing hadith and Ibn Majah, Hakim and others have 
transmitted beyond that listing the ninety-nine Names is not part of 
the saying of the Prophet ft. Rather, one of the students of 
Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah has mentioned the names in 
explanation as found in the Qur'an and ahadith. In the terminology 
of the scholars of hadith the Asma Al Husna are (Mudraj) 

One of the explanations is that there is much difference in the 
list of names in Tirmizi, Ibn Majah and Hakim. If they were from 
the Prophet ft, there would not have been so much of a difference. 

Anyway, that was a technical discussion from the point of view 
of the science of hadith. The truth is that the names found in 
Tirmizi, Ibn Majah and Hakim are derived from the Qur'an and 
ahadith, and the Prophet ft has given glad tidings of Paradise to 
those who retain or preserve the ninety-nine names. Shah Waliullah 
U*iiii^j has said in this regard that the ninety-nine Names 
describe the positive attributes worthy of Allah and the attributes 
unsuitable to be ascribed for Him. Hence, they are part of the 



70 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Pari V 



course of gaining intimate knowledge of Him. That is why there is 
extraordinary blessing in these ninety-nine Names and the observer 
receives special approval from the sacred world. And when they are 
credited in the Record of deeds of a slave then he will be entitled to 
Divine Mercy. (Allah knows best), 

Two thirds of the names found in the hadith of Tirmizi are also 
found in the Qur'an. The rest are mentioned in the ahadith. 

We have just referred to the contention of Imam Jafar Sadiq 
.O* k\ and other scholars that the ninety- nine Names of Allah 
are found in the Qur'an. We have also referred to Ibn Hajr's <3» 
4-U effort in deriving the ninety-nine names from the Qur'an in their 
original and underived forms. 

If we agree with the contention of the scholars who assert that 
the ninety-nine Names in the foregoing hadith of Tirmizi are not 
part of the hadith but a mudraj from one of the narrators who 
appended them as a commentary then the list presented by Ibn Hajr 
aJU- &\ is worth considering, All the Names in this list have 
their source in the Qur'an in an almost unchanged form. We present 
this list here as found in Fath Al Bah. He has included the proper 
Names,Allah, in the list with which he has begun it. 



The Ninety-nine Names, 
All from the Qur'an 1 . 



1. 




Allah 


Allah 


2. 




Ar-Rahinan 


The Compassionate 


3. 




A r- Rah i in 


The Merciful 


4. 




Al-Malik 


The King, The Sovereign 


5. 




Al-Quddoos 


The Holy 


6. 




As-Salaam 


The Author of Safety 


7. 




Al-Mumin 


The Giver of Peace 


8. 




Al-Muhaimin 


The Protector 


9. 




Al-Azeez 


The Strong 


10. 




Al-Jabbar 


The Compeller 


11. 




Al-Mutakabbir 


The Majestic 


12. 




Al-Khaliq 


The Creator 


O. Muhammad Chawla And Dr. Abdul 


ah Abbas An Nadvi 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 



71 



1 1 

I J. 




rtl DOl CC 


The Maker 


1 A 


& * 4 A II 


/ \ 1 iviur>u,w w u 


The Fashioner 


1 J. 




Al-Cihaffar 


The Great Forgiver 






A 1-Oahhar 


The Dominant 


1 7 




A l-Ta wwpiH 
r \ i i a vv vv ciu 


The Relenting 


1 fi 
1 o. 




Al-Wahhah 

/A. J TV dl 11 1 CtL/ 


The Bestower, the most Powerful 


1 Q 
iy. 




rVI"rvIlailav| 


The Creator 


9fi 
ZU. 




A 1 _f? a77nn 
/A l-I\.az,Z.av] 


The Sustainer 


1 1 
Z 1 . 


_ \.g\\ 


/Al-raUaM 


The Onener The Judtie 


99 

zz. 




A 1- A lppm 
/A i rvivcm 


The All-Knowing 


91 


JJI 


A 1-Haleem 

/Al l l(*IV-vlll 


The Celement, The Forbearing 


94. 
zt. 




A i-A7epm 

j 1 | . \ L. \* V 111 


The Mighty 


9S 




A !- Wasi 

rv i vv ctoi 


The All-Embracing 


zu. 




A UHakeem 


The Judge 


97 
z / . 




A l-Hflvv 
t\ i i lay y 


The Alive 


Zo. 




/A 1 V/dj j> Wl 1 1 


The Self-Subsistine 


90 
Ay. 


■ . . \\ 


A c.\!i in p f* 


The All-Hearinsi 

1 1 IV/ 1\ 11 i i^ui nig 


in 




A l-Rncp^r 

/A l~ Da 3ttl 


The All-Seeinti 


1 1 


. « UHi 


A LI atppf 

/A J LtUC C 1 


The Subtle 


19 

JZ. 


. . .^.h 


A l-Khabeer 

/v 1 ixi luu^vi 


The Aware 


11 

j j. 




A 1- A 1 i VV 


The Hi eh 

1 J IV 1 ■ l * 1 


Id. 

JH. 




A !-K aheer 


The Great 


1^ 

J J. 




A l-ivliihppt 

fx I I V 1 U 1 1 Wv I 


The All Encompassing 


16 




A LOarlfpr 

rA 1 V^tlUCVl 


The Doer of What He wills 


17 


' J «Jl 


A l-Mawla 


The Patron 


IS 
JO. 




A l-Na^eer 

/A 1 MujvvI 


The Strona Helper 


1Q 

jy. 




A arppm 

/A 1 1 X CI 1 v^lll 


The Bountiful 


Aft 




A 1 - R $\ c\ n 

rA 1 IVCIU tvU 


The Watcher 


A 1 

41. 




Al-Qareeb 




42. 




Al-Mujeeb 


The Responsive 


41 




Al-Wakeel 


The Trustee 


44. 


t wt .»»t..yi)1 


Al-Haseeb 


The Reckoner 


45. 




Al-Hafeez 


The Preserver 



72 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



46. 




Al-Muqeeb 


The Protector, 


47. 




Al-Wadood 


The Loving 


48. 




Al-Majeed 


The Glorious 


49. 




Al-Waarith 


The Heir 


50. 




ALShaheed 


The Witness 


51. 




Al-Watiyy 


The Protecting Friend 


52. 




Al-Hameed 


The Praise worthy 


53. 




Al-Haq 


The True 


54. 




Al-Mubeen 


The Clear 


55. 




Al-Qawiyy 


The Strong 


56. 




Al-Mateen 


' he Firm 


57. 




Al-Ghani 


The Self-Sufficient 


58. 




Al-Malaik 


The Owner 


59. 




Al-Shadeed 


The Severe 


60. 




Al-Qaadir 


The Capable 


61. 




Al-Muqtadir 


The Dominant 


62. 




Al-Qaahir 


The Supreme, The Master 


63. 




Al-Kafi 


The Sufficient 


64. 




Al-Shakir 


The Appreciative 


65. 




Al-Mustaan 


The One whose help is sought 


66. 




Al-Faatir 


The Creator 


67. 




Al-Badee 


The Originator 


68. 




Al-Ghaafir 


The Forgiver 


69. 




Al-Awwal 


The First 


70. 




Al-Aakhir 


The Last 


71. 




Al-Zahir 


The Manifest 


72. 




Al-Batin 


The Hidden 


73. 




Al-Kafeel 


The Surity, The Surety 


74. 


wJUJl 


Al-Ghaalib 


The Dominant, The Overcomer 


75. 




Al-Hakam 


The Judge 


76. 




Al-Aalim 


The Knower 


77. 




Al-Rafi 


The Elevator 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 


73 


78. 




Al-Hatiz 


The Protector 


79. 




Al-Muntaqim 


The Avenger 


80. 




Al-Qaaim 


The One Who Watches 


81. 




Al-Muhyee 


The Giver of life 


82. 




Al-Jaami 


The Assembler 


83. 




Al-Maleek 


The Mighty King 


84. 


li - It 


Al-Mut aal 


The High Exalted 


85. 


.tl 


Al-Noor 


The Light 


86. 




Al-Haadee 


The Guide 


87. 




Al-Ghafoor 


The Forgiving 


88. 




A i-5>naKuor 


The Appreciative 


89. 




A1-ATO0 


The Forgiver 


90. 




Ar-Ra'oof 


The Gracious 


91. 




A 1 A lr r'i ill 


The Most Bounteous 


92. 




A 1 A '1^ 

Al-A la 


The Great 


93. 




Al-Barr 


The Righteous 


94. 




Al-Hafeey 


The Ever Gracious 


95, 




Ar-KauD 


The Lord, The Sustainer 


96. 




A 1 1 UnU 

AHiaan 


The God 


97. 


i -^i tl 


Al- vvaanio 


The Unique 


98. 




Al-Ahad 


The One 


99. 




As-Samad 


The Independent 


Jb-n 




Who begets not, not was He 
begotten, and there is none 
co-equal with Him (1 1 2:3-4) 



The ninety-nine Beautiful Names in the hadith of Tirmizi and 
those picked up from the Qur'an by Ibn Hajr are all indeed doors to 
an intimate knowledge of Allah. The Ulama of every age have 
explained them for the common people's guidance and it has been 
the practice of pious people to make supplications to Allah by 
virtue of these Names.The approval is assured thereby. 

Al-IsmAl-A 'zam (The Great Name) 

We know from the ahadith that of the Beautiful Names of 



74 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Allah, there are some that stand out exculusively because if a 
supplication is made by calling them out there is a great possibility 
of that supplication being approved. 

Such Names are termed Al-Ism Al A'zam in hadith, but,.they are 
not clearly indicated. They are kept undisclosed in the same 
manner as the laylah Al Qadr (the Night of Power) is undisclosed 
and the most opportune moment of approval of supplication on 
Firday is not clearly defined- The ahadith also make it clear that 
Allah does not have only one Al-Ism Al Azam as most people 
worngly suppose. There are a number of His Beautiful Names that 
are each called Al Ism Al Azam. The ahadith also reject the 
common fallacies attached to Al Ism Al Azam by the laymen while 
they confirm only what we have just said about it. 

y» faj 4*'& J^^ & • v i/n ) 

*i jt-iij i» J* & \'jt & Sfcjft # 

(1074/31) It is reported by Sayyidina Buraydah ^> that the 

Messenger of Allah Hi heard a man engaged in supplication, 

Saying "O Allah! I ask you by the fact that you are Allah than 

whom the-e is no God, One, the independent, Who has not 

begotten and has not been begotten and to whom there is no 

equal." The Prophet S said "He has asked Allah using His 

great Name {A I Is'm Al Azam) when asked by which He gives 

and when supplicated by which He answers." 

(Tirmizi, Abu Dawood) 

4\ a i i jl*Ji & i ^ iW J*3j 
^5 j&fc* ^i*) oi>Ui ^ ^ 
#Si ^u> m fa «3frJ« $ rJfc 

(1075/32) It is related by Sayyidina Anas 4fe that he was sitting 
with the Prophet 0 in the mosque when a man, who had been 



Book o/Azkar and Da'wat 



75 



offering his prayers, made this supplication: O Allah, I ask you 
by virtue of the fact that praise is due to you other than whom 
there is no God. Who shows favour and beneficence, the 
Originator of the heavens and the earth. O Lord of Majesty and 
Splendour, O living one, O Eternal One, I ask of You". The 
Prophet Hi said "This worshipper has supplicated Allah using 
His great Name {Al Ism Al Azam) when supplicated by which 
He answers and when asked by which He gives." 

(Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, Nasa i, Ibn Majah) 

4»l ^1 Jt3 (JL j Up i»\ Jujj cu* »U^I ( \ . v vr X ) 

(1076/33) Sayyidah Asma bint Yazid ^ has said that the 
Prophet S said, "The great Name (/I/ /aw Al Azam) of Allah is 
in these two verses: 

(i) And your God is One Allah, there is no God but He, the 
compassionate, the merciful, and 

the initial verses of Aal Imran: 

(ii) Alif - Laam, Meem, Allah! there is no God but He, the 
ever-living, the self-subsisting. 

(Tirmizi, Abu Dawood Ibn Majah Daarami) 

Commentary: If we look carefully at these ahadith, it will become 
very clear to us that they do not point out to any one Name of Allah 
as Al Ism Al Azam, (a great Name), Rather, the two verses referred 
to in the immediate foregoing hadith and the two supplications in 
two ahadith before that contain a certain arrangement and 
sequence of the Names of Allah which declare a comprehensive 
attribute belonging to Him. That is called the great Name or Al Ism 
Al Azam. 

Indeed, Shah Waliullah aJI* i^*-j has derived the same 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



76 



conclusion from these ahadith ] . He is one whom Allah has 
particularly blessed with knowledge in this field. 



O He writes in Hujjat Allah Al-Balighah: 

J* rf jui ^\ j» ^ <o ^« J*** J*- w tfJJi o 1 i^'J 

etjSsi ^ juji jU*J» cj» H\ & *i -u^ 1 ^ J "■»»■' ^ J & & 

(Y r YY «tfJUi <i»l a**-) Volume 2 Page 77 



RECITAL OF THE NOBLE QUR'AN 

We have stated already that reciting the Holy Qur'an too is a 
form of Zikr, (remembrance of Allah). In fact, according to some 
ahadith, it is the best form of remembrance of Allah, and a slave's 
engagement in recital of Qur'an is very dear to Him. 

Undoubtedy. Allah, the Exalted, is Incomparable and beyond 
similitude and example. Nevertheless, I do say about myself that 
whenever I found anyone reading any of my compositions, I was 
very pleased and happy and I began to feel a liking and a close 
relationship with the reader. It was a nearness which one does not 
have with one's close kind and firends too. On this basis, I feel that 
Allah must be feeling a great love for His slave who recites His 
Book, the Qur'an (unless he is not entitled to His love because of a 
serious crime he may have committed). 

The Messenger of Allah has used different ways to exhort 
the ummah to receite the Qur'an and to realise -its greatness. 
Accordingly, we have divided the ahadith under different headings 
so that the subject is seen from varying angles. 

May Allah cause us to benefit from the sayings of the 
Messenger of Allah HI exactly as they were intended to convey. 

The Greatness and 
Excellence of The Qur'an 

It is enough to say about the greatness and excellence of the 
Qur'an that it is the word of Allah, and His attribute. (Let us 
explain that). The truth is that whatever is on earth including the 
kabah and the Holy Prophets and whatever is in the higher 
world and the unseen world, the throne, the Chair, the Tablet, the 
Pen, Paradise with its bounties and the angels closest angels to 
Allah — are all a creation of Allah in spite of their known and 



78 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



affirmed greatness, and they are not Divine. As for the Qur'an, 
however, it is not created by Allah and not something outside Him. 
it is a real characteristic of Allah and it is part of His Great Being. 
Allah has been most merciful and generous to us that He let us 
have His word through His Messenger 0 and made us worthy of 
reciting that Word and able to read it with our tongues, and to 
understand it and abide by it. 

The Qur'an tells us that Allah had caused a blessed tree in the 
valley of Tuwa to recite His word to Sayyidina Musa MlCertainly 
that lifeless tree was very fortunate that Allah chose it to let 
sayyidina Musa hear His word from it. The slave who recites 
the Qur'an sincerely and with respect and carefulness receives the 
honour and had received auspcipusness which that tree of Prophet 
Musa had received. It is as though he were a recording of the 
sacred words of Allah. Indeed, man cannot imagine receiving an 
honour greater than that! 

The introductory remarks having been read, let us now ponder 
over the following ahadith on the excellence of the Qur'an. 

jji: pL-j %\ JU i»i j^j jis jt! ^ 'Js \ . Yv/r t ) 
ii ji* i&ti JLj>j ±fk & &a & y ti} i>> 
y* h jjrf- y* Jti > j-*J 3 

3 S 

(1077/34) Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed Al Khudri 4& has quoted the 
Messenger of Allah as saying that the blessed and exalted 
Lord has said, "To him who is so occupied with the Qur'an as to 
neglect making mention of Me and making a supplication to 
Me. 1 will give better things than what I give to those who ask." 
The superiority of the Words of Allah over all other words is 
like the superiority of Allah over His creatures. 

(Tirmizi, Darami, Bayhaqi) 

Commentary: We have stated earlier in the series MaarifAl 
Hadith, that if the Holy Phophet S tells us something on behalf of 
Allah and those words are not found in the Qur'an then that hadith 
is called hadith Qudsi. The present hadith is one such. Two, things 
are conveyed to us through this hadith. 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



79 



(i) If anyone is occupied with the Qur'an day and night — 
reciting it, memorising it, pondering over it, learning it or teaching 
it — and he does not get an opportunity because of his sincere 
occupation with the Qur'an to engage in any other form of Zikr, 
praise or glorification of Allah, and to make supplications to Him 
then he need not feel deprived. He should not consider himself to 
be on the losing side and feel deprived of what other people get 
when they engage in Zikr and. supplication. The Messenger of 
Allah ill has assured us that Allah has decided to grant such people 
more and better tham what we will grant to those people who 
engage in Zikr and supplication. 

(ii) The second thing is that the word of Allah is to all other 
words as Allah is to His creatures. This is because as we have said, 
it is His word and His attribute. 

(1078/35) Sayyidina Ali 4$&> said that he heard the Messnger of 
Allah say that a severe trial would take place. Sayyidina Ali 

asked him how could one protect oneself from it. He 
said.Through the Book of Allah! It contains (lesson - bearing) 
events of people before you and information on what is to 
happen after you (the consequences of one's deeds and conduct 
that he will face in this life and the next. The Qur'an foretells all 
that). The Qur'an also delivers judgement on the disputes that 
arise amongst you (between Truth and Falsehood, and between 



80 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Pari V 



Right and wrong). It is the final word. It is not vain talk. If any 
oppressor and rebel ignores it (that is, turns away from it out of 
pride and arrogance) then Allah will dismember him. If anyone 
looks for guidance outside the Qur'an (not in it) then Allah will 
mislead him (and he will be deprived of guidance). It is the 
Qur'an that is a strong rope of Allah, meaning that it is a reliable 
means of link with Allah and a firm charter of guidance. It is the 
straight path. The Qur'an is the clear truth which keeps thoughts 
from straying. Tongues of people cannot corrupt it. (While the 
earlier Books were misread by tongues and people read thier 
own versions in the books by twisting their tongues. There will 
be no such changes in the Qur'an. Allah will preserve it till the 
last Day). Scholars will never finish getting knowledge from it. 
(the act of pondering over it and the search for facts and 
intimate knowledge will never cease. The time will never come 
when its students will feel that they have exhausted its teachings 
and knowledge and that they cannot expect anything more from 
it. Rather the more they learn from the Qur'an, the more will 
they crave for knowledge from it and realise that what they have 
learnt from it is nothing compared to what is yet available in it 
to learn). The Qur'an will never be stale with repeated reading. 
(With any other book, the reader cannot expect enjoyment from 
repeated reading but it is just the other way with the Qur'an. The 
more it is read and the more one ponders over it, the more one 
enjoys it). Its marvels (its finer meanings and truths) will never 
end. It is the greatness of the Qur'an that even the jinn when 
they heard it could not help but exclaim: 

Surely we have heard a u "*..'* \ 'zA'li' 1 - 1-1 
wonderful Qur'an, it guides to 

rectitude, so we believe in it. ( Y, > :YT j*J1) Li U Xbjtt 

(AI-Jinn,72:l-2) 

He who spoke according to the Qur'an spoke the truth and he 
who acts in accordance with its directions entitles himself to 
reward. Again, he who judges according to the Qur'an is just 
and fair. Then as for him who invites People to the Qur'an is 
indeed guided on the Right Path. (Tirmizi, Darami) 

Commentary: This hadhh gives a comprehensive account of the 
greatness and merits of the Qur'an. We have side by side with 
narrating it, given an explanation within paranthesis wherever 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



81 



necessary. 

About The Teacher & Student of Qur'an 

( 1079/ ^) Sayyidina Uthman has said that the Messenger of 
Allah m said. "The best among you and the most excellent is 
he who learns the Qur'an and teaches it to other People.(Bukhari) 
Commentary; It is very obvious that to teach the Qur'an and learn 
it is superior to every other good deed because the Qur'an is 
superior to every other word just as Allah is superior to all His 
creatures. It is a fact that the most important assignment of the 
Prophet m as a Messenger was to receive the Qur'an through 
revelation from Allah, to understand it and to convey it to other 
people and make them understand it. Thus, whoever now, until the 
Last Day, takes up the task of learning and teaching the Qur'an as 
his occupation and assignment will carry on the mission of the holy 
Prophet m and be one of its servants. He will have a very special 
relationship with the Prophet 0 

Thus, a student and a teacher of the Qur'an is bound to be the 
most excellent and noble person. 

However, this distinction is dependent on the work being done 
sincerely and only for the sake of Allah. If anyone takes up the 
occupation of learning and teaching the Qur'an to further worldly 
ends then he must know what a hadith tells about the likes of him: 
he will be among the unfortunate people who will be cast into Hell 
before every one else destined to go there and he Mill be its initial 
JueLiSai^\^U\ (O Allah! Protect us from that!) (The hadith is found 
at the end of volume two.) 

Envy For The Man With The Qur'an 

}» 5ui & ju Vi $ & o ■ a ./rv) 

;ut & $ $ fcto & 3 ^ tf Tj & yfc 



82 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



(1080/37) Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Umar has quoted the 
Messenger of Allah 0 as saying. "Envy is not justified excpect 
for two kinds of men: a man whom Allah has given the Qur'an 
and he is engaged with it every hour of the night and of the day; 
and a man whom Allah has given property and he spends it in 
the cause of Allah during the night and during the day. 

(Bukhari, Muslim) 

Commentary: There are different ways in which anyone may 
occupy himself with the Qur'an during day and night. 

(i) learn it and teach it, 

(ii) Recite it within (as Salah) Prayer and outside of it, and 

(iii) Conduct oneself carefully according to its commands. 
The words of the hadith can refer to all of these ways. 

The way to thank Allah for the blessings of the Qur'an is that 
the slave of Allah may occupy himself with it and make it a guide 
for his life. 

The Rights of Qur'an 

(1081/38) Sayyidina Abidah al Mulayki reported the 
Messenger of Allah as saying "O People of the Qur'an, do 
not make the Qur'an your pillow. But, recite it during the night 
and the day as it desrves to be recited. Diffuse it and read it with 
interest and cheer. Think over it that you may prosper. Do not 
seek to get reward for it in this world. You will get great reward 
for it from Allah. (Bahaqi) 

Commentary: The hadith tells us that those slaves of Allah whom 
He has given the wealth of Qur'an should not adopt a complacent 
attitude once they have the Qur'an with them and become 
negligent. Rather, they must give it its rights. During the hours of 
the night and the day, they must recite as it deserves to be recited 
and they must introduce it to other people and diffuse its teachings 
to them. They must recite it with ecstasy and ponder over its 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 



83 



contents — the commands guidance, stories of the past and advice. 
! If they abide by this counsel, they may prosper and succeed. And, 
they must not seek reward for their service to the Qur'an in this 
very life. They will get a great reward and recompense for their 
effort from Allah at the proper time. 

Rise & Fall of Nations 
Through The Qur'an 

(1082/39) Sayyidina Umar bin Al-Khattab 4fe has reported that 
the Messenger of Allah S said, "Surely, Allah exalts some 
people and lowers others by this Book (the Qur'an)". (Muslim) 
Commentary: The Qur'an is the word of Allah and His Command 
and Constitution for men. To be faithful and obedient to it is to be 
' faithful and obedient to Allah and to turn away from it or show 
disobedience to it is to turn away from Allah and be disobedient to 
Him. Allah has said that the people who abide by the Qur'an and 
hold it as is worthy of it will be raised in this life and the next no 
matter who these people are as regards descent, colour and 
language. In contrast the people who disregard it and disobey it 
will be lowered to the lowest level even if they be on the highest of 
levels. 

The history of Muslims and Islam confirms the truth of this 
hadith. In fact it reflects these words of Allah as if it was a mirror. 
The use of the word uiyi in the hadith discloses that the law of rise 
and fall as described in this hadith applies not to individuals alone 
but to nations. 

Reward on Recital of Qur'an 

(1083/40) Sayyidina Abdullah bin Mas'ood 4^> has said that the 
Messenger of Allah j& told them that if anyone recited one 



84 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



letter of the Book of Allah, he will be credited with one good 
deed, and each good deed gets a tenfold reward according to 
Allah's law of recompense. (He explained it further) that he did 
not say that ^\ (Alif laam Meem) was one letter, but Alif is a 
letter Laam is a letter and Meem is a letter. (So, one who reads 
,*J! will get reward for thirty good deeds). (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The gracious rule of Allah that if anyone does a 
good deed he gets a tenfold reward is mentioned in the Qur'an in a 
very clear and explicit manner. We read in the Surah al An *am. 
Whosoever brings a good deed >U & i^JJ\> & U 
shall have tenfold the like of it. *^ ' ' _ 

(Al Anam,6:l60) (n.:VfUM) l^Jliii 

The foregoing hadith conveys to us the glad tidings of the 
Prophet Hi that anyone who recites the Qur'an sincerely will be 
doing a good deed against every letter, of the alphabet that he 
recites and that will spell out a reward against ten good deeds. 

The version of the same hadith in Bayhaqi quotes the Prophet 
ill as saying that he did not say that j (Bismillah) was one 
letter but that Ba was a letter, seen was a letter and meem was a 
letter and that he did not say that ^ was a letter but that Alif. Laam 
and Meem were (three) seprate letters. May Allah grant us the 
believing mind. This hadith conveys abundant glad tidings for 
those who receite the Qur'an. 

This hadith also indicates that to gain reward on recital of the 
Qurain, it is not necessary that the meanings and translation are 
understood by the reciting person because ^ and other such 
muqattal letters are read without understanding. The hadith has 
told us that anyone who recites these letters too will get tenfold 
reward against each letter. (Allah knows best). 

Recital of Qur'an is 
Polish for The Hearts 

•ik fit tfp'lrt JU> Jl3 Jl5 'jU $ & ( \ . A Hi \) 

u ftbrtt jj idi Aiui bi JjLii ur Lis c>'j%\ 

(1084/41) According to Sayyidina Abdullah bin Umar the 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 85 

Messenger of Allah & said, "These hearts become rusty just as 
iron becomes rusty when water gets into it". Someone asked, 
"Messenger of Allah Si How may these be cleared?" He said. 
"A great deal of remembrance of death and recitation of the 
Qur'an." (Bayhaqi) 

Commentary: The heart is said to be rusty when it is careless and 
neglectful of the Hereafter and its consequences. This attitude is 
the root of all minor and Major sins, and, without doubt, the 
panacea for this ill is to remember death frequently. One may think 
about it and consider himself in that state. The Qur'an may be 
recited with Proper etiquette knowing it to be the book of Allah. If 
Allah causes one to recite the Qur'an with concentration and due 
interest then, lnsha Allah, the rust will be removed and he will be 
filled with light' . 

The Station of One SkMed In Qur'an 

4*-^ a ij% tfJi j fj& £ tfjh 

(1085/42) Sayyidah Ayshah 14*^^*, has said that the 
Messenger of Allah 0 said. "One who is skilled in the Qur'an 
is associated with the noble, upright recording angels, and he 
who falters when reciting (because he is not fluent with it and 
does not remember it well) and it is difficult for him will have a 

0. Shah Waliullah has commented on the recital of Qur'an while discussing 
Ihsan in his book Hujjat Allah Al-Balighah: 

He has said: The soul of the recital of the Qur'an is to recite it with deep 
interest and love, and extreme respect and glorification, the mind fully turned 
towards Allah. The reciter must pay attention to the advice and guidance of the 
Qur'an and try to absorb them. He must resolve to abide by its commands and 
guidance and derive, lessons from the historical events narrated by the Qur'an. 
When he comes across the attributes of Allah, he should say: Suhhan Allah 

;>b»f*) and when he reads about Paradise and the mecry of Allah, he must 
pray for His blessings and Paradise. When he reads about Hell and the wrath of 
Allah, he must seek refuge in Him. 

Surely, a recital of this kind is a polish for the hearts and whoever is able to 
recite in this way to whatever degree, receives the blessings of Allah. May Allah 
not deprive us of His blessings! 



86 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



double reward (One for the recital and the other for enduring 
difficulty). (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The Arabic word a yL. in this hadith has been taken 
generally to mean the angels who bring down the revelation. Some 
scholars take it to refer to the Prophets and Messengers f%Ji ^M. 
The translation allows for both interpretations. The hadith says that 
the slaves of Allah, who believe thhe Qur'an to be the word of 
Allah and take an interest in it, reciting it often so that they have a 
close association with the Qur'an, are with the Prophets and 
Messengers or the angels who bring the revelation. However, there 
are also those believers who are not very skilled and lack fluency in 
reciting the Qur'an. Their reading is very interrupted and halting 
but they do not give up and continue to read in the hope of being 
rewarded. So, they will get a reward for their recital, and another 
for the effort they put in. They must, therefore, not lose heart. 

Reward Against Recital & 
Practicing What is Recited 

(1086/43) It is reported by Mu'aaz al Juhanni that the 
Messenger of Allah iH>.said, "If anyone recites the Qur'an and 
acts according to its contents, on the Day of Resurrection his 
parents will be given to wear a crown whose light is better than 
the light of the sun in the dwellings of this world if it were 
among you". He then added, "So what do you think of him who 
acts according to this?" (Ahmad, Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: The hadith asks us to imagine what Allah would 
grant to the man who recites the Qur'an if his parents would be 
given a crown whose light would outshine the light of the sun. 



The Intercessi6n Of The Qur'an 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 



87 



(1087/44) It is narrated by Abu Umamah Bahili & that he 
heard the Messenger of Allah A say "Rceite the Qur'an, for on 
the Day of Resurrection it will come as an intercessor for those 
who- recite it. Recite the two shining ones, Surah Al-Bagarah, 
and Surah Aal Imran, for on the Day of Resurrection they will 
come as two clouds or two shades, or two flocks of birds in 
ranks pleading for those who recite them. Recite surah Al 
Baqarah for using it produces blessing and abandoning it 
produces regret, and the slothful are unable to recite it. "(Muslim) 

Commentary: The Messenger of Allah & has encouraged us to 
recite the Qur'an and has disclosed that the Qur'an will recommend 
its people before the Lord. The people of the Qur'an are those 
people who associate themselves with it having believed in it and 
taken a keen interest in it to seek the pleasure of Allah and hope for 
His mercy. There are different ways in which they may do it. Some 
of these ways are: recite it frequently ponder over it and abide by 
its commands, preach its teachings and guidance to other people, 
and so on. The Messenger of Allah A' has given glad tidings to 
such people that the Qur'an will intercede for them. Of course, they 
must be sincere and seek to please Allah and receive reward. 

The Prophet 0 has urged us generally to recite the Qur'an as a 
whole and then mentioned surah al Baqarah and surah Aal Imran 
in particular. He has said that on the Day of Resurrection and the 
Day of Gathering when all people will be in need of a shade to 
protect them from the terribly hot sun, these surahs will cast a 
shade on their people appearing as clouds or shades of some kind, 
or birds with wings spread. They will also speak for these people. 
Finally, the Prophet $1 said more about surah al Baqarah, that 
there is a great blessing in learning it and reciting it but a great loss 
in keeping onself deprived of it. The slothful people are unable to 
handle that. Some of the narrators have suggested that it refers to 



88 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



the sorcerers. Thus it means that one who recites surah Al Baqarah 
cannot be subdued by sorcery. 

We also learn of this characteristic of surah Al Baqarah from 
the hadith which says: 

The devil flees from the house in which surah al Baqarah is 

recited. 1 

Some other scholars have suggested that those who seek the 
wrong things will not be able to receive its blessings, Allah has 
closed the doors on them. 

fa JU 'Jj&\ cJLL- JU J> ^Ijii jK \ • AA/i o) 

ijji z& ^ 4* aUO xlJ\ Jfy & 'sk 

' + * * * 

(f ju. oi jj) o^-^ 3 ^ ^ 

(1088/45) Sayyidina An Nawas bin SanVan has said that he 
heard the Prophet 0 say, "On the Day of Resurrection, the 
Qur'an and those who acted according to it will be brought with 
Surah Al Baqarah and Surah Aal Imran preceding them like 
two clouds or canopies with light between them or as though 
they were flocks of brids in ranks pleading for the ones who 
recited them." (Muslim) 
Commentary: The subject matter of this hadith is similar to that 
of the hadith narrated by Abu Umamah and presented earlier 
than this. Let us picture the serverity of the Day of Resurrection 
and the Day of Gathering, and then observe how fortunate will 
those people be who will have a shade over them on that severe day 
because of thier exceptional relationship with the Qur'an! They will 
have taken a keen interest in it and obeyed its commands and thus 
entitled themselves to its blessings. On that Day of Gathering, the 
Qur'an will accompany them as their intercessor and friend and its 
two initial surah Al Baqarah and Aal Imran, will be overhead with 

their lights How deprived are those people who are lazy in 

obtaining this auspicious blessing even after being told of these 
ahadith. . 

O. Transmitted by Muslim, narrated by Abu Hurayrah 



THE BLESSINGS OF 
SPECIFIED VERSE & SURAH 



Some ahadith also narrate the virtures and blessings of certain 
verses of the Qur'an and its surah (chapters). The narratives of 
Sayyidina Abu Umamah Bahili 4*>, for example, mention the 
excellence of the entire Qur'an and then make a specific mention of 
surah Al Baqarah and Aal Imran. 

In the same way, the Messenger of Allah 0 has mentioned the 
virtues and merits of certain other surah and verses of the Qur'an. 
We reproduce some ahadith on this topic. 

Surah Al-Fatihah 

J* >• &»j 6& o^' f n^i jil 5 jUj» j y2 jtf 

j^'i ^ ^3 J ^ i-ii faj J it 
^oSi ^ yi^Shj ifcli ^ £j i& t«L d \'J&\ jx 3 ^jji ^ 

(tfJUjillaljj) .J&JaPl 
(1089/46) Sayyindina Abu Hurayrah said that the Messnger 
of Allah 0 "Do you wish that I should teach you the surah of 
the Qur'an the like of which was not revealed in the Tor ah, or 
the Injeel, or the Zaboor and not eVen in the Qur'an?" Ubayy 
said, "Messenger of Allah Yes! do teach me that surah. He 
asked "How do you recite during the Prayer?" Ubayy read out to 
the Prophet Hi the surah Al Fatihah, (saying thtat he recited it 
in prayer in that manner). The Prophet H said, "By Him in 



90 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



whose Hand is my soul, nothing like it has been sent down in 
the Torah, the Injeel the Zaboor, or the Qur'an itself. It is the 
seven often-repeated verses and the mighty Qur'an j j* 
(fJiuJi c>T yMi which Allah has bestowed on me". 
(Tirmizi) 

Commentary: In surah Al Hijr, in the Qur'an, Allah has recalled 
His very special favour that He has bestowed on the Prophet & He 
has said: 

pd\ STjftj ^ JrtSiAiJ j 

And certainly we have given you (O Prophet) 
the seven of the of-repeated and the Mighty Qur'an. The Messenger 
of Allah S has pointed out in the foregoing hadith that the seven 
oft-repeated verses are the surah al-Fatihah. It is such a great 
surah with much blessings that no other chapter like it was 
revealed in any cellestial Book and the Qur'an too does not have 
any other surah of similar status. This surah, compresses within 
itself the subject matter of the whole Qur'an and it is therefore 
called the Ummal Qur'an (the mother of the Qur'an) and the 
preface of the Qur'an. It is necessary to recite it in every unit 1 of 
every prayer. We may say on the basis of this hadith that the 
believer, who knows surah Al Fatihah by heart an4 is inclined to 
recite it sincerely, also owns a large wealth and a huge blessing 
from Allah. Let him realise its value and greatness and let him 
fulfil his obligation. 

Surah Al-Baqarah 

'4 a' >J' <^ sop ^ : 4 ^3 *M S o'O^' f^3 & J** 

(1090/47) Sayyindina Abu Hurayrah has .said that the 

Messenger of Allah H said. "Everything has a prominence 2 

(Which is the most elevated and apex part of it) and the Qur'an's 

prominence is surah Al- Baqarah, and one of its verses (the 

ayat al Kursi) is the chief of all verses of the Qur'an." (Tirmizi) 

O. Every rak'aah of every Salah 

©. The Arabic Word fU-* means hump 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 



91 



Commentary: The detail with which surah al Baqarah, explains 
the basic principles and creed of Islam and the injunctions of 
Shari'ah is not found in any other surah of the Qur'an. Perhaps that 
is why it has been placed before every other surah of the Qur'an 
(except al Fatihah) and that is why it is called in the hadith the 
prominance of the Qur'an oV 3 '^ actually the hump of the" 
Qur'an). But Allah knows best. 

(1091/48) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4& said that the Messenger 
of Allah 0 said, "Do not make your houses grave yards (for 
there is no Zikr or recital of Qur'an in the graveyard where the 
dead lie and the atmosphere lacks the blessings of these things). 
Surely the devil does not enter the house where surah Al 
Baqarah, is recited (so pet there be Zikr and recital of Qur'an in 
your houses particularly of Al Baqarah). (Trimizi) 

Commentary:, Some characteristics apply to the surah of the 
Qur'an and some of its verses. This hadith tells us about surah 
al-Baqarah that the devil does not enter the houses where it is 
recited, and they are safe from his mischief. 

In some of the earlier ahadith too we had seen the merits of 
surah Al Baqarah and surah Aal Imran. 

SurahAl-Kahf 

(1092/49) Sayyindina Abu Sa'eed Al Khudri has quoted the 
Prophet # as saying, "If anyone recites surah Al Kahf on 
Firday, light will shine brightly for him between two Fridays." 

(Bayhaqi) 

Commentary: This hadith tells us that surah Al Baqarah has a 
distinct relationship with Friday. That is why the Prophet 0 has 
particularly exhorted us to recite it on Friday. He has said that if 



92 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

anyone recites this surah on Friday, an exclusive light will shine in 
his heart and its brightness and blessing will carry on until next 
Friday. This hadith has been transmitted by Hakim too, and he has 
said that its line of transmission is sound. 



Surah Yaseen 

(1093/50) Sayyindina Ma'qil bin Yasar al Muzani ^ has 
reported the Prophet S> as saying. "If anyone recites surah 
yaseen. seeking the pleasure of Allah then his past sins will be 
forgiven. So, recite it before those of you who are dying." 

(Bayhaqi) 

Commentary: The hadith advises us to recite surah Yaseen, 
before those of us who are dying The meaning 

obviously is that we should recite it before the dying person when 
he is taking his final breath and is on the verge of death. This is the 
contention of most of the ulama and, hence, the practice continues 
in this way. However, it could also mean that surah Yassen should 
be recited over the dead at his grave so that he is forgiven by virtue 
of the recital. 

(1094/50) Sayyidina Ata Ibn Abu Rabah, a taba'ee M has 
said that he had heard of the saying of the Messenger of Allah 
^."If anyone recites surah Yaseen at the beginning of the day, 
his desires will be fulfilled." (Daarami) 



O. Surah As-Sajdah 
©. Surah Al Mulk 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 93 

Surah AlWaqi* ah 

(1095/52) Sayyidina Ibn Mas'ud has reported that the 
Messenger of Allah $S& said, "He who recites surah Al Waqi'ah, 
every night will never be afflicted by want." (Bayhaqi) 

Surah AlMulk 

(A^-tt j<l j (jJl-Jl j A jla j>» j t5«i> JU^-I alj j) t_£Ul 

(1096/53) It is repoted by Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah that the 
Messenger of Allah $| said, "A rara/i of the Qur'an that has 
only thirty verses interceded before Allah for a slave until he 
was forgiven. That surah, is Tabarqk Al lazi biyadihil mulk." 

(Ahmad Tirmizi Abu Dawood Nasai, Ibn Majah) 

AlifLaammeem Tanzeel 

v£ fiats' fa JU ijii 51 j& & ( \ , * y/o 1) 

(1079/54) Sayyidina Jabir^ has said that the Holy Prophet & 
never did go to sleep till he had recited AlifLaamMeem Tanzeel 1 
and Taharak Allazi biyadi hil Mulk 1 . (Ahmad, Tirmizi, Darami) 

Surah AlA'la 

"jj) " J^tf JCI3 p 53^1 

(1098/55) It is narrated by Sayyidina Ali«4^>that this surah 
(Sabbihjsma Rabbikal A la) 1 was very dear to the Messenger of 

Allah 11 (Ahmad) 

O. Surah A!- Ala ~ ~ 



94 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Commentary: We have seen already in the Kitab As-Salah, the 
ahadith which tell us that the Prophet m> frequently recited the 
surah Al-A la in the first raka'ah, of Friday prayers and Eid 
prayers. This was his practice because the subject matter and the 
message of this surah were very dear to him. 

Surah AtTakathur 

' jij ^■'■it <S*3 s 'M J 5 * <i? 3? ^ £ T jtfl^ 

. jjt£ji ijJL! ji ^JU-t ^ '. j Jll 'mj> ft ^ aft 

(1099/56) Sayyidina Abdullah lbn Umar has said that the 
Messenger of Allah 0 asked "Can anyone of you not recite a 
thousand verses daily?" They (his Companions £j&>) said, "Who 
can recite a thousand verses daily?" So, he asked "Can anyone 
of you not recite al-haakumut takaa thur?" 1 (Bayhaqi) 

Commentary: Some of the small chapters of the Qur'an contain 
very important message so that in respect of thier significance and 
message they equal thousands of verses, surah At-Taka thur, is one 
of them. It strikes a hard blow on those who seek worldly pleasures 
and forget the Hereafter. It describes vividly the reckoning and the 
punishment in Hell so that, unless his heart is dead to reception, the 
man is bound to awaken to the realities of the Hereafter and worry 
about his fate. 

Perhaps this is why the Messenger of Allah has compared 
recital of this surah, to the recital of one thousand verses. We must 
bear this in mind when we read the ahadith that will follow and 
exhort us to recite some of the Qur'an describing them as like 
one-half of the Qur'an, or one third, or one fourth. It is possible that 
reward on reciting them may accure accordingly, for the treasures 
of Allah are greater than that we imagine. 

Surah Az-Zilzal, AlKafiroon & Al-Ikhlas 

%\ JU 41 J jij Jl5 Vll i_£JU jJ jS\ j jfe Ji\ ( u • ./o v) 

' - t - 

O. Surah At- Takathur 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



95 



(1 100/57) It is reported by Sayyindina Abdullah Ibn Abbas 
and Sayyindina Anas bin Malik that the Messenger of Allah 
$S!fc said, "ha Zulzilat 1 is equivalent to half the Qur'an, and Qui 
huwAliahu Ahad 2 . is equivalent to a third of the Quf an, and 
Qulyaa ayyuh A! Kafrioon 3 is equivalent to a quarter of the 
Quran. (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The Qiyamah, or the Day of Resurrection, is 
described in the surah Az Zilzaal and a vivid picture is drawn. Its 
last two verses are: 

•ji^T* ?J J J**l 4>»J-« ji ' «J J J 1 ^ J**d J** 

(A'Y^JljJjJi) 

So whosoever has done an atom's weight of good, shall see it, 
And whosoever has done an atom's weight of evil, shall see it. 

(Az Zilzaal 99:7-8). 

It spite of its brevity it speaks of reward and punishment 
effectively. If we write a volume on this subject, that would not be 
as effective as these verses are. It is perhaps because of this 
distinction that this surah has been declared as equivalent to 
one-half of the Qur' an. 

It the same way, surah Al Ikhlas mentions very briefly the unity 
of Allah, His Independence and His perfect attributes in marvellous 
way. This is indeed, peculiar to this called equivalent to one t third 
of the Qur'an. 

As for the Surah Al Kafiroon, it declares freedom from 
polytheism and polytheists in a very interesting way and so gives a 
lesson in pure unity way and so gives a lesson in pure unity of 
Allah. (That, indeed, is the base of religion). It is possibly for this 
peculiarity of the surah that it is termed equivalent to one fourth of 
the Quf an. And Allah knows best. 



O. Surah Az Zilzaal 
©. Surah Al-Ikhlas 
©. Surah Al-Kaflroon 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

"< M \ ■ 1 jjy&i) Ci itf S ji" i jll Jtf i^lji J\ cJji lit ^ 

(1101/58) Farwah bin Naufal has quoted his father as saying 
that he had asked the Messenger of Allah & to teach him 
something to say when he went to bed and he 0 said, "Recite 
Qui Yaa Ayyuhal Kqfiroon for it is a declaration of freedom 
from polytheism." (Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, Nasai) 

{Lj 4*%\ J^k j^j Jll Jll jlSjJji ^\&(\\ . Y/o^) 

(1102/59) Sayyidina Alou Darda, 4&> has said that the 
Messenger of Allah % asked, "Is anyone of you incapable of 
reciting a third of the Qur'an in a night?" The companions 
asked, "How can anyone recite a third of the Qur'an?" He said 
to them, "Qulhuwa Allahu Ahad is equivalent to a third of the 
Qur'an." (Muslim) 

Imam Bukhari has transmitted the same hadith from Abu Sa'eed 
Al-khudri4& 



Surah Al-Ikhlas 

ji iyjiis *X* Jhjk\ j^>; jilS^j o> ^ j* ( i \ • r/n . > 

.&J1 JS^iiUbJ^-^ jll 0 :UY^I) JU-fal}i 

(1 103/60) Sayyidina Anas has reported that a man told the 
Messenger of Allah that he held the Surah Qui Huw-Allahu 
dear. The Prophet heard a man recite 0w/ Huw-Allahu 
Ahad 1 and remarked "It is certain." I (Abu Hurayrah 4&) asked 
him what was certain, and he asserted." Paradise!" 

(Muwatta Imam Malik, Tirmizi, Nasa'i) 

Commentary: The Companions 4&> received their education and 

O. Surah Ikhlas 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 97 

training directly from the Prophet & and they were very eager to 
imitate him and follow in his footsteps all the time. Naturally, they 
must be reciting the Qur'an very effectively, particularly the 
chapters and verses declaring the oneness of Allah and His 
attributes. The condition of the hearts of the reciter must have been 
very obvious to their listeners to whom it may have seemed that 
they heard Allah from the reciters tongue. The Companion who 
is stated in this hadith to be reciting Surah Al-Ikhlas must have 
been going through a similar experience and Prophet H may have 
observed that. The intensity of his feelings and the degree of his 
faith prompted the Prophet S to comment that paradise was 
obligatory for him. 

Vfr fji iri ji s> ft, 1 J p #2 jip # ^ 

( ' l05/6 ?,) S£ W idina Anas b 'n Maalik 4& has reported the 
Prophet S as saying, "If anyone who is about to sleep on his 
bed recites Qui huwAllahu Ahada hundred times, Allah will say 
to him on the Day of Resurrection: O slave! Enter Paradise to 
y° urri 8 ht! " (Tirmizi) 
Commentary: The words J% J» (to your right) could mean that 
Paradise would be to the right of the slave where he stands at the 
place of reckoning. He would be told to turn to his right and go to" 
Paradise. 

The other meaning could be that the right side of Paradise 
would be superior to its left portion. The slave would be told, "Go 
to the right portion of Paradise!" 

Indeed, this is a very good bargain for it asks to recite Surah 
Al-Ikhlas only a hundred times before going to sleep to be allowed 
admittance to Paradise. May Allah enable us to do this thing which 
is not a very difficult task. Some of Allah's slaves practice much 
more than this before they go to sleep every night. 



98 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Maoozatayn 

jij (\-.\\y >j>) jsa v> : Sjpi jj ^ cj^i oy> 

(1 106/63) It is reported by Sayyidina Uqbah bin Amir that 
the Messenger of Allah W> said, "what wonderful verses have 
been sent down tonight! The like of them has never been seen. 
They are Quia 'oozu hi Rabbil fdlaq 1 and Qui A *oozu bi Rabbin 
Naas. 2 " " (Muslim) 

Commentary: These two chapters are unique in that from the 
beginning to the end their subject is uniform — the refuge of Allan 
is sought from the apparent and hidden mischief. They are very 
effective in protecting from evil and mischief as a strong fortress. 
Both the chapters are breif in words but very comprehensive and 
enough. 

&%\ jUilJ^^^IWlSjtS jAttfX&'J^ss .Y/H) 

h\ j'jLj j^J sajji, iaij £j & fa 

J^ij ^Ul ajPlj <jWl ijusi pUj Up 411 

(1107/64) Sayyidina Uqbah bin Amir said, "While 1 was 
travelling with the Messenger of Allah iH> between Al-Juhfah 
and Al-Abwa' (two places between Makkah and Madina), a 
wind and intense darkness enveloped us whereupon the 
Messenger of Allah ilk began to seek refuge in Allah reciting 
these two chapters (the Ma^oozatayn). He then asked me, 
' Uqbah, you too recite these two surah and seek protection with 
Allah, for no one has given protection as they give.'( He meant 
that there was no supplication comparable to them to seek 
refuge in Allah. They are unique in this regard.)" (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: We learn from this hadith that when anyone faces a 

difficulty and danger, he may defend himself by reciting these two 

chapters, known as the Ma^oozatayn, and seeking protection of 

O. Surah Ai-Falaq 
©. Surah An-Naas 



Book o/Azkar and Da'wai 



99 



Allah. There is no other way better than this — nay, as good as it 
— to seek the protection of Allah. 

ji isj\ i3i ,£-3 JU Si iL> & ( \ \. A/no) 

^Ut) ^UJ> i jtf JJ J \\ i\ \ r jtt) jUJt y> 5>l Jij ( » : i t t 

(1 1 08/65) Sayyidah Ayshah i+* &\ ^ has said that they Holy 
Prophet 0, when he went to his bed every night, joined his 
hands together (as one does in supplication) and breathed into 
them, reciting Qui huwAllahu Ahad\ QulazooubiRabbilfalaq 2 
and Qula'zooubi Rabbin naas 3 . Then he would wipe as much of 
his body as he could with his hands, beginning with his head, 
his face and the front of his body (following it with the rest of 
his body as far as his hands would carry), doing it three times. 

(Bukhari) 

Commentary: This brief practice of the Prophet 0 before he 
retired for the night should be very easy for us to imitate and we 
must do this much, at least, before we go to sleep. Its blessings are 
beyond words. May Allah incline us to do that! 



O. Al-Ikhlas, 
©. Al-falaq, 
©. An-naas. 



MERIT OF SOME SPECIFIED VERSES 



We have seen that the Foregoing ahadith related the merit of 
some of the chapters of the Qur'an. In the same way, some ahadith 
tell us of the merit and significance of some verses of the Qur'an. 
We present here some of them. 

AayatAl-Kursi 

cJI J&u Jjuj £h ^ur # # £i ^ jjoi jilUigi u ji* p& 

(1109/66) Sayyidina Ubayy bin Ka'b 4& said that the 
Messenger of Allah HI (addressing him by his kunyah) said to 
him, "Abul Munzir do you know which verse of the 

book of Allah that you have is greatest?" He replied, "Allah and 
His Messenger % know best." So, the Prophet 0 repeated the 
question, "O Abul Munzir, do you know which verse of the 
Book of Allah that you have is greatest?" He replied, "Allahu 
Laa ilahajlla huwa al-Hayyu al -Qayyum}" Thereupon, the 
Prophet 0 struck him on the breast (as if to applaud him) and 
said, "May this knowledge suit you, Abul Munzir!" (Muslim) 

Commentary: When the Prophet & asked him the first time 
Ubayy bin Ka b 4b replied, "Allah and his Messenger i$! know 
best," (which of the verses is greatest). This answer followed the 
demands of etiquette, but when the Messenger of Allah HI asked 
him a second time, Ubayy bin Ka b 4fe replied according to the 
O. Surah Al Baqarah (2:255) 



1 02 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

knowledge he had and how he understood it. He said that he 
thought the verse was the aayat al-kursi (the 255th verse of Surah 
Al-Baqarah). The Prophet S confirmed that he was right and 
commended him by striking at his chest because that houses the 
heart (the receptive of intimate knowledge). Anyway, this hadith 
discloses to us that the aayat al-kursi is the greatest of the verses of 
Qur an because it declares the unity of Allah and His purity and 
perfect attributes as also His greatness and Majesty. In this sense, 
this verse is unique and umatched. 

The Last Verses of Surah AlBaqarah 

jil <tfi*\ j # j-3 jts j±\%y> ji jvl ^jiii 35^, 
Jfti>i ^ 1$ 530 53^ Uju- jU v J$£J j 

4 tfto ^'j* ^ 0JL» Ulkpl 4ui> C^J 

tl 1 10/67) Sayvidina AytV bin Abd Al-Kila'ee (a Tabaee) said 
that a man asked the Messenger of Allah "which surah of 
the Qur an is the greatest ?" He was told that it is Qui 
Huwalkthu Ahad (al-Jkhlas). He then asked, "which verse of the 
Qur an is the greatest," and was told that aayat al-kursi, (allahu 
Laaila illaHuwal hayyul Qayyum) is the greatest verse. He 
asked once again, "O Prophet of Allah, which verse would you 
like to benefit you and your llmmah? The Prophet said, 
"The last verses beginning with Aamanar Rasulu to the end of 
the surah" fie also said that these verses were from the treasures 
of Allah's mercy from under His Throne which He has given to 
this people and there is no good in this world and the next 
which it does not include. (Darami) 

Commentary: The distinction of Surah Al-Ikhlas and the aayat 
al-kursi has beenmentioned already by us. The foregoing hadith 
tells us about the last verses of surah Al-Baqarah that they are part 
of the treasures of Allah's mercy from under His Throne which He 
has given to the people of Prophet Muhammad S. The initial 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



103 



words from Aajnar Rasoolu to laa nufar riqu bayna ahadin min 
rasulih, exhort Belivers to refresh their faith. The words sami^na 
wa ata^na extol them to submission and obedience and make them 
promise accordingly. Then ghufranaka rabbdna wa ilaykalmaseer 
are words of the Belivers seeking His forgiveness for their lapses 
The words Laa Yukalalu Allahu nafsan ilia wus^aha console the 
weak salves and assure them that they will not be over-burdened 
nor will they be asked to do anything that is beyond their capacity 
to do The final words from Rabbana laa (u aakhirna, to the end of 
surah exhost the Beliver to make a comprehensive supplication. 

Surely, these verses are by themselves a treasure of the mercy 
of Allah May Allah cause us to realise their value and benefit from 
them. 

(W^ 1 al te>3 $ £ J* r&J j*r&J 

(111 1/68) Sayyidina Jubayr bin Nufayr. Taba'ee &(U*> has 
reported lhat the Messenger of Alllah said. "Allah finished 
Surah Al-Baqarah with two verses which I have been given 
fromHis treasure which is under the Throne, so learn them and 
teach them to your womenfolk, for they are a blessing,a means 
of approach (to Allah) and a supplication. (Darami) 

Commentary: It must be understood thet Jubayr bin Nufayr 
Up 4»i who has narrated this hadith as from the Messenger of Allah 
im was a Taba'ee, a successor of the companion $k> from whom he 
had heard this hadith. Hence this hadith is called mursl in the 
terminology of the science of hadith. It is the same thing with the 
preceding hadith narrated by AytY 4J*inu*-j who was also a 
taba'ee and who too has not named the companion from when he 
had heard the hadith. 

(^i-o. j s jwji ai j j) . ib' j> a^yj ^ X)£* polite 

(1 1 12/69) Sayyidinalbn Mas ud has said that the Messenger 
of Allah H> said "If anyone recites the two verses at the end of 



104 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Surah Al-Baqarah at night that would be enough for him." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The hadith means to tell us that if anyone recites 
the last verses of Surah Al-Baqarah at night, Insha Allah he will be 
safe from harm. It could also mean that if anyone recites only these 
verses at the time of tahajjud, then that would suffice But Allah 
knows best. 

Last Verses of Surah Aal Imran 

(1 1 13/70) Sayyidina Uthman bin 'Affan 4b said, "If anyone 
recites the closing verses of Surah Aal Imran on a night, the 
reward for a night spent in prayer will be recorded for him." 

(Darami) 

Commentary: The closing verses of Surah Aal Imran are the 
verses beginning with the words, inna fi khalqis samawati walard, 
(verse 190 onwards). The authentic ahadith, tell us that when he 
woke up for tahajjud the Prophet Hi first recited these verses (even 
before he made the ablution) 

These verse of the last ruku (section) of Aal-lmran are 
comprehansive like the last verses of Al-Baqarah, made up of 
supplication.The particular merit of this section depands on the 
supplication. The words are put on the tongue of the slave who 
ponders over the universe and its creation and who remembers 
Allah under all circumstances. The words: 

Our Lord ! you have not created 

this vain. Glory be to You! 

Save us form the chastisement 

of the Fire. Our Lord! 

Whomsoever You admit in to 

the fire, You have surely 

humiliated him and for the 

evildoers shall be no helpers. 

Our Lord ! we have heard a 

caller, calling us to 

belief,saying, "Believe you in 



* ' " 
iy Jt*J jU H?^" 

u^5j mi ..'«> up^rj 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



105 



your Lord." So we believed, <^KQtf 0 ',-tf, 
Our Lord! Therefore forgive us * 
our sins and remit us out evil fjjt UjAJ Vj ^jCi^j 
deeds and make us die with the ,. , > * ->* . .,, ;} 

pious. Our Lord! Grant us that ' - - 

which You have promised us ^ HiO^lT i>V** Jb 
through Your Messenger^ and humiliate us not on the Day of 
Resurrection. Surely You never failest (Your) promise!" 

(Aallmran, 3:191-194) 

This Supplication in the last ruku of Surah Aal Imran is among 
the few most comprehensive supplications of the Qur'an. The merit 
of this ruku, as we have stated already, is because of this 
supplication. The saying of Sayyidina Uthman 4^ that he who will 
recite these verses in the night will be recorded as one who has 
stood night-long in voluntary prayers is obviously according to 
what he had heard from the Messenger of Allah 0. None of the 
Companions <&> ever said anything on his own without hearing it 
from the Prophet 0. Hence, this hadith is hadiih marfoo . 
Observation: Among the extraordinary Mercy of Allah on the 
Ummah of Prophet Muhammad is that on a little effort, He 
gives great reward. There are many possibilities and ways in which 
one can claim exceptionally great rewards which He has promised 
the Ummah through His Messenger 0. Thus, those people who 
are unable to do many good deeds, or any of the great deeds, may 
entitle themselves to higher rewards by performing the little deeds. 

The foregoing ahadith which cite the Messenger of Allah $§l as 
mentioning the virtues of specified surah and verses of the Qur'an 
are among these glad tidings. The purpose behind these ahadith is 
to guide those slaves of Allah who cannot recite the Quran very 
much to receive a large share of rewards and special favours of 
Allah by reciting these specified verses or surah. It is, therefore, 
the right of these ahadith on us that we belive in them and recite 
these surah and verses of the Qur'an. We may thereby receive the 
special favours of Allah and if we do not do it we will be depriving 
ourselves of these blessings. 



106 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



* * -fr 



The seventy ahadiih narrated thus far were about Zikr and 
recital of the Qur'an. We now present ahadith about du a. 
These focus on the significance of supplication, guide us 
concerning dua and have preserved for us the supplication of 
the Messenger of Allah %. The supplication of the Prophet m 
are indeed a great heritage for his people. The book is wound up 
with istighfar and durood (seeking forgivenessand invocating 
blessings on the Prophet 0) 



DITA (Supplication) 



Allah, the Exalted, has bestowed upon the Prophet & with 
many marvelous and distinctions, the most excellent of which is 
the station of perfect worship. 

What is worship? It is an unelinching steadfast demonstration 
before Allah of extreme humility, servitude, submissiveness, 
incompetent helplessness and complete dependency, and it is to 
know with certainty that He owns everything and to place all hope 
in Htm alone. This complete attitude is what raises a person to the 
station of worship which is the highest and supreme station. Indeed 
Sayyidina Muhammad 0 is the perfect and highest of all creatures 
on this station and, therefore, the best of all creatures and the 
noblest. 

Everything is considered perfect or imperfect according to how 
it fares in its own field and meets the purpose for which it is 
created. For instance, a horse is brought into existences for man to 
ride it and for its swiftness and it will be measured as perfect or 
imperfect accorading to how it fares on this standard, similarly, a 
cow is placed on the scale of perfection according to the milk it 
yields. On the same basis, the creator of mankind has set man's 
purpose servitude and worship. 

And 1 have not created the jinn ^ - « r jjfc ^ 
and mankind but to worship ' ^ ^ J 
me. (Az Zariyat, 5 1 :56) \ objUJi) d'j^Q 

Thus the best and the noblest of men will be he who is the most 
perfect and the highest on the scale of worship and servitude to 
Allah. And Sayyidina Muhammad % is above everyone else on the 
scale of worship and servitude to Allah, so he is the most excellent 
and the noblest of all creatures. Hence, whenever he is mentioned 
in the Qur'an for his greatest characteristics and marvels, and 



108 



Meaning and Message of (he Traditions Part V 



everytime the special favours on him from Allah are recalled, he is 
referred to with the most honourable epithet — 'abd (slave). 1 
When the mVraj (his ascension to the heavens) is recalled, the 
Quf an says: 

Glorified be He who carried 'jj^A^L'^ 
His servant (Muhammad) by '' - 

night (Al-Isra, 17:1) k r } 

Again, when the final stages of this very journy (mi'raj) are 
mentioned, the Quf an says: 
Thus did (Allah) reveal to His 

servant (Muhammad) that li t^s- J)t ^jl* 

which He reveald. ^.ic-v*^!) 

(AnNajm,53:10) 

Then Allah mentions the greastest blessing, the revelation of 
the Quf an and says: 

Blessed is He who sent down 
the criterion (the Qur'an) to Jip jiyft jji 
His servent (Muhammad) 

(Al-Fufrqan,25:l) 

And also: 

All praise belongs to Allah 

Who has revealed the Book to ooIp Jip- JJji JliiaJl 
His servant (Muhammad) „ .vj, 

(AlKahf,18:l) 0^^') T**" 

The gist of the discussion is that the highest station for man is 
that of servitude and worship to Allah and Sayyidina Muhammad 
0 is the leader on this scale. He is the highest on this standard of 
description. 

Du^a (supplication) is the gem of worship and the most 
prominent demonstration of it. When a slave makes a (sincere) 
supplication to Allah, he is drowned in servitude both outwardly 
and inwardly. Therefore of the conditions and characteristics of the 
Messenger of Allah % the most predonminant is of dua of the 
great treasures of the spiritual blessings that his people got through 
him, the most precious are the supplications for different moments 
which he himself made to Allah or exhorted his people to make. 

Some of these supplications relate to particular conditions and 
O. Vocabulory of the Holy Qur'an Dr. Abdullah Abbas Al-Nadwi 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 



109 



moments or specified purposes and needs. Most, however, are of a 
general nature. A genera! practical aspect of the value and benefit 
of these supplication is that we learn from them the etiquette and 
way to make a supplications to Allah and to beseech Him for our 
needs. We get guidance which is not found elsewhere. We have 
next the scholarly aspect with an intimate awareness that the 
Messenger of Allah 0 had a deep spirtual link with Allah at every 
moment of his life, and that his heart was impressed by its majesty 
and beauty. We learn too that he was constantly aware of his own 
and of every other creature's entire helplessness and complete 
dependence on Allah and of the Omnipotence and continuous 
mercy of the Sovereign, king of kings and His perpetual nourishing 
of the creatures. This awareness of the Prophet || was to such a 
degree that the unseeen looked like the obvious and seen. 

If we ponder over the hundreds of supplications awailable in 
the treasures of hadiih then we will feel cleajly that they reflect an 
awareness of Allah and the Prophet's S spiritual perfectness and 
his sincere relationship with Him. In this way. Each of his 
supplications is his perfect miracle *J'j ^ & May 

blessings of Allah on him and his family, and may His favours and 
peace be on him. 

It has been my practice to recite some of the supplications of 
the Prophet H before educated and intelligent non-Muslims 
whenever I meet them. My experience with them is that almost all 
of them are most impressed by the Prophet's S Du^a 
(supplications) — more than anything else. They are left in no 
doubt concerning his perfect link with Allah and His awareness. 

After these introductory words, let us now read the ahadith in 
which the Prophet m has exhorted us to make supplications to that 
conduct. He has shown us the manners and etiquettes of making • 
supplication and told us how to do it. After that, we will present 
those ahadith in a sequence in which are found supplications 
which he made to Allah on particular occassions or exhorted us to 
make them. 



no 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



arrogant to worship me, they 
enter Hell disgraced." 



The Position of Dua And Its Importance 

fa jje'fo jil J\5 ^ oU^» £ ( ^ \ U/Y \ ) 

(1114/71) Sayyidina Numan bin Bashir has said that the 
Messenger of Allah % said, "Supplication is worship," and he 
then recited the verse: 

And your Lord says, "Call upon J*y j^j 

Me, and I shall answer you. ' ^ , * * « , " 

Surely those who are too ^jf^i Si p*J 

(Ahmad, Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah) 
Commentary: The words of the hadith itself are simply. 
"Supplication is worship." The hadith perhaps means that a slave 
must not bracket his supplication with his other efforts to get his 
needs and desires so that if it is approved then he considers himself 
successful but if it is not approved then he thinks that his effort 
was in vain. Rather, supplication has a nature of its own and that is 
that beside being a means to recepit of worship. In fact, it is one's 
desires it is by itself a form of worship. Hence, from that point of 
view it is a sacred deed of the slave ^gainst which he would be 
rewarded in the Hereafter, surely. 

The verse of the Qufan that the Prophet 0 recited in support 
of his saying confirms that Allah regards supplications worship. 
The next hadith describes du a as the narrow and essence of 
worship. 

£i ^Ajl fa &*%\ JU> Jli J* j**'j> ( \\ \ o/V Y) 

(1 1 1 5/72) Sayyidina Anas <&> said that, "Supplication is the pith 
of worship." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The spirit of worship is to be humble before Allah 



Book of Azkar and Da'wcit 



111 



and to show extreme humility and submission to Him. This, in fact, 
is the total nature of du "a — its first part and last, its obvious and 
hidden. Therefore, du "a is undoubtedly the pith and essence of 
worship. 

Jj fa JU> J15 J15 8>:> $ \ ^ y Vvr) 

(1 1 16/73) i Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah ^> said that the Messenger 
of Allah ill told us that nothing is more honourable in the sight 
of Allah than supplication. (Tirmizi, Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: Once we know that du'a is the essence and gist of 
worship and man is created to worship Allah then we should 
understand that of the deeds and conditions of men, du'a is the 
most honourable and precious thing. Besides it is most effective in 
attracting the mercy and help of Allah. 

(1 1 17/74) Sayyidina lbn Umar has said that the 
Messenger of Allah said, " If the gate of supplication is 
opened for anyone of you then the gates of mercy will be 
opened for him. And nothing that Allah is asked for is as dear to 
Him as to be asked for security. (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Security is to be protected from all trial and 
tribulations of this world and the next whether they are apparent or 
unseen. Thus any one who prays to Allah for security in fact 
concedes that, without the proection of Allah and His merey. He 
cannot even continue to live and is unable to save himself from a 
minor or major disaster or hardship. Thus, such a supplication is a 
confession of ones absolute helplessness and incompetence which 
is the essence of servitude. Thus, the supplication for security is 
dear to Allah more than any other supplication. 

The next thing the hadith tells us is about the door of 
supplication being opened. It means that the reality of supplication 
is realised and one learns how to ask Allah. The hadith goes on to 



112 



Meaning and Message of (he Traditions Part V 



say that for such a person the door of Allah's mercy will be opend. 
Actually, supplication is not a name applied to the beseeching 
words uttered by the tongue which, at the most, are a dressing or a 
frame, but, it is the urge and the yearning of his heart. The x gate 
which the hadith speaks of as opening is indeed this state of the 
supplicant. When he attains this state of mind and heart then the 
doors of mercy do open for him. May Allah grant us this condition 
and status. 

$ 'J> Jj-^j Jl5 SjjtjA ^ ^ ( U ^ A/Vo) 

(1 1 18/75) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah ^ has said that the 
Messenger of Allah 0 said, " Allah will be angry with those 
who do not make requests from Him." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: There is no one in the world who gets angry if a 
request is not made to him. Even parents lose their temper if 
children ask them again and again for something. But, this saying 
of the Prophet iH in forms us that Allah is so very much merciful 
and benevolent on His slaves that He gets angry on the slaves who 
does not ask Him for any thing, and loves the slave who makes a 
request to Him. We have seen a hadith that the deed of His salve 
dearest to Him is supplication and request: 

(Praise belongs to you, O Lord -y, ^ j-^J, Vj 

of the worlds and O The Most ,J ~ 

Merciful of those who show ^L&ty 

mercy.) 

(1 1 19/76) It is related by Sayyidina Ibn Masud that 
Messenger of Allah iH said, "Ask Allah to grant from His 
bounties (that is. ask Him for His favours and mercy) for Allah 
loves to be asked. And the most excellent worship is hope and 
expectation of relif (from anxiety and distress, and it is a great 
form of woriship because of its humble concentration) (Tirmizi) 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 



113 



Approval Of Supplication 

& fa %\ Jj, > j^j jii ji! ^ ^, ^ (n t . /VY) 

. >»iUp j jL: p'Oe j j> : it. 

(1120/77) Sayyidina Abdullah bin Umar has said that the 
Messenger of Allah % said, "Supplication is beneficial 
regarding the accidents that have happened and the accidents 
that have not yet happened. So, O slaves of Allah, devote 
yourselves to supplication ! " (Tirmizi) 
(Imam Ahmed has transmitted this hadith in his musnad from Muza bin 
Jaba! instead of Abdullah bin Umer.) 

Commentary: It means that one must also pray for relief from the 
anxiety and distress that has not descended on one but there are 
fears about it Insha Allah supplication for relief will avert that 
threat, one must also supplicate Allah to ward off what has 
descnded of anxiety and distress. Insha Allah that would be 
removed, and Allah would bestow security. 

(1121/78) Sayyidina Salman Farsi 4$ said that the Messenger 
of Allah $ said," your Lord is extremely munificent and 
generous, and is ashamed to turn away empty the hands to a 
slave when he raises them to Him." (He does give him 
something.) (Tirmizi, Abu Dawood) 

fa $*%\ JU in j^j jii jil u x y/vO 
m 4 * pfttf i&A j as > 

n 122/79) Sayyidina Jabir ^> quoted the Messenger of Allah 
t» as saying," Shall I not point out to you what will rescue you 
from your enemy, and give you abundant livelihood? Supplicate 
Allah in your nights and your days, for supplication is the 
weapon of the Believer." (Abu Yala) 



114 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Commentary: Dua is what emerges from the depths of the heart 
with a firm conviction that the treasures of heaven and earth are 
only in the Hands of Allah and He distributes them as He pleases. 
He grants them to the supplicants who knock at His door. An 
aspirant must realise that he will get his wish only when Allah 
gives it to him and he cannot get it from anyone else. It is this firm 
conviction coupled with a realisation of one's own utter 
helplessness that grows a feeling in the slave which the Qur an has 
described as } (compulsion, force exigency, need). This is the 
spirit of dii^a, and it is a fact that Allah approves a man's 
supplication which he makes to Him with this frame of mind to get 
relief from an enemy or any other anxiely, or to seek enhanced 
livelihood, or to fulfil one of his needs. Undoubtedly, therefore, 
du Yi is a great weapon in the hands of such slaves of Allah who are 
blessed with faith and belief and who are aware of the power of 
supplication. 

Guidance Concerning Du'a 

The Messenger of Allah $1 has give certain guidance 
concerning supplication. A supplicant must keep them before him 
while making a supplicat:on. 

Ja & Ji ijtffcj &rf\i ii'Ay £3j'A'>*» 

i 

(tfJLijdlUjj) 

(1 123/80) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4& said hrat the Messenger 
of Allah 0 said," make your supplication to Allah with a firm 
conviction of being answered, know that Allah does not answer 
a supplication that comes from a careless and inattentive heart." 

(Tinnizi) 

Commentary: The heart must be turned in properly to Allah at the 
time of making a supplication with an eye on his munificence and 
liberality and certainty of getting what one asks for the supplication 
that is made with a doubtful heart and lack of assurance will be 
spiritless. 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 



115 



(11 24/81) It is narrated by Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah that the 
Messenger of Allah 0 said, "when one of you makes a 
supplication let him not say. O Allah, forgive me if You will; 
show mercy to me, if You will; provide for me if You will. But, 
he must make his request definite. Surely, He does what He 
wills and there is no one to impose compulsion on Him." 

(Bukhari) 

Commentary: The hadith stresses on the point that the demand of 
humility, dependence helplessness and request is that the 
supplicant must beseech his Lord without any sort of doubt and 
without a wavering mind, he should not say to the Benevolent 
Lord."0 Allah, if you wish, do it this way". This sort of a request 
has a semblence of showing independence and unconcern and it is 
contrary to the station of servitude and etiquette of supplication. 
Besides, such a supplication is lifeless. Therefore, a slave should 
make a supplication in this way, "My Lord, Do answer my 
supplication!" Surely, Allah will do as He pleases and there is none 
who can compell Him to do against His will. 

gaiiu* si % # & v'r&^&i^ o/a r ) 

(1 125/82) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4fr has said, "If anyone 
likes that Allah should grant him his supplications in times of 
difficulty and anxiety then he must make many supplications 
when times are easy." (Tirnizi) 
Commentary: It is confirmed through experience that those 
people have a very weak link with Allah who turn to Him only in 
times of difficulty and anxiety and raise thier hands in supplication 
only in such a situation. Such people lack that confidence in the 
mercy of Allah which produces soul and life in their supplication. 
In contrast those slaves of Allah who are accustomed to request 
Him for their needs at all times have a strong link with Him and 



] 1 6 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

they have much confidence in the mercy of Allah on which they 
continue to rely. Thus their supplication is very strong. 

The Messenger of Allah 0 has given us the advice in this 
hadith that we must make plenty of supplications to Allah in days 
of happiness and prosperity. The result will be that we will 
establish connection whereby our supplications in days of difficulty 
will be granted to us. 

DoNotbe ImpatientFor a Response 

Du a is an application from a slave to Allah who is the 
Absolute Owner and the Omnipotent. If He will He may grant the 
slave's request at the very moment but it is against His Wisdom to 
give the ingnorant and unjust slave promptly on his request. In fact, 
often it is in the interest of the slave that his request should be 
considered after some delay, but man is hasty and he always hopes 
to get what he asks for to be given to him promptly. When he does 
not get that immediately, he becomes despondent and stops making 
a supplication. Here lies his mistake which dis-entitles him from 
getting his supplication approved and, in other words, his haste is 
the cause of his loss. 

p 5 Z* %\ JU h fa $ J* 'J} & (m vat) 

(1 126/83) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah $h has reported the 
Messenger of Allah S as saying. "Your supplications are 
worthy of approval so long as you do not make a haste. (To 
make a haste is that) A slave" says that he had made a 
supplication but it was not granted. (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The slave loses the opportunity of being granted his 
request because of his haste. He must always remember that he is a 
beggar at the door of Allah and he must never cease to make his 
supplications with a confidence that sooner or later the mercy of 
the most Merciful will descend upon him. 

Also, supplications of many a slave which they make sincerely 
and with humility are not granted sooner because their exercise is a 
means to getting them nearer to Allah. If their supplications were 



Book of Azkar and Da 'wat \ \ 7 

granted to them forthwith then they would miss the great favour of 
nearness to Allah. 

Supplication is Not Granted If The 
Supplicant Survives on The Unlawful 

u*. 'h to i\ jitf c± %\ i\ j,uji^ 

(1 127/84) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4§b reported the Messenger 
of Allah 0 as saying, "O People, Allah is Pure and accepts only 
the Pure. And He has commanded the Believers what He had 
commanded the Messengers ^s-, saying; 

O you Messengers! Eat of the ,-, r*£n : WjiuJfa 
good things and do righteous - ^ ^ fcH-H - 

deeds. Surely I am the knower 5>i*J ^ ^! t^k^J 
of what you do. 

(A!-Muminoon 23:51) (»>:Trdju>fc) j^l* 
And He has said (to the Believers) 
O you who believe! Eat of the 

wholesome things wherewith oQ» l^lT r£l jtSSW^Z 

We have provided you. (and ' 

keep away from the unlawful). (W:Y«yMi) pHJjjl* 

(Al Baqarah,2:172) 
"The Prophet 0 then said about a man who undertakes a long 
journey, his hair dishevelled and his body and clothes untidy 
with dust. He raises his hands towards the sky and prays, "My 
Lord! My Lord! " But the truth is that his food is unlawful, his 
drink is unlawful, his clothing is unlawful. He is nourished with 
unlawfully acquired food. "How then could his supplication be 
a PP roved? " (Muslim) 
Commentary: Many supplicants ask themselves today." Why is 



118 



Meaning and Message, of the Traditions Part V 



our prayer not granted when it is right to make a supplication and 
expect a response, and Allah has promised to give an answer? 
Allah has said: 

Call upon Me and 1 shall J$ Cs^\ 'J>& 

answer you. (Al Mu'min 40:60) (Vi.,>*jJl) ' ' 

Why, then, our supplication is not answered? 

The foregoing hadith has answered the question convincingly. 
How many of the supplicants, today, can assert that what they eat. 
drink and wear is lawfully acquired? And is pure? May Allah have 
mercy on us! 

Supplications That Are Disallowed 

jpi jWh'jJLj 4*% JU> jp3 3tf jtf i*( m a/ao) 



(1 1 128/85) Sayyidina Jabir said that the Messenger of Allah 
iH said, "Do not invoke curses on yourselves, or on your 
children, or on your possessions lest you happen to do it at a 
time when Allah is asked for something and grants your 
requests (an opportune time for supplications and then you 
suffer harm to yourself, your children or your property). (Muslim) 



JutfjAl j JL> > ft ft 3>1> ^ VAl) 



Messenger of Allah H said, "Let no one of you wish for death, 
nor pray to Allah for an early death. For, when death comes, the 
doing of deeds will cease (and the slave will not be able to do 
deeds that please Allah and fetch His mercy, deeds can only be 
done by the living). And, the life of a Believer does not increase 
but his good deeds (so do not ask for death). (Muslim) 





fa 4* %\ JU %\ fej ft ft j*< u r - /ay) 



Book of Azkar and Da 'wat 



119 



g oiru fjiit jyi itf Cp(i ^ ijlishij o>Jb 

(1 130/87) Sayyidina Anas has said that the Messenger of 
Allah said,"None of you should make a request for death 
because of the trouble in which he is involved, but if there is no 
other help to it, then say, O Allah, keep me alive as long as there 
is goodness in life for me and bring death to me when there is 
goodness in death for me." (Nasai) 

Commentary: These ahadith disallow us to wish for death when 
we are faced with unhappy circumstances and the words do come 
up on our tongues. Some ahadith make that very clear as, for 
instance, the hadith transmitted by Bukhari and Muslim from 
Sayyindina Anas 

Let none of you wish for death ; >J, V 

when faced with difficulty 1' ^ tsi *^ 

One of the reasons it is forbidden to hope and pray for death 
under trying circumstances is that it is contrary to exercising 
patience. The second, and more important reason, is that as long as 
a man is alive, he has the opportunity to repent to Allah and seek 
forgiveness from Him and thus attain purity. He also has the 
opportunity to add to his assets of the next world and gain more 
nearness to Allah through performing good deeds and showing 
obedience. Hence, a supplication to receive death is in reality one 
to shut the door and terminate the opportunity. Obviously, there is 
nothing but loss for the slave in that. 

Nevertheless, when the appointed time draws close, the close 
slaves of Allah are very eager to meet Him and, sometimes, they 
happen to express a desire to die and pray for that. The Qufan 
recalls for us the supplication of Sayyidina Yusuf $t*Q\ 

Originator of the heavens and „ 

the earth! You are my Protector J*'fMj C>1j*-lJljtli 



in this world and the Hereafter, 
Make me to die a Muslim, and 

join me with the rightous. ^JbJlj Uili 

(Yusuf 12:101) J^y.) 



1 20 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

The supplication of the Holy Prophet 0 at the time of his 
death was, 

O Allah! The most High Companion gtfj) ^fo 



Etiquettes of Supplication 

(To supplicate for onself before supplication for other people). 

One of the etiquettes of supplication is that when we have to 
make a supplication for someone else, we must first make a 
supplication for ourself. If we make a supplication only for another 
person then the element of a helpless request would be taking and 
our role would be that of a recommender. This attitude does not 
suit a person who asks for anything from Allah. Hence, the Prophet 
S himself followed the procedure that when he prayed for 
someone else he first prayed for himself and that is the 
characteristic servitude. 

\l\ fa JU> Jj^3 & J* # $ o* ( n r ^/AA) 

(1131/88) Sayyidina Ubayy bin Ka'ab <&> said that when the 
Messenger of Allah & mentioned someone for whom he made 
a supplication, he began with himself (and then prayed for the 
other). (Tirmizi) 

(1132/89) It is reported by Sayyidina Ibn Abbas &> that the 
Prophet S said, "Make your supplications to Allah with your 
hands raised, palms turned towards your face and do not keep 
the hands turned backwards. When you finish making your 
supplication wipe your face with the hands. (Abu Dawood) 
Commentary: When the Messenger of Allah ft made a 
supplication to Allah to avert a calamity, he turned the backs of his 
hands towards the sky, as some other ahadith tell us. And, when he 
prayed for goodness of this life and the next, he had his palms 
straight (upwards) and the hands were spread in the manner a 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 



121 



person who beseeches should spread his hands. In the light of this, 
the hadith narrated by Sayyidina Abdullah bin Abbas made to 
Allah for anything,the hands must be spread before him straight, 
palms upwards in the manner of a beggar, supplicant. Finally, the 
spread-out hands should be drawn towards the face and wiped over 
it, with the imagination that the spreadout hands have not been left 
empty and without a portion of the mercy of the Benevolent Lord. 

(w^'j 5 i^y> 41 iSi ■ & ^ 

(1 133/90) The Taba ee, Sayyidina Sa'ib bin Yazeed *&n&\ 
has reported his father as saying that when the Prophet made 
a supplication and raised his hands, he wiped his face with 
them. (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It is almost established from the ahadith that when 
the Messenger of Allah $k made a supplication, he raised his hands 
at the conclusion wiped his face with them. Those people who 
deny this practice have misunderstood a hadith of Sayyidina Anas 
Imam Nawawi *JLc ■&< i^-j has collected about thirty ahadith on 
in great detail venturing to remove the misunderstanding. 

Preface Du 'a With Praise of Allah 
Be Blessings on The Prophet H 

J^'^J*'^ ^'j'iii.u^ ^ Ajju, 3 j.& ^3 

(1134/91) It is reported by Fadalah bin Ubayd' that. the 
Messenger of Allah m> heard a person making a supplication to 
Allah in prayer (as salah) but he. did not mention the greatness 
and praise of Allah not did he invoke blessings on the Prophet 
ill. The Messenger of Allah ill said, "This man made haste 
while making the supplication." and he called him to him and 



122 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



said either to him or to another person, "If any of you offers 

prayers, he should (before making a supplication) praise and 

glorify Allah and then invocate blessings on the Prophet S&. He 

may then supplicate Allah for whatever he wishes." 

(Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, Nasai) 

Saying Aameen At The 
Conclusion of Supplication 

jfcj J £fi j« > u» fL', 

>3 J* ^ 5! {^3 J^^'^c^ 
. c^-ji JLi* ^ 6! & 'o^W Ji-jS rr*4 ^ 

(1 135/92) It is reported by Abu Zuhayr An-Numayri "We 
went out with the Messenger of Allah S one night and came 
upon a man who made a suppliation with persistance. The 
Prophet S stopped there and listened to him and he said. He 
will get a response if he sets a seal over it. One of us asked him 
how could it be concluded correctly and what seal he should 
use. He said, 'Aameenl If he seals it with Aameen, he will get a 
response, (and receive what he wants)." 
Commentary: The Arabic word Khatama ^ could mean Ho put a 
seal, or to conclude. In fact, these are two ways of saying the same 
thing and the translation expresses both meanings. Anyway, the 
true lesson of the hadith is that a supplication must be concluded 
with the word Aameen which means. "O Allah, grant this, my 
prayer!" last word. 

The Youngers Should Be 
Asked to Pray For Us 

lar jia iLA r 3 £ $ & ^ J 

(1 136/93) Sayyidina Umar Ibn Al-Khattab 4e> reported that he 



Book o/Azkar and Da'wat 



123 



asked for the permission of the Prophet l§fe to perform an 
Umrah, and he gave him the permission to go, saying little 
brother, and do not forget me." Umar said further, "In this 
way he used a word for me for which 1 would not be willing to 
take the world in exchange." (Abu Dawood, Tirmizi) 

Commentary: This hadith discloses that supplication is something 
for which even the younger ones may be requested by their elders 
to make for them. This is more marked when they are about to 
perform an approved deed or to visit a sacred place where 
supplications are more likely to be approved. The Prophet $1 is 
reported to have addressed Sayyidina Umar 4k as (Ukhayya) 
which means little brother while ^» (akhee) means brother. This 
pleased Umar very much (as he expressed, indeed). This hadith 
also focuses the closeness of Umar 4&> in the sight of Allah. 

Supplications That Meet Approval 

(1137/94) Sayyidina Abu Ad-Darda 4&> has reported the 
Messenger of Allah 0 as saying, "A Muslim's supplication for 
an absent brother receives an answer. An angel is stationed at 
his head, and as often as he makes a supplication that his 
(absent) brother may be given what is good, the angel who is 
put in charge of him says, Aameen and may you receive the 
like." (Muslim) 

Commentary: The hadith singles out supplication for an absent 
person as worthy of being approved perhaps because such a 
supplication is made with sincerity. But Allah knows best. 

(i^rU j<t j J jb y\ j jail aljj) 

(1 138/95) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger 
of Allah 0 said "Three supplications are answered, there being 
no doubt about them: that of a parent (for their children), that of 



124 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



a traveller, and that of one who has been wronged." 

(Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: The secret behind the worthiness of these 
supplications being approved is again that they are made very 
sincerely from the core of the heart. The sincerity of parents for 
their children is obvious while the traveller and the wronged one 
have a broken heart which has the characteristic of pulling the 
mercy off Allah to itself. 

(1139/96) It is reported by Sayyidina' Ibn Abbas that the 
Prophet 0 said, "Five supplications receive an answer, that of 
one who is wornged until he receives help (or seizes revenge), 
that of the pilgrim of Hajj till he returns home, that of one 
engaged in Jihad, till he is martyred and is lost to this world, 
that of a sick person till he regains health, and that of someone 
for an absent brother." Having said all that, the Prophet $£> said, 
"The one of these supplications that gets the quickest answer is 
that for an absent brother." (Bayhaqi) 
Commentary: If a supplication is truly made and if there is no 
obstacle to its approval in the person of the supplicant or in his 
attitude and deeds then it is normally answered. However, a 
believing slave is sometimes surrounded by circumstances or 
performs certain deeds which attract the mercy of Allah to wards 
him very quickly and intensely. Then, there is a greater chance of 
his suplication being granted. Of the five people's supplication 
mentioned in this hadith, the one who is wronged and he one who 
prays for an absent brother have found mention in another hadith. 
As for Hajj and Jihad these are deeds which as long as a slave is 
occupied in them, he is in the court of Allah and very near to Him. 
Similarly, the illness of a Believer is a means to purify him of his 
sins and brings him close to Allah and affords him an exceptional 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



125 



progress to that end. He goes over the stages of nearness to Allah 
while he is on his sick bed so that his supplication is granted in 
particular. 

The Particular Condition And 
Moments of Approval of Supplications 

The basic ingredients for the approval of a supplication lie in 
the connection the supplicant maintains with Allah in his personal 
attitude and inner feelings. These are termed in the Qur'an as y 
{idtirar) and Ji^yi (ibtihal). The former has been translated earler 
(as compulsion, force, exigency, need) in the explanation to hadith 
79. The later is to humiliate oneself before Allah (and call upon 
Him to invoke course on the liar 1 ). 

Besides, there are certain peculiar conditions or situations and 
moments when there is a deep hope of the mercy and favour of 



The following ahadith disclose to us these moments and 
situations as pointed out by the Prophet t$&. 



&%\J+k\ Jpj Jii Jti # ^(ut .My) 



(1140/97) It is reported by Irbad ibn Sariyah 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah said, "Whosoever offers the fard 2 prayer 
(and makes a supplication with a sincere devotion), his 
supplication is answered. And whoso recites the Qur'an to the 
end, his supplication is granted." 

Commentary: A slave is closest to Allah after prayer especially, 
the fard and recital of Qur'an, and he is in conversation with Allah. 
Of course prayer and recital of Qur'an must not be only in form but 
must be performed with a proper spirit. Then these two acts will be 
mi'raj of the believer so that when he makes a supplication after 
these acts, it is worthwile for the mercy of Allah to come forward 
and receive it. 

O. Vocabulary of the Holy Qur'an Dr. Abdullah Abbas An-Nadwi 
©.Obligatory 



Allah. 




126 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



(1 141/98) Sayyidina Anas ^ reported the Messenger of Allah 
as saying that a supplication made between the azan and the 
iqamah is not rejected. (Tirmizi, Abu Dawood) 

jjLj 42»fr JU> J^3 Jl5 Jti iiUl ^ ( \ \t O 

a3i> «#3* Wj' <y v^ij 4*»j? 
• ? ^3 jjjj.J^ej>» ^ 

(l 142/99) Sayyidina Abu Umamah 4^ said that the Messenger 
of Allah 0 said, "Supplication is granted on four occasions 
particularly: 

(i) When fighting for the sake of Allah, 

(ii) When it is raining (mercifully), 

(iii) When it is time for prayer, and 

(iv) When the Ka'bah is before the eyes." (Tabarani) 

^3 $*%\ JU k\ J3^3 jis Jtf s&j #A>if(\\iri\"} 
b fife j^33 ^ & Mfc >33 iWi r jtf 

(1 143/100) Sayyidina Rabia ibn Waqqas <^> said that the 
Messenger of Allah % said, "There are three occasions when a 
supplication is not rejected: 

(i) A man is all alone in the desert where no one except Allah 

sees him and he stands up in prayer (And then 
supplicates), 

(ii) A man is on a battlefield and continues to fight firmly 
while his companions flee (and he makes a supplication), 
and 

(Hi) A man (deserts his bed) and stands up in prayer in the last 
part of the night. 



Book of Azkar and Da'wal 



127 



diJi > ^ i> <fc ^ i& i#f fcuJ jiJ< 

(pi— ■» jj) Sb l ^ 4 

(1 144/101) it is related by Sayyidina Jabir *^e> that he heard the 
Prophet say, "There is an hour during the night at which no 
Muslim man will ask Allah for good in this world and the next 
without His giving it to him. And that applies to every night 
(there being no exception for that). (Muslim) 

Commentary: We have seen in an earlier volume of this book 
under tahajjud, the hadith narrated by Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4fa 
transmitted by Bukhari and Muslim: 

Allah descends every night to the lowest heaven when two third 
of the night have passed away and Himself calls out. Is there 
anyone to supplicate that I may answer him? Is there anyone to 
ask that I may give him? Is there anyone to seek My forgiveness 
that I may forgive him? 

Keeping this hadith in view, therefore, we may determine that 
the hour in every night when supplications are answered as 
mentioned in a foregoing hadith of Jabir is the last portion of 
the night. But Allah knows best. 

The circumstances and moments when du'a is granted as 
described in the ahadith discussed in this chapter may be 
summarised thus: 

After the fard prayers, after the whole Qur'an is recited 
{Khatam al-Qur'ari), between azan and iqamah, on the battle field 
of 'jihad, during fighting, when (merciful) rain falls down, when the 
Ka'hah, is before the eyes, after offering prayers in a desolate 
desert where there is no one besides Allah, on the field jihad when 
other companions have deserted and the last part of the night. 

We have seen also ahadith at their proper places which have 
spoken of supplication being answered on laylatul Qadr, the plain 
of Arafat on the day of Arafah, at the particular moment on Friday, 
at the time of breaking the fast, during the journey for Hajj, during 
the journey for jihad, during illness and during travel. 

However we must remember that supplication does not 
comprise the mere words or the outword form but it is its reality 



128 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



which has been mentioned earlier. Only that seed grows a plant 
which has a kernel. 

We must now understand the meaning of the acceptance of a 
supplication, or the answer it receives. 

What It Means to Have an 
Answer To a Supplication 

Many people suppose that a supplication is answered only 
when they get what they had requested. If they do not get that then 
they feel that their supplication is rejected. This is a seriously 
wrong conception. Man's knowledge is incomplete. Rather, he is 
ignorant and gropes in darkness. There are many people for whom 
wealth is a blessing and many, again, for whom it is a trial. Many 
have been there for whom power and authority over people has 
been a means of nearness to Allah but there are those like Hujjaj 
and Ibn Ziyad for whom the reins of government became a cause of 
distancing them from Allah and inviting His wrath on them. 

Man does not know what is good for him and what may be the 
cuase of his anxiety and downfall. Hence, he often asks Allah for 
something which is not good for him, or giving it to him is not 
constant with the wisdom of Allah. Allah is wise and All-Knowing. 
He knows that it is not right to let His slave have everything that he 
asks. However, it is also against His benevolence and liberality that 
He turn away His slave who raises his hands to Him in 
supplication. He cannot turn him away empty handed. So,. he dows 
grant him something. Sometimes, He gives His slae exactly what 
he asks in his supplication and sometimes He allots him the 
blessings of the Hereafter instead of the thing he had asked. In that 
way, his supplication amasses for him a treasure for the next life. 
Sometimes, it also happens that He removes from the supplicant an 
anxiety or disaster that he was to have faced as part of the 
vicissitudes of life. These things happen in life as part of the cause 
and effect series determined aforehand and they are averted against 
the supplication that the man had made something and was not 
grantd to him in the exact way he wanted. 

So, the meaning of a supplication being answered is that it is 
not a vain exercise and the supplicant is not deprived. Allah lets 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 



129 



him have one of the answers described in the foregoing lines. The 
Messenger of Allah HI has explained this fact in detail. 

Jii JU # ijj^ji o 4^< ^ ( \\ t o/\ . y) 

ita' ^ ^ aaJ V} pi 13 3^>Ju; jlli ^ u 

(l 145/102) Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri has said that the 
Prophet Hi said, "Any Muslim who makes a supplication 
containing nothing which is sinful or which involves breaking 
of ties of relationship will be given for it by Allah one of three 
things: 

(i) He will give him what he had asked, at that same time. 

(ii) He will store it up for him in the next world. 

(iii) He will turn away from him an equivalent amount of evil 
(anxiety or calamity). 

The Companions 4$> said, "(When that is the case,) we will 
make any supplications." He said, "Allah has more than that 
(and was more ready to answer than they were to ask) (Ahmad) 

Commentary: The treasures of Allah are boundless and 
unperishable. If all His slaves request Him all the time and He 
decides to give all of them, His treasures will not diminish. 

Hakim has transmitted a hadith from Sayyidina Jabir 4& which 
tells us "When Allah will give the slave the treasures in the next 
world stored for him against his supplications which he supposed 
had not been granted to him in this life, he will exclaim: 

Would that none of my suppli- ^ : f^rj V^jfj&fo 
cationshad been answered in " Lr< ^ ur^r - - 
the world and I would have (T «V^:jU«Il>S*) 
received the return in this life!" (Kanz al Ummal v2, p57) 



THE SUPPLICATIONS OF THE 
MESSENGER OF ALLAH S 

The ahadith about du'a narrated so far were of the kinds that 
exhorted us to make supplications, described their importance and 
blessings, dealt with etiquettes concerning them and advised how 
to make them and what made them liable to receive an answer. 
That was by way of an introduction, as it were, Let us now see the 
supplications of the Prophet 0 and his soul-stirring appeals to 
Allah. These are the best means to recognise the degree of his 
intimate knowledge and condition of his heart and they are the 
greatest legacy he has left behind for the Ummah. They may be 
appropriately termed the choicest part of the treasure of ahadith. 
We may divide them into three sections. 

First are those ahadith that related to particular moments and 
specified situations. These include supplications made when dawn 
is manifest, those made in the evening, those made on reciting for 
the night, those made on waking up from sleep, and supplications 
when a violent wind blows or it rains and in times of anxiety or 
difficulty, and so on. 

In the second kind are supplications of general nature. They are 
not limited to particular times or situations and most of them are 
comprehensive. 

The third type of supplications are the ones which the Prophet 
0 made in As-Saiah (prayer) or on coming out of it after the 
salutation. It is third type that we begin this chapter with — the 
supplications made in prayer. May Allah cause us to value this 
great and precious gift that the Prophet % has left behind for us. 



132 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



SUPPLICATIONS MADE IN AS-SALAH 
OR AFTER OFFERING IT 

Initial Du 'a After Takbeer Tahriemah 

j*kA \i\ ^Lj 4± %\ JU y i jis jfe & ( \ \ n/> . r ) 

£*fiJl Jj ^Cjj ijL> if Jtf jtf <^ 5 jLili 

^3 cji vi t«~^v j^tf j^vtj juiSfi ^v, ^Jii jyiii 

(1 146/103) it is reported by Sayyidina Jabir that when the 
Prophet m commenced his prayer, he called out Allahu Akbar 
(Allah is Most Great, and this is the takbeer iahreemah) and 
then said. 

My prayer and my rites of 
worship, and my life, and my 
death are all for Allah, the Lord 
of the worlds, no associate has 
He. And this I have been 
commanded, and I am the first 
of the Muslims, 1 O Allah guide 
me to the best of the deeds and 
the best manners. No one can 
guide to the best of them but 
You, and guard me from evil 
deeds and evil manners and no 
one can guard from the worst 

of them but You. CJ1 

(Nasa'i) 

Commentary: The supplication begins, as it should, with the 
affirmation of unity of Allah and the worshipper's servitude to 
Him, and his utter dependence and faithful obedience to Him. The 
supplication concludes with a request to Allah to guide the 
worshipper to righteous deeds and character and to protect him 
from wicked deeds and character. In fact, man's honour and success 
evolves round this guidance and protection. In volume 3 of th is 
O. Thus far from Al-An'am 6: 162-163 " 



JjU^Uj ^jjU jt 

^jcji v^^^v,J^l«^v 
vi i<£. isrf 



Book of Azkar and Da \vat 1 3 3 

book we have read the hadith narrated by Syyidina Ali 4&>. The 
same supplication is mentioned by him with many additions which 
are very heart warming and appealing. That hadith also contains 
supplications to be made in the postures of bowing (ruku), standing 
(qawmah), prostrations (sajdah) sitting (jalsah) and the final 
sitting (qa'dah). Indeed, that hadith is comprehensive as far as 
supplications of As -Salah (prayer) are concerned. In explaining 
that, we say that the Messenger of Allah iH normally made those 
supplications in the supererogatory prayers offered in the night. If 
we observe carefully the supplications made by the Prophet $j| in 
prayer as mentioned in the hadith of Sayyidina Ali ^> we might 
see into them a reflection of the inner condition of the Prophet $H 
in his prayer. We will not repeat the hadith here because it is fairly 
lengthy but those people who have a keen interest in such things 
may read it again in the third volume of this book, Ma'arif 
Al-hadith. 

J& 0*3 J* J ol^JJl p3 oil x**i\ ^JJ ^1 Jts jftfu JJUl 
cji k_ &j O0, 0*3 j^j^O ^ jV^Jtjjp cJs jJL*l\ &j 

cJlSU ^l^ipii c^S'ts- i_iO|3 o*-i»u- c4>' *— cis'jj 

j c£ jWLll *1 j j) . 4-13* CJI iJl jjl 

(1 147/104) Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Abbas 4^> has said that 
when the Prophet $m stood up in the night for tahajjud, prayer 
he made this supplication: 

*lS'j£ ti\ tj - cJi iuit 3s $\ 

O Allah! To You belongs all praise. You are Supreme over the 
heavens and the earth and whatever and whoever is in them. 
And, to You belongs all praise, You are the light of the heavens 



134 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



and the earth and whoever and whatever is in them (Wherever 
the rays of light penetrate) And, to You belongs all praise, You 
are the king of the heavens and the earth and whatever and 
whoever is in them. And, to You belongs all praise, You are the 
Truth, Your promise is true, the meeting with You (after our 
death) is true, the Fire (Hell) is true, the Prophets are 
true, and Mohammad is true and the (coming of the) Last 
Hour is true. O Allah, to You 1 submit, and in You 1 believe, 
and upon You I trust and rely, and to You 1 repent. By Your 
help I have disputed (with enemies of Truth), and to You 1 have 
come for decision. So, forgive me my sins committed formerly 
and committed later on, and committed secretly and committed 
openly, and what You know than I. You are the One Who 
brings forward and You are the One who defers. There is no 
God besides You and there is no God other than You." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: This too is of the supplications of the Prophet &k 
which give us an insight into his degree of intimate knowledge of 
Allah and of his inner feelings. 

ja fl5 \i\ fa Jue & dill ULflp j*( \ \ t M \ . o) 

(1 148/105) It is narrated by Sayyidah Ayshah i^* *5u that 
when the Prophet iH got up at night he began his prayer by 
saying right at the beginning: 

"O Allah, Lord of Jibreel, Mika'eel, and Israfeel, the Creator of 
the heavens and the earth, Who knows the unseen and the seen. 
You are the One who decides among Your slaves concerning 
what they differ. Guide me to the path that is right and to Truth 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 



135 



concerning which the people have come to differ. Surely, You 
guide whom You will to the Straight Path." (Muslim) 

Supplications While 
Bowing & Prostrating 

,6lsv-«»" Jj*j j<i* ff 'j uii (ilij 

(1 149/106) Sayyidina Awf ibn Maalik ^ said that he stood up 
to offer prayer alongwith the Prophet all once. And when he 
went to the bowing posture he took as long there as would take 
one to recite surah al-Baqarah and he recited while bowing: 

Glory be to the Possessor of oV^Jl & 

greatness, the Kindgom, ' * 

grandeur and majesty. (Nasa'i) 3.»J a *llj tXtJS$\) O j£Ulj 

Commentary: We have stated already in the third volume of this 
book, Ma'arif Al-hadith that the normal practice of the Messenger 
of Allah was to recite ,»Jm1» .jl**- 1 (Glory be to my Lord, the 
Mighty) while bowing, and 'Js-^s^^^^ (Glory be to my Lord, the 
High) while prostraiting. In fact, this is what he taught his 
companions c$fe>. However, sometimes he glorified and sanctified 
Allah with some other expressions too and other supplications in 
ruku and sajdah. We have reproduced a number of ahadith on this 
subject in that volume in the relative chapter. We have also stated 
there that the Prophet isSi sometimes prolonged his ruku and sajdah 
of the supererogatory prayers particularly during the night. The 
prayer in which Awf ibn Maalik joined the Prophet a§b and in 
which he observed a ruku long enough to be able to recite surah 
al-Baqarah was also a voluntary feelings which the Prophet iH 
might have experienced during this ruku of which the hadith 
speaks. 



1 36 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

(1 150/107) Sayyidah Ayshah A) has said that one night 
she did not find the Messenger of Allah iH on his bed. When 
she sought him, her hand came on the soles of his feet while he 
was in the posture of prostration with the feet erect (as one has 
them while prostrating). He was saying: 

O Allah, I seek refuge in Your good pleasure from Your anger, 
and in Your forgiveness from Your punishment. And, I seek 
refuge in You from Your wrath. 1 cannot reckon Your praise. 
You are as You have lauded Yourself. (Muslim) 

(1151/108) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet 
£H used to say in the posture of prostration, sometimes: 

O Allah, forgive me my sins, all of them the small of them and 
the great, the first of them and the last, the publicised ones and 
the secret. (Muslim) 

Commentary: The foregoing hadilh narrated by Sayyidina Abu 
Hurayrah and Sayyidah Ayshah \^k\ tS » i have both been 
reproduced earlier in volume 3 also. 

Some Supplications of The 
Last Qa f dah (Sitting Posture) 



Book of Azkar and Da 'wat 1 3 7 

(1 152/109) Sayyidah Ayshah if*^^*, said that the Prophet & 
would make supplication during As-Salah (prayer) too. He 
would say: 

Jl4-Ul £^Jl fei ^ oil* if ^1 

<S*3 fJLj' & ^ ouJij UsUJi al^ ^ JC4>»3 

0 Allah, 1 seek refuge in You from the punishment in the grave. 

1 seek refuge in You from the trial of Dajjal. I seek refuge in 
You from the trial of life and the trial of death. O Allah, I seek 
refuge in You from sin and debt." (Bukhari & Muslim) 

Commentary: In Saheeh Muslim this hadith is followed by a 
hadith of Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah <4&> in which the Messenger of 
Allah ill is quoted as saying: 

"When one of you finishes the last tashahhud he should seek 
refuge in Allah from the punishment of the Fire, the punishment 
in the grave, the mischief of dajjal, and all the trials of life and 
death." 

This hadith of Abu Hurayrah determines that the 
supplication is made in the last sitting posture {qa'dah) before 
salutation; We have seen this hadith in Volume 3 of Ma'arif 
A I- Hadith. 

(1 153/1 10) Sayyidina Shaddad ibn Aws related that the 
Prophet used to say in his prayer, 

t_£Ju!iil j tiiUc uLJj ul L > lis u-£Jl^3 *— ^i*^* <j~**~ ) * 



138 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



O Allah! I ask You for steadfastness in carying out what I am 
commanded and resolution in following right guidance. I ask 
You to make me grateful for Your favours and to enable me to 
worship You acceptable. 1 ask You for sound heart and a 
truthful tongue. I ask You for some of the good of what You 
know, 1 seek refuge in You from the evil of what You know, 
and I ask Your forgiveness for what You know. (Nasa'i) 

i jLe t'Jiu # Jl> jii aCp J> ^ ^ ( ^ \o n \ w ) 

uiii jUJ u>> J£k-rj «/ Jdbij J^3 ^ j 
aJLS JsJLtj 03J1J& ^1 ^ JCSU.I3 sy J^ij 

<*U H 13 ?>i > a JsM Jfc o^J' j -^3 j! 

(1 1 54/1 1 1 ) Sayyidina Qays ibn Abbad a taba'ee ^teitu*-;, 
stated that once the renowned companion of the Prophet 
Ammar ibn Yasir as Imam, led the men and offered a light 
and brief prayer. People began to talk about it. He asked, "What 
is wrong?" Did I not make a proper ruku and sajdah (and other 
postures)? They said that they had no such complain but he had 
offered a very brief prayer. So Ammar said, "I had observed 
a proper bowing, prostration and other postures and even made 
the (fairly lengthy) duo which the Messenger of Allah some 
times made (in prayer)." (He then disclosed the supplication:) 

^ J 3& $\ & ^ Jyj 

iiaii 3 viafo 3 u>> J iur Jtfc.13 ssi^Jij 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



139 



O Allah! You are the Knower of secrets and You are 
Omnipotent (having power over Your creatures). With Your 
knowledge of the secret, and Your absolute power let me live In 
this world as long as You know my living is good for me, and 
raise me up from this world when it is better for me to be raised 
up. O Allah I ask You fear of You in secret and in public, And, I 
ask you for ability to speak sincerely in times of pleasure and 
anger (that I may not suppress truth and justice fearing anyone's 
anger or desiring his pleasure). And, I ask You moderation in 
hardship and piety. And, I ask You for the ability to be pleasued 
with fate, and I ask for success and comfort in the Hereafter, 
and for coolness of my eyes that never ends. And I ask You a 
cool, fomfortable life after death and I ask You for the savor of 
the sight of Your countenance and the longing to meet You 
without my encountering a harmful condition and without being 
involved in a misleading trial 1 . O Allah! Adorn us with the 
beauty of faith and cause us to be guided ourselves and guides 
for other people. (Nasa'i) 

Commentary: It is not stated explicitly in this hadith as well as 
the one preceding it at what posture in prayer did the Prophet ft 
make this supplication. We can gather from other ahadith on the 
subject that he made the supplication in the final sitting posture 
before salutation and that is the normal position in prayer where 
supplication is made. The Prophet 0 taught Sayyidina Abu Bakr 
4& a supplication to be made in prayer at this posture when he 
requested him to teach him a supplication. It has been mentioned in 
volume 3 of this book and it begins: 

(O Allah, 1 have wronged myself immensely ) 
In explaining it, we have presented our arguments to show that 
O. Implying that the longing to meet Allah should not raise a condition that may 
be harmful or lead one astray. But Allah knows best. 



140 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



this is the proper place for making supplications after the 
tashahhud but before the salutation. 

£y d*%\ J-p $1 & J* #k<& 0*0^ \ ^) 

u£ cas yitj 3)15 a J* J?" 4^ 
£L.iS hb-tj ^> 4^ cit JSji 3k 4-*3 

OJby-j,) .3^^3 
(1 155/1 12) Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud has narrated this 
hadith. He said that the Prophet S used to teach them the 
supplication (to be made) after tashahhuci 
O Allah! Join our hearts on goodness and mend our social 
relationship and guide us on the path of peace. Bring us out of 
darkness into light and save us from outward, and inward 
obscenities and keep us away from them. And bless us in our 
ears, our eyes, our hearts, our spouses, and our offspring, and 
relent toward us. Indeed, You are Relenting, Merciful. And 
cause us to be grateful for Your blessings, their receivers with 
due praise and perfect and complete them on us (give us a full 
share of the blessings). (Abu Dawood) 

Supplications After As-Salah (Prayer) 

i> cS\ JsS w jr 463 33 sA> ^ & 
liu; 5* W w # # 463 33 
5>i j# *Ji S^fi^F 4>33 33 ^ ^33 3a> 
«^3fa^3^^ Js*ii*y*i3 33 

& ^ ^ 'iii 4^3 ^.j c i yytj j*y»$ $ ?>^3 oil' 

J .* * 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wal 



141 



(' 156/1 13) It is narrated by Zayd ibn Arqam that the 
Prophet m made this supplication after prayers: 

i> cJi Jtf ^ ih ^ jr 4,33 ^ 

Jd^is ^ s j^f u» # y 4,33 133 jyjfc 

jr 4,33 123 3>i # iu, a jl^ ui^ Jr 4,33 £3 $s 

013UJ133; ^ #1 J ^ 4^3 ^ J&fc 
^> jiofi ^ ^ 3^ ^3^3 

O Allah, our Lord and Lord of everything, I bear witness that 
You Alone are the Lord. No partner have You. O Allah, our 
Lord and Lord of everything, I bear witness that Muhammad & 
is Your slave and Your Messenger &. O Allah, our Lord and 
Lord of everything I bear witness that all (Your) slaves are 
brothers (of one another). O Allah, our Lord and Lord of 
everything cause me to be sincere to You, and (cause) my 
family too (accordingly) at every moment, always, in this world 
and in the Hereafter. O Possessor of glory and honour, listen to 
me (my request) and answer (my supplication). Allah is 
incomparably Great. Allah is Light of the heavens and earth (all 
the universe is bright and maintained with His Light). Allah is 
incomparably Great. Allah is sufficient for me, and an excellent 
guardian is He. Allah is incomparably Great." (Abu Dawood) 
Commentary: Supplications are of two kinds: 

(i) In which the supplicant seeks something for this life or the 
next from Allah, or asks for His protection from evil and 
trial. 

(ii) In which the supplicant remembers the greatness of Allah 
and His glory, and recalls His innumerable favours and 
affirms his submission, worship, sincere obedience and 
gratefulness, seeking His mercy, favour and closeness to 
Him. 

The supplication after prayer found in the foregoing hadith 
narrated by Zayd ibn Arqam 4* is of the second kind. The same 
element is predominant in the supplications mentioned before this 
hadith, earlier in this chapter. 



142 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



li) it Jti *Ip ft ^3 *ji ji* j5 rf 1 ^(nov/nO 

^> ji; 63& 6' fitf pi J** j> 

1 ' ' ' , , t * » ' 

(( JU.»ijj) .v3^i^fjiA^i£4'3 Jj**»*-^ 

(1 157/1 14) It is reported by Al-Bara jbn Aazib ^> he said, 
"When we prayed behind the Prophet H we liked to be on his 
right side (so that when he had finished prayers), he would turn 
his face towards us. And 1 heard him supplicate Allah: 
My Lord, guard me from Your 

punishment on the day You fji 4*3 

raise Your servants to life ^iCp 
again. (Muslim) 
Commentary: We learn from this hadith of Sayyidina Al-Bara 4& 
that the Prophet % sat facing the right side after prayers. A hadith 
transmitted by Bukhari, too, and narrated by Sayyidina Samurah 
ibn Jundub 4b tells us that, after salutation of prayer (known as 
tasleem) he sat facing the worshipper behind him. However, there 
is no contradition in the two sayings. It seems that, after prayer, he 
faced the worshipper in such a way that he somewhat turned to the 
right side. On this basis, therefore, both the sayings are correct 
Allah knows best. 

^0J^:6^^3^ , ^^^3^^^(^^^/^^ o ) 
JM ^ 3 y^3 ^ ^t*j* Ji ^ § J+ <T 

(1 158/1 15) It is reported by Sayyidina Abu Bakrah 4& that the 
Prophet % used to make this supplication after every prayer: 

0\ oiIp 3 >&3 )£& ja Jilti 

O Allah, I seek refuger in You from disbelief, from poverty and 
want, and from punishment in the grave." (Tirmizi) 

u j 033^ u j ^'u-3 dill u ^ jtffi Jis ajUJi ^ ^ 
^^^cJ»3^'^^^(^^^^P^3^ 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 1 43 

(11 59/1 16) Sayyidina Ali Ibn Abu Talib has said that after 
offering the closing salutation in prayer the Prophet iH made 
this supplication: 

Uj dip Uj dkl lij djpl U j 6>1 Uj cJtf U ^JJt 

0 Allah! Forgive me all sins which I have committed earlier and 
which I committed later, which I committed secretly and which 

1 committed openly, and the excesses that I have committed, and 
which You know better than I. You are the One to Advance and 
You are the One to Defer. There is no God but You. 

(Abu Dawood) 

J, Jj* ^ 4»1 JU» jl ULi ^ je ( \ n .A > y) 

(Oijj 9, jj)0» ijJJ j Uip ^iCkJji j^iJl ^ji 

(1 160/1 17) Sayyidah Umm Salamah i^it^*) has said that the 
Prophet m (sometimes) made this supplication after the Fajr 
prayers: 

(O Allah! I ask You to give me knowledge that is beneficial, and 
deeds that are approved and lawful sustenance. (Razeen) 

£j\ja^> j^'j^^i^-' (^ , " Jii Vj**^ 3jJL>^ cij-ii Jtfs 
33 C-sS- wjS^b' ^ ^ ^ii til Jdil iJL^i ^ 

(1 161/1 18) It is reported by Sayyidina Muslim ibn Al-Harith 
that the Prophet m told him secretly that when he finished the 
Maghrib prayers then without speaking to anyone else he should 
say seven times: jUi^^i^i "O Allah protect me from Hell." 
Then if he died that night, he would be protected from Hell. 
In the same way, when he finished the Fajr prayers, he should 
say seven times without speaking to anyone: ^\ & Jjj>i ffi "O 



1 44 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

Allah protect me from Hell." Then if he died that day, Allah will 
order that he should be saved from Hell. (Abu Dawood) 

(1 162/1 19) Sayyidina Mu'az ibn Jabal has narrated that the 
Messenger of Allah held him by his hand one day and said 
to him, "Mu'az, by Allah, I love you and I advise you to make 
this supplication after every prayer: ^J^>j J* ^ pfo 

>-&}\J> j^J-' } "O Allah! Help me to remember You, to be grateful 
to You and to worship You in the best manner." 

(Abu Dawood & Nasa'i) 

Commentary: This is a very bried supplication, but it is a very 
great and important one. To realise its greatness and importance, it 
is enough that the Messenger of Allah iH advised and urged Mu'az 
ibn Jabal ^ by virtue of his love for him, to make it after every 
prayer. In the same way, he had exorted Muslim ibn Al-Harith 
to pray to Allah in these very brief words, jlJi ^ ^jr\ (O Allah, 
protect me from the Fire), as we have seen in the hadith preceding 
the above. 

If we fail to make these supplications after the strong emphasis 
laid on them by the Holy Prophet then we are a very ungrateful 
and unfortunate people, indeed. May Allah enable us to abide by 
his advice. Aameenl 

The Prophet's Comprehensive 
Supplication After Tahajjud 

& J&ii £\ $\ ^ *0 'SK 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 

ri ^'3 r>: ^» ^s* j ojjJji j^jui 

^3 ajdi ^ ^ 5yUJi £ *jLUi 

j}* > s# 3feu ufa*i js35 JsSj ifr 

» 3 auA # ^3 s <3 3 ^ i* y&&# 

a 03* j ^ <2 '33> 3 i*- (i* '3jJ 3 ^ 3 igjS 

•f »3*V'3 J*feJ* if* 6^ tfJUi jl^ 4< Jl5 j 

(1163/120) It is narrated by Sayyidina Ibn Abbas $k> that he 
heard the Messenger of Allah m say one night after he had 
finished offering his tahajjud prayers: 

^'^^3^^^^ei?^3 Jdlii^^i 
3 ^ ^3 <j^\#/&j^ i|i £UJ j ijj ^3 
i^;3uQ^^i^jr^^^3^^^ 

3 cs» ^ ^* jui 3 a* j4 

>iJ»3 .tailji ^3 jij^j, jjjj ,uif, j ;3di J^i ^, 



1 46 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

JuyU jiiS Jtftf Sjij ^3 j£> ; jjtt, 

^-^byj^^byj^c^J* by Jtf?» 

by J cs?*- is? by J lsP^ crfi by J <£y & by j csi 1 *-* a* byj 

<5? by J **** tf5 by J L5? bi 1 J Lf J** 15* b^ J ^r** ^ 

'tf i 'tf i**' 3 i ^ ^ ^ a $>' 3 y 

O Allah! 1 ask You for mercy from You whereby You guide 
my heart. And whereby You arrange my affairs. And correct my 
wrongs, open and secret, through that. And rectify and exalt 
what relates to me but is far away from me. And what is with 
me, let Your mercy raise and give them esteem. My deeds, 
purify them through Your mercy. Put in my heart what is right 
for me and let me have by virtue of Your mercy what I cherish 
and love and protect me from every evil. 

O Allah! Grant me faith and belief allowing for nothing of 
disbelief thereafter (nothing which is in disagreement with 
belief). Bestow on me mercy by virtue of which 1 again honour 
and nobility in this life and the next. 

O Allah! I beseech You for success in what is determined 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



and the honour and respect that Your martyrs have received, and 
a life on the pattern of Your pious slaves, and Your help against 
the enemies. 

O Allah! I have come to You with my needs and although 
my intellect and opinion are deficient and my deeds and efforts 
very weak and wanting, O Merciful and Benovelent One! I am 
in need of Your mercy! So, O The One Who decides all affairs 
and O, The One Who removes stains of the hearts and gives 
cure! Just as You keep the two oceans apart from each other 
(although they run side by side, not mixing the salty with the 
sweat), so keep me away from the Fire of Hell and its 
punishment and from seeking death and protect me from the 
punishment in the grave. 

O Allah! 1 beseech You by virtue of Your mercy to let me 
have the good and the blessings (both of) which You have 
promised any of Your slaves or which You will give any 
without having promised them although my intellect and 
opinion have not imagined them and have failed to ask You 
them and I may not have ever thought of getting such a thing 
and I may not have asked You for that I am desirous of that 
through Your benevolence. So, grant me that good and blessing 
through Your mercy and favour, O Lord of the worlds! 

O Allah! O The One Whose link is firm and strong, whose 
every Command is correct! I beseech You to let me have on the 
appointed day (the Day of Resurrection) peace and security. 
And, grant me paradise on the day of Al-Khulood (Hereafter) 
with those of Your slaves who are close to You and attendants 
of Your houses and observes of ruku (bowing) and sajdah 
(prostration) — that is, prayer and worship is their devotional, 
life-long exercise, who are known for their faithfulness to their 
convenant. Surely, You are Merciful, the Most Loving, and, 
indeed, You do what You intend to do! 

O Allah! Cause us to guide other people, and be guided 
ourselves. Let us not be misguided ourselves nor ones who lead 
other people astray. Let us be at peace with Your friends, and at 
war with Your enemies. Let us love those who love. You 
because of affinity with You and despise those who oppose and 
go against You because of their opposition to You. 



148 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



O Allah! This is the supplication and it is upon You to grant 
it. This is an humble effort but reliance is places not on it but on 
You alone. 

O Allah! Make for me Light in my heart and Light in my 
grave and make it shining bright. And make for me Light before 
me and Light behind me, Light to my right and Light to my left, 
Light above me and Light below me, Light in my hearing and 
Light in my sight, Light in my hair and Light in my flesh, Light 
in my blood and Light in my bones. O Allah! Magnify for me 
Light and bestow upon me Light and make for me Light. 

Without blenish is He who has covered Himself with 
honour and has said it. Without blemish is He whose garment is 
glory and grace. Without blemish, and glorified, Owner of 
Majesty and Benevolence! (Tirmizi) 
Commentary: Indeed, this is a very grand and comprehensive 
supplication. From the words of this one supplication (as from the 
words of others before it) we can gain an insight into the Prophet's 
SH awareness and deep knowledge of the works and Attributes of 
Allah. We can see how high he had gone in the field of servitude 
which is the most marvelous position of a worshipper. He was the 
chief of the worlds and the beloved of the Lord of the worlds, yet 
he considered himself dependent on the mercy and benevolence of 
Allah, flow humbly and devotedly like an aspirant, he begged for 
his needs! We can imagine also the condition of his heart at the 
time of making his requests. How deep a consciousness Allah had 
granted him of the needs of mankind! 

Keeping in view the attributes of Allah of Love, Mercy and 
Benevolence, we can imagine how much each expression of the 
supplications of the Messenger of Allah S would be attracting the 
Mercy of Allah, and how deeply He would be loving the 
supplicant. 

We have stated earlier that the supplications of the Prophet m 
are the best legacy for the Ummah. 

May Allah make us realise the value of this legacy and get a full 
share of it! Aameen\ 



SUPPLICATIONS AT DIFFERENT 
HOURS AND SITUATIONS 

The supplications of the Prophet S, so far, were related to 
as-salah (prayer) or immediately after it. While the spirit and 
reality of prayer itself is that of supplication and presentation of 
petition in the most perfect way and calls for an expression of 
himility and submission, the supplications that we have gone 
through are signs of perfect knowledge and awareness and perfect 
servitude. In spite of that these supplications are not surprising. 

However, the supplications that he has commended to be made 
at different Occasions are indeed a miracle of his teachings. These 
supplications are made at different times, like eating, drinking, 
sleeping and awakening and for other human needs. These 
supplications cause the deeds and actions to be blessed and they 
become spiritually bright and a means of securing nearness to 
Allah. 

SUPPLICATIONS IN THE 
MORNING AND IN THE EVENING 

It is with every man that he is a part of the rotation of day and 
night. Night gives way to morning and as the day wears out, 
everning sets in. Every morning and every evening, he passes 
through a stage of life whereafter a new stage begins. The 
Messenger of Allah H gave guidance to his Ummah through his 
sayings and practicals living that they should refresh and 
strengthen their links with Allah eyery morning and evening, show 
gratitude for His blessings, confess their omissions and ask 
forHisforgiveness and make supplications to Him at appropriate 



1 50 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part 

times as mendicants before their gracious Lord. 

(1 164/121) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah ^ said that Sayyidina 
Abu Bakr 4& submitted to the Messenger of Allah "Teach 
me the expressions of supplications that I might make in the 
morning and evening." He said: "Say to Allah: 

O Allah! Creator of the heavens and the earth. Lord and 
Possessor of every thing, I testify that there is no God but You. I 
seek refuge in You from the evil within myself, from the evil of 
the devil, and his (incitement to) attributing partners (to You)". 

The Messenger of Allah H said, "O Abu Bakr! Make this 
supplication to Allah in the morning and evening and when you 
go to bed." ( Abu Dawood, Tirmizi) 

liiii u^i Jjiir jfcfi ^JU-i iii jji; 
$\ jfctt ^ iii 3 ^Ji jq'i 3 uXj ^Xj 

Ja'13 6^ Js^j uAi Js^3 js;3 ^ 

(I I65/J22) It is reported by Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah that 
the Messenger of Allah S taught his Companions <& when 
they get up in the morning they should say: 

JO'13 Js^ ^ Js;3 ui^iV 3^3 ^ 

ui/till 

"O Allah, by You we come to the morning, by You we come to 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 



151 



the evening, by You we live, by You we die, and to You do we 
come." 

He taught them that when it is evening they should say: 

jjiii ±£ 3h j Js^j Jfc $\ 

"O Allah, by You we come to the evening, by You we come to 
the morning, by You we live, by You we die, and to You we are 
resurrectetd." (Tirmizi, Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Brightness of the day after darkness of the night is, 
indeed, a great blessing of Allah. Men normally attend to their 
businesses during day time and if day did not follow night that 
would be a calamity. In the same way, it is a great blessing of Allah 
that the day gives way to evening which ushers in th night. In the 
evening, people begin to cease work and look forward to rest in the 
night. We can well imagine what would become of men if there 
was no evening time one day. In this hadith we have the message 
of the Prophet & that we must realise every morning and evening 
that these are blessings of Allah. This should also remind us that 
just as the age of the day ends by the Command of Allah and night 
begins, and the age of night ends to begin the day, so too our lives 
grow with His Command and will end at the apointed time. Then, 
we will be presented before Allah. 

In short, we must remember the blessings of Allah every 
morning and evening and remember that death wil come to us and 
there is a Hereafter. We must not forget it in the morning or in the 
evening. 

i tej %\ is Ai\ r 3 Jjiuhj aj Js&j, ^ ^ ^ ^ 
$ $\ jiJ £i Jr J*}*; jluJi ifj Jsfcjj si si Jc> 

v tipj diji &j ^ , — 0i ^ ^ ^ ^ 

".gft *u Js&ji ^Jrtj u*tf JO* jii ,irj« ^afi 

(1 166/123) It is repoted by Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Mas'ud 4* 



1 52 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

that when evening came the Messenger of Allah $H would say 
to Allah: 

^ & ^ ^3*3 jl^ji 4J3 Js&ii 

^1 ^ .t# UJA j u> ^ J^3 l# U>j #11 0^ 

^ ^3 dlii l^sj ^ ^3 ^'13 j^ift # 

"We and all creation have come to the evening and in the 
evening the dominion belongs to Allah; praise belongs to Allah; 
there is no God but Allah Alone Who has no partner; to Him 
belongs the dominion, to Him praise is due, and He is 
Omnipotent. O Allah! I ask You for something of the good of 
this night and the good of what it contains and seek refuge in 
You from its evil and the evil of what it contains. O Allah! I 
seek refuge in You from indolence, decrepitude, the evil of old 
age, temptation in this world, and punishment in the grave." 

When morning came, the Messenger of Allah ill would say the 
same words with the change of just one word: 

"We and all creation come to the morning and in the morning 
the dominion belongs to Allah " (Muslim) 

Commentary: There is a confirmation in this hadith of the 
belonging to Allah of oneself and all creation at the same time as 
He is praised and His unity is declared. There is a request for the 
good in the night, or day, and their blessings and protection is 
sought from weakness that could deprive one from blessings. There 
is also the seeking of protection from trials of the world and 
punishment in the grave. What a comprehensive supplication and 
an expression of one's dependence and servitude to Allah! 

p\ JOki £\ $1" ^4 &j ^ ^ ou3i 5 *> >Ju: 
Se tfft >j3 iAj ^3 >£,i jisi &\ 3 j 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



153 



^s*&* i>ij j'jfi #j ^jua ^3 ^ ^3 ^ ^3 ^ 

(1 167/124) Sayyidina Ibn Umar said that the Messenger of 
Allah 0 never failed to make supplication in these words in the 
evening and morning: 

# j > J ^ ^ ftM j 

"O Allah! I ask You for forgiveness and security in this world 
and the next. O Allah! I ask You for forgiveness and security in 
my religion and my worldly affairs, in my family and my 
property. O Allah! conceal my faults and whatever shames me, 
and remove the fear of my heart (and give peace) and keep me 
safe from what I fear. O Allah! Gurad me from in front of me 
and behind me, on my right and on my left, and from above me. 
And I seek refuge in Your greatness from receiving unexpected 
harm from below me (keep me safe from it always). 

Commentary: Of the supplications made by the Messenger of 
Allah A, this one too is very comprehensive. These few words do 
not omit any aspect of a man's life. May Allah enable us to 
recognise the significance of these supplications and practice 
accordingly. 

& ^Lj 4*%\ JL>> jil jii -tfji ^ ( n n a/ u °) 
il> pkyiy ft in, c4*3" feu ^ 1313 ^Lii i&i jji; ^ 

(i£ju> jiJlj JUi>-l flljj) 

(1 168/125) Sayyidina Thauban 4& has said that the Messenger 
of Allah W° said that there is not a Muslim slave who says three 
times morning and evening: 

"I am pleased with Allah as Lord, with Islam as religion and 



1 54 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

with Muhammad as Prophet life, but that Allah has taken it upon 
Himelf to please him on the Day of Resurrection (Ahmad, Tirmizi) 

Commentary: These are very brief words which refresh one's 
religious links with Allah, His Messenger £§fe and the religion itself 
and are reported three times.. To any one who recites them, Allah 
has promised to please him on the Day of Resurrection. How very 
unfortunate for us to neglect this practice after learning of the good 
news. 

est j* is 1 - ir fiS u jk & & t^j 

iuii 33 .3s 3s 3^ 3Li 3j& 

. Adb J0l> JLii ^J>j 3S\i jL Jl5 J^j <u_^ 'Jik isi\ Jui 

(1 169/126) Sayyidma Abdullah ibn Ghannam Bayadi 4& has 
quoted the Messenger of Allah as saying that if anyone says 
the following words in the morning: 

3S jji'i! 3sJ~) 31+& 3jh* ^* <^Wj' 

/ijt ^'j iUJ» . 

"O Allah! What ever favour has come to me or to anyone else of 
Your creatures in the morning, it comes from You alone. You 
have no partner and all praise belongs to You and gratitude is 
due to You." 

Then he will have expressed full thanks for the day. Me also 
said that if anyone says the same thing in the evening then he 
will have expressed full thanks for the night. (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: The truth is that man cannot give thanks for the 
blessings of Allah as they deserve. This by itself is a blessing of the 
Benevolent Lrod that He accpets the brief, humble thanks as 
sufficent. It is said that Sayyidina Dawood Ml subitted to Allah, 
the Exalted, "My Lord! Your favours are innumerable, how may I 
express grtitude for them.? He got his answer, "Your simple 
realisation that the blessings are from Me alone is enough 
gratitude. ^Sij ju*«Ji w& (All praise belongs to You and all 
thanks are due to You.) 



Book ofAzkar ami Da'wai 

155 

> i Js; i>i j s m 3 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ , ^ ^ ^ 

(M70/I27) Sayyidina Abu Malik Al-Ash'ari + said that 'the 
Messenger of Allah & said that when it is morlng one should 

say: 

& &&^k*£ tft j^iui, 9j & jjj, ^ 

We have reached the morning and so has (he creation (of Allah) 
To Allah Lord of the worlds, do we all belong (and we are in 
. Ha "f s) ° Aliah! 1 1*8 of You the good of this day the 
vic ory therof. the help thereof, the light thereof, the blessing 
he, of .and the guidance thereof. And I seek refuge in You from 
the evtl that is in it and the evil that is after it " 

hL ' en,ers ,,pon evenins - he musi ™* ° 

(Abu Dawood) 

Sjfii £j jou ^ iifju « 0 ,_ w:r . fJJ)o6 -^ 

inl 1 ^ Sa>yidhia !b " AbbaS * re P° r " te d'the Messeng^ 

surah A, R ^ ^ the f ° li0Win 8 Vers « of 

*™*fr-*<>om in the morning then he will recieve all the 

benef,ts of that day which he may have missed. And in the 
same way he who recites them in the evening will get ail the 
mBht WhiCh ^ miSSed ' The --s of 



156 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



c4Ji ifHi c4^i » >h i/i o&jf ck*> fe*j.^i*J 

So glorified be Allah when you enter the evening and when you 
enter the morning. And His is all praise in the heavens and the 
earth and (glorify Him) in the afternoon, and when you enter the 
time of declining of the sun. He brings forth the living from the 
dead, and brings forth the dead from the living, and He revives 
the earth after her death, and thus shall you be brought forth. 1 

(Abu Dawood) 



£ Jii* ciJi > # 3* i^j ?>- ^ a J J* ^ * 

(ajb #\ 3 c$Ju jsli »i j ;) •ts*-" ^r^i 

(1 172/129) Sayyidina Uthman ibn Affan has said that the 
Messenger of Allah % said that if anyone repeats the following 
words three times in the morning of every day and the same 
number of times in the evening of every night then he will not 
be harmed by anything and will not suffer by anything and will 
not suffer any accident. The words are: 

ft 



In the Name of Allah by virtue of Whose "Name nothing in earth 
or heaven does hurt, and He is All-Hearing, All-Knowing." 

(Tirmizi, Abu-Dawood) 

Commentary: This hadith was narrated by Aban, son of 
Sayyidina Uthman ibn Affan <&>. He was afflicted by a stroke of 
paralysis. One day, he related this hadith and a man gazed at him 
with questioning eyes. Aban understood that the man wondered 
how when he had heard this hadith from his father, Uthman ibn 
Affan 4& he came to be smitten with paralysis, while the hadith 
guarantees that no harm would befall one who makes this 
supplication morning and evening. Aban sai d to the man, "Why do 

O. Ar-Room, 30:17-19. 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 



157 



you stare at me? Neither do I give a flase statement nor has 
Sayyidina Uthman given me a wrong infromation. The hadith is 
very correct and the assurance it gives it true. The fact is that one 
day I had lost my temper because of some umpleasant happening 
so I forgot to make this supplication that day at the appointed time 
and 1 was afflicted with paralysis that very day. This malady was 
determined for me aforehand so I was made to forget these words 
that day." This statement of Aban is found with the hadith in Abu 
Dawood and Tirmizi. 

It is among the practice of the pious slaves of Allah to make 
this supplication three times every morning and every evening. 
And, there is no doubt that they hold out an assurance of protection 
from natural calamities of the earth and heaven. 

JU> J>i; a JtS jti $i Au£ o \ r .) 

Oty £rk> tg~Z3 'Xr\%'j* js v}\ ^3 

(1173/130) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Khubayb said that the 
Messenger of Allah iH said to him one day, "Recite Qui 
huwwAllahu Ahad (Surah al-Ikhlas), and the Ma'uzatayn (surah 
al-Falaq and surah an-Naas)\ three times each, every morning 
and every evening. They will suffice you against every thing." 

(Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: The surah Al-lkhlas, Al-Falaq, and An-Naas are 
among the very small chapters of the Qur'an but they cover a vast 
subject. We have mentioned this fact in the chapter on the merits of 
the Qur'an. The hadith means to tell us that those people who 
cannot recite much then they must atleast recite these three 
chapters thrice every morning and every evening. Insha Allah, they 
would be enough as the hadith assures us, and every Muslim can 
recite them from memory, too. 

Supplications At The 
Time of Sleeping 

Sleep resembles death. He who sleeps is unconcerned with the 
world and what it has, and he is unware of its happemngs; he is 
O. Respectively surah 112, 113, 114. 



158 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



like a dead man in this regard. In this way, sleep is a condition 
between awakening and death. And, it is for this reason that the 
Messenger of Allah has instructed us emphatically that before 
we prepare to sleep, we must remember Allah with proper attention 
and concentration and seek forgiveness for our sins. We must also 
make appropriate supplications (recommended) for the hour. 

We give below the supplications that he made or instructed us 
to make regularly. 

jl J&jJai oJUt lil Jll 'jA & yj- y\ ( \\ v il\ r \ ) 

\#Ls&-\ o\ IaLmj 1^jUj> c_>J L$3 j3 CJIj ij-rr-Aj CJLL*- CJt ^fUl 
<UlP 4Jll ^^L* ^Jl J* 'j^S- JA Jj* JA * SJU ' <> Jll ^ iJLft cJuJi 

( 1 1 74/1 3 1 ) It is said about Sayyidina Ibn Umar 4& that he 
advised someone to make the following supplication when he 
lies down on his bed to sleep: 

"O Allah! You are the one to have created me and You are the 
One Who will give me death when You choose. My death and 
my life are in Your Power. If You keep me alive then protect me 
(from every trial and sin, and from every evil and calamity). If 
You cause me to die then forgive me and give me security in 
this life and the next." 

When he taught these words to that man, someone asked him, 
"You must have heard this supplication from your respected 
father, Sayyidina Umar He siad, "No! I have heard them 
from him who is better than Sayyidina Umar I have learnt 
this supplication direct from the Messenger of Allah ^.(Muslim) 

Commentary: This brief supplication is full of sentiments of 
servitude to Allah. The mercy of Allah is best attraced by humility, 
humbleness and an expression of helplessness towards Him. 
Particularly, if a slave is prompted to make such a supplication 
when he is about to sleep then it is a sign of Allah's favours on him. 



Book of Azkar and Da'wal 



159 



V |£iu 13 i) uuT) uuuj iluti £a!t Jj luir jif Jf\ 

(I 175/132) It is related by Sayyidina Anas that the 
Messenger of Allah W* used to say when he went to his bed: 

"Praise be to Allah Who has fed us, given us drink, satisfied us 
and given us refuge. Many there are who have no one to provide 
sufficiently for them, or give them refuge." (Muslim) 

Commentary: Whatever we eat and drink and whatsoever we get 
are all bestowed on us by our Merciful Lord. The credit does not 
go to our skill and ability. Hence. Allah alone is worthy of 
gratitude. He who makes this supplication at the time of sleeping 
does in fact thank Allah for the food and drink and other bounties 
He gives him. 

.'/jljs $3 ljUi u oa; ui^-i £46 Jj JUiji jil fey ^ lit j Jjij 

(1 176/133) Sayyidina Huzayfah has siad that when the 
Prophet ^1 lay down on his bed at night, he placed his hand 
under his check (he placed his right hand under his cheek and 
lay down on his right side in the direction of the qiblah as we 
are told in other hadith) Then he made his submission before 
Allah: 

"O Allah! In Your name I die and Iive."^-f3 
When he got up from his sleep, he used to say: 

"Praise be to Allah who has given us life after causing us to die 
and to Whom we shall be resurrected." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: Sleep resembles death in many ways. That is why 
this hadith refers to sleep as death and awakening to life. In this 



160 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



way, the daily routine of sleep and awakening is presented as a 
reminder of resurrection after death for which we must make 
proper preparations. Of the many supplications at the times of 
sleeping and awakening, this is a very brief supplication and it 
should be easy to memorise it. May Allah enable His slaves to take 
it up. Aameenl 

& %\ k fe'j £ jii jis ^jip ^ ivj\ j> ( u v v/ \ r 0 

Jtfj J^i ci.yj J5} c^i jyte- jlj &z 
H\ Uli i*W Jstfi iijj Lij Js3\ <j $ oUi<3 
cJ $ "ci-^ iili cJjit Jiiti v-^i^ dlii J£Ji 
£ii Ja^o ^ u# CM« 

(1177/134) Sayyidina Al-Bara ibn Aazib said that the 
Messenger of Allah 0 said to him that when he prepared to go 
to his bed to sleep he must first perform ablution and then lie 
down on his right side and submit to Allah: 

<jj> oUii ) £ j* iSjij JCJi ^3 ditt jtffi 

*iif JCft ^ & v j isJsY JC3» %j 
u>i Site j 5>uii Jfi&i&itf «cJL^i iJi J&j cJ> 

"O Allah! I have handed over my soul to You and turned my face 
to You. I have entrusted my affairs to You and relied on You as 
my support fearing Your Greatness and craving for Your Mercy. 
There is no refuge and no place of safety from You except by 
having recourse to You. I believe in Your Book which You 
have sent down and in Your Prophet whom You have sent." 
The Messenger of Allah 0 then said to Sayyidina Al-Bara ibn 
Aazib 4& that he should let these words be his last before he 
slept and he must not speak to anyone after that. If he died that 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 



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night by the Command of Allah then his death would be blessed 
on a natural religion. 

Al-Bara ibn Aazib 4& said that he began to memorise this 
supplication before the Prophet S and the last sentence he 
renderredol-yJi rf iJi ^Si^ instead of cJUji ^jji (in Your 
Messenger 0 whom You have sent, instead of Your Prophet 
whom You have sent). This was minor difference of word that 
did not change the meaning but the Prophet S corrected him, 
saying, "No! Say. In Your Prophet Whom You have sent. 

(Bukhaii and Muslim) 
Commentary: This supplication is based on reliance on Allah and 
submission to Him. The supplicant places his affaris in the Hands 
of Allah. He renews belief in Allah. The words are so compact and 
appropriate that the best of litterateurs cannot compose the like of 
this passage. Indeed, it is one of the marvellous supplications of the 
Messenger of Allah %. 

lit U>: ^III Ji| sM \ r o) 

& ^ tf* 4-3 3 j>yS\ v33 j>$\ ^33 *»3^Ji 

>Vi cJij # 3£s jjli J}* cJi ^te feu, I^i'cJi 

(1178/135) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4s& has narrated that the 
Messenger of Allah S used to instruct them that when they 
intended to sleep they should lie down on the right side and 
supplicate Allah in the^e words: 

& ¥ 4*3 3 33 p*A ^jfifi 4>33 ^i* 4»33 9'3^' 4*3 ^ 
Jr^ ^ 'jja, j ^j v Vj 5133S1 j p j 4^J, jit* 
>* cJ»3 # j4i cJi p4AJi feu, JUi'cJi 

"O Allah! Lord of the heavens and Lord of the earth, and Lord 
of the great Throne, Our Lord and Lord of everything else, (the 



162 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Lord) Who splits the grain and kernel (and brings out the fruit) , 
Who has sent down the Torah, the Injeel and the Qur'an. I seek 
refuge in Youfrom the evil of everything (that walks or creeps 
on land) on which You have complete control (seizing it by the 
forelocks). 

O Allah! You are the First, there is nothing before You, You are 
the Last (Who will remain while all esle perish), there is nothing 
after You. (O Master of all! Absolutely capable, the First and 
the Last) relieve me from debt that is against me and remove 
poverty and want and grant me riches and happiness. (Muslim) 
Commentary: This hadith also instructs us to turn on the right 
side when sleeping as the Prophet S used to sleep. In this position 
the heart which is on the left side remains high and suspended and 
the men of Allah have learnt that this position of sleep is ideal for 
remembrance of Allah for making supplications with 
concentration. 

This supplication is most suitable for those worshippers who 
are in debt and straitened circumstances. The worshipper who is in 
such a situation must make this representation to Allah and sleep 
with confidence that He would get him out of his predicament. 

\i\ jir fa 4*% &j 8 ^ 'J- ( " v m \ n) 
rji J*k «.ri^ & & * 

(1 179/136) Sayyidah Hafsah if* ii has said that it was the 
practice of the Messenger of Allah m when he wanted to go to 
sleep that he placed his right hand under his cheek and said 
three times: 

"O Allah guard me from Your punishment on the day when You 
raise up Your slaves." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: one of the reasons he made this supplication at the 
time of sleeping was that sleep resembles death. When he lay on 
his bed to sleep, he would be remembering death and the Day of 
Resurrection, the reckoning, and reward and punishment. Anyone 
who has an intimate knowledge of Allah and if he remembers death 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



163 



and the Last Hour, he will wish to be protected from the 
punishment of that day. 

cJir o!3 jt*itfi si* jir -,13 ojip oi> dl £ "di 
(tf-Ljdi . ^ilii f bl ciir o!j gJip Si* 

(1 180/137) It is related by Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed ^ that the 
Messenger of Allah S said, "If anyone says three times when 
going to bed: 

I seek the forgiveness of Allah besides Whom there is no God, 
He is the Living , the Eternal, and 1 turn in repetance to Him. 
Allah will forgive him his sins, even if they are like the foam of 
the sea, or in number like the sands of the deserts Aalij, or as 
many as the leaves of the trees, or as numerous as the days of 
the world. (Tirmizi) 
Commentary: This hadith instructs us to seek forgiveness of 
Allah in the sepcified words at the time of sleeping and it promises 
that all sins of the supplicant would be forgiven. It will be a great 
loss to us if we fail to take advantage of this assurance, of course, 
we must be sincere in our repentance and not just repeat the words 
with our tongues. Allah cannot be deceived by oral expressions, He 
sees into our hearts. 

fLj 4* %\ J* k jis ji j> iyj -j. ( 1 1 A s i s r A) 

1 & & (3 J3 ( \ : s • J* I jfc & 

(^i-jaHjijbyoljj) ••-/j^'jSf 
(118 1/1 38) It is narrated by Farwah ibn Nawfal that the 
Messenger of Allah S said to his father, "(When you go to 
bed,) Recite Qui ya ayyoohal kafiroon {surah al-kafiroon) and 
then go to sleep for it is a declaration of freedom from 
polytheism ." (Abu Dawood, Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The version in Tirmizi tells us that Nawfal 4& had 



164 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



asked the Messenger of Allah 0 to teach him something to say 
when he prepared to sleep. The Prophet 0 taught him to recite the 

surah al-kafiroon. 

. ol^i vi-IJ w^lji Ji^ oA^ar Jr? jit j j j ^3 U# 

(1 182/139) Syyidah Ayshah i^Ai^j said that it was the 
practice of the Prophet W* when he lay down on his bed to 
sleep, he recited Qui huwAllahu Ahad, Qul-a'ouzu bi rabbit 
falaq and Qui a'aoozu bi rabibnaas ] and breathed on his hands. 
Then he wiped as much of hisbody as he could with them, 
beginning with his head, his face and the front of his body. He 
did it three times. (Abu Dawood, Tirmizi) 

Commentary: We learn from one version of this hadith that when 
the Prophet lB* was bed-ridden with his last illness, he asked 
sayyidah Ayshah if* to recite the three chapters, blow on 

her own hands wipe his body with her hands. She has said that she 
used to do so. 

Observation: It is possible that some people might find it difficult 
to memorise the other supplications of the Prophet ^ at the time 
of sleeping. Such people may, atleast, recite these three surah, 
namely, al-lkhlaas, al-Falaq and an-Naas. That should suffice 
such people and they should abide by this little recital. If anyone of 
us cannot do this much then it is unfortunate for him. 

Supplications for Sleeplessness 

JU> $s a3ji» & JU> JkA Jii je (u ayvi 1 0 
6 j ($jr JS JCai J J\ c4> & Jia j/i # j# ' f*f <&3 
Uj ^dji 4»5 3 ^3 j^J* v33 ^3 5P oi>^ji 



O. Surah Al-lkhlas, Al-Falaq, and An-Naas. 



Book qf'Azkar and Da'wat 



1 



(1183/140) Sayyidina Buraydah 4^> said that Sayyidina Khalid 
ibn Walid complained to the Prophet S that he faced 
insomnia at night. The Prophet 0 suggested to him that when 
he went to bed he should say: 

"O Allah! Lord of the seven heavens and of that over which they 
cast their shadows, and Lord of the earhts and of what they bear, 
and Lord of the devils and what they mislead, be for a Protector 
from the evil of Your entire creation lest any of them do evil or 
oppress me. Strong is Your protection and great in Your praise. 
There is no God other than You. There is no God besides You." 

(Tinnizi) 

Supplication When Getting A Nightmare 

%\ j^j jil ja ^ j, j^jh^ ( n a tm 0 

(1 184/141) it is reported by Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Amr 4k 
that the Messenger of Allah % said, "When one of you sees a 
nightmare (afrightening dream), he must make this supplication: 

<S?3 > J?3 fj^J fr** i; ill olX) i^t 

"1 seek refuge in the perfect words of Allah from His wrath and 
His punishment and from the mischief of His slaves and from 
the wishpers of the devils and what they bring and trouble me." 



166 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



The Prophet am added, "The devil will not hurt him then in the 
least." 

(this hadith was transmitted by Shu'ayb, the son of Sayyidina 
Abdullah ibn 'Amr 4& from him. And he said further) It was my 
fathers' practice that he taught this supplication to his adult, 
grown-up children so that they kept up his practice, for those 
children who were young, he wrote it down on a piece of paper 
and put it round their neck (as an amulet) (Abu Dawood, Trimizi) 

Commentary: This hadith discloses to us that frightening dreams 
are from the devils. If the supplciation is made regularly then, 
lnsha Allah the supplicant will be protected from their harm. This 
practice of the Companion of the Prophet 0m reveals to us that 
there is no wrong in writing down the Name of Allah and His 
words on a piece of paper and using it as an amultet worn round 
the neck or on other part of the body. 

Supplication on Arising From Sleep 

(1 185/142) Sayyidah Ayshah has said that when the 

Prophet all got up from sleep he would make the following 
supplication to Allah: 

i V*3 tiri- 1 * *1 £/ ^ i*J ^^-3 

There is no God save You. Glory be to You; O Allah! And with 
all praise for You. I seek Your forgiveness for my sins and I ask 
You for Your mercy. O Allah! Give me increase in knowledge, 
and guard my heart lest it turn away after having recieved Your 
guidance. And bestow on me Your mercy. Surely, You, only 
You, are the One Who bestows!" (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: This is a brief but comprhensvie supplication. Each 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



167 



of its phrases smacks of the spirit of servitude. Anyone who has a 
little knowledge of the relationship between Allah and His 
creatures can recognise this distinction of the supplication. Any 
man who makec this supplication on arising from sleep sincerely 
surely deserves choicest of His mercy and favours, and love. May 
He grant us a true longing for His favours and mercy, and ability to 
recieve them. Aameen 

*U 'fa jU fa Sj^j Jll Jli C^L*Jl J> SSU* jfi ( u avut) 

'in ij iii j fa 5^ j Jj iuli >: 4 ^ 3*3 ^3 

(1 186/143) It is reported by Sayyidina Ubadah ibn As-Samit 
that the Messenger of Allah Ws said that if anyone wakes up in 
the night and makes this supplication: 

jr J* s>j JUaji 4jj j£LJ» 4j aJ Js^i. ajU-j ft if j it •/ 
iiu 3}i v'j j> ^'Aij'Ai if j *it i 'yfa ajj ju^Ji 'jJ 

There is no God but Allah, Alone; He has no partner; to Him 
belong the dominion, and ail praise is for Him, and He is over 
all things powerful; praise belongs to Allah and He is without 
blemish; and there is no God except Allah. And Allah is the 
Greatest, and there is no might or power except with Allah." 

After which he says (O Allah, forgive me!) or makes 

any other supplication then Allah will grant him his request. 
After taht if he draws himself together and (gets up and) 
performs ablution and offers prayer then his prayer will be 
accepted. (Bukhari) 

Commentary: The text of the haidlh is as given by Bukahri and it 
has the words & ju*Ji (Praise belongs to Allah) before the words 
iit (Allah is without belmish). However, in the text carried by 
other Books,, among them Abu Dawood, Imam Tirmizi and others, 
the words ^ $*^*> precede he words *U ju*Ji as they are found in 
the kalimah tamjeed. Hence, Hafiz Ibn Hajr a-U Jii and other 



168 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



exegetes of Bukhari have held that the owrds A have preceded 
&\ j Im^ in Bukhari's transmission because of the oversight of one 
the narrators in the chain, and they agree with the sequence found 
in Abu Dawood and Tirmizi. 1 

The hadith gives glad tidings to the slave of Allah who wakes 
up in the night and declares the unity, majesty, glory and praise of 
Allah and confirms that without His help he cannot do or achieve 
anything. It assures him that if he seeks pardon or makes any 
supplication then his request will be approved. 

Again, if he performs ablution and offers prayer (Salah) then 
that too will be accepted from him. Some of the religious Scholars 
suggest that the person who comes to know of this hadith should 
consider it to be a precious gift of the Messenger of Allah 0 to 
him. He should believe in the tidings of the Prophet S and put the 
teachings into practice, seeking forgiveness of Allah and making 
the supplication and thus receive acceptance of his efforts. 
Certainly, those who do not value the gift are deprived people. 

Imam Abu Abdullah Farbari a-Ip ibiU^-j who has transmitted the 
Sahih uI-Bukhari from Imam Bukhari *J*Ata*>-j said: "One night, 
I woke up from sleep and by the ability granted to me by Allah, I 
repeated these phrases. Then sleep overtook me and I had a dream, 
and saw someone met me and recited the verse: 

"And guided they have been unto goodly speech, and guided 
they have been to the way of the Praiseworthy. 2 

Supplication At the Time of Istinja 2 

Like sleeping and eating visits to the toilet to relieve oneself are 
also part of a man's life. Surely, at the time when one is relieving 
oneself, it is against etiquette to call the Name of Allah and to 
make supplication to Him. Therefore, the Messenger of Allah S 
has taught us to supplicate Allah before we go to relieve ourselves 
and after we have done that. These supplications are found in the 
O. Accordingly, the Urdu translation follows the sequence of these authorities, 

not of the text reproduced here. 
©. Fath Al-Bari V.5. p. 610. The verse is from Surah Al-Hajj (22: 24) 
©. Abstertion. 



Book oj'Azkar and Da'wat 



169 



following hadith. 

(I 187/144) Sayyidina Zayd ibn Arqam said that the 
Messenger of A Mali ^ said: "These privies are the haunts of the 
devils and harmful things. Therefore, when anyone of you goes 
there to relieve himself, let him say: 

I seek refuge in Allah from the foul male and female devils" 1 

(Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah) 
Commentary: Just as flies and filthy insects land themselves on 
excreta, so too the foul devils and some harmful creatures keep 
themselves in dirty, foul places. That is why the Prophet S has 
taught us the foregoing supplication to be made when going to 
such places. A hadith by Sayyidina Anas 4e» the very personal 
attendant of the Prophet & is transmitted by Bukhuri and Muslim. 
He has said that it was the habit of the Messenger of Allah that 
before he entered the toilet he, made this supplication: 

O Allah! I seek regure in You from the foul male and female 
devils. 

jm lil ^Lj aOp 411 ^1 JVS ^ jp( n A A/ U o) 

(1 188/145) Sayyidina Anas 4& has reported that the Messenger 
of Allah lH, when he came out of the privy said: 

Praise be to Allah who has removed harm from me and kept me 
in health." (ibn MaJan) 

Commentary: If it becomes difficult for anyone to pass urine or 
stool then that is a very painful experience. Doctors h ave to adopt 
O. This is according to the Arabic text. The Urdu translation is different as may 
be seen in the explanation. 



170 



Meaning and Message of (he Traditions Part V 



other means to relieve the patient of the unwanted body waste. If 
we pay attention to it, he natural process of discharge of urine and 
stool is a blessings from Allah and a great favour. 

It was with this realisation that the Messenger of Allah m 
thanked Allah and praised Him in these words: 

This is a very apt and mystic supplication. 

Supplication At The Time of Coming 
Out of The House & Entering It 

Among the various activiteis of man, going out of his home and 
coming back to it are also part of his daily routine and at every step 
he is dependent on the mercy and favour of Allah and His 
protection. So, whenever he steps out of his house or gets into it, 
he must call upon the name of Allah to get His blessings and help. 
The follwing ahadith tell us of the supplications the Messenger of 
Allah III made on these occasions and taught us. 

\i\ fa & %\ JL> > J)ij Jd Jll ^ U A V U 1) 

(1 189/146) Sayyidina Anas said that the Messenger of Allah 
$| said, "If anyone goes out of his house and says while going out: 

>u & 4 1j '> £lf jJ> ri 

In the name of Allah, I trust in Allah. There is no might or 
power but in Allah. 

Then it would be said about him in the unseen world (by the 
angels) (Slave of Allah, these words are enough for you, you are 
well guided and defended and protected), and the devil becomes 
dejected and goes away from him. (Tinnizi, Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: This brief hadith conveys to us the message that 
when someone steps out of his house he should consider himself 
utterly helpless and entirely dependent on the mercy of Allah. He 
must submit himself to His protection. Allah will then take him in 



Book of'Azkar and Da'wal 



171 



His protection and the devil will not be able to harm him. 

(1 190/147) Sayyidah Umm Saimah t** ^ has said that it 
was the practice of the Prophet 0 that when he went out of his 
house he said: 

In the Name of Allah. I trust in Allah, O Allah, we seek regue in 
You from slipping or straying (or causing other people to stray), 
or causing injustice or oppression, or suffering injustice, or 
doing wrong or having wrong done to us."(Ahmad, Tirmizi, Nasa'i) 

Commentary: When a person goes out of his house to attend to 
some work, he encounters different people and faces different 
circumstnces. If he does not have the help of Allah on his side then 
he might stray off path and do some wrong. Or, he may mislead 
someone else. Or, he may quarrel with someone, either causing 
injury to the other or suffering it himself. Therefore, the Messenger 
of Allah H, when he stepped out of his house, took the name of 
Allah and renewed his belief in Him, and placed reliance on Him. 
He also sought refuge in Him from these risks. He showed by his 
deeds that he was always dependent on the help of Allah and His 
protection. 

The hadilh of Sayyidina Anas 4fe preceding this one prescribed 
the brief expression of ibu H\ 3y Vj JjrY That too is enough for this 
purpose. 

^ jute- ft j*> & »Si p> 

.$fiJifLi$ "tiff u&fe j*j iLf>> ^ 

(1191/148) Sayyidina Abu Maalik Al-Ash'ari 4k> has said that 



1 72 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

the Messenger of Allah 0 said, "When any man enters his 
house, let him say: 

(O Allah! I ask You for the good of coming in the house and 
good of the going out of it (so that my coming into it and going 
out of it produces good and blessings for me). We enter it in the 
Name of Allah, and we go out with His Name and we place our 
trust in Allah, our Lord). 

He should then greet his family, saying f*-Ji (Peace be on 
you)" (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: The central point of the teaching of this hadith is 
that when one enters one's house or goes out of it, the eye of his 
heart must be towards Allah and the tongue must have on its edge 
the name of Allah. The heart must believe that He holds all good 
and blessings in His power. Supplication must be made to Him and 
trust His benevolence and mercy. 

Then salutaions must be presented to the members of the 
house, young or old. That, indeed is a supplication and favours on 
them. 

Supplication On Entering 
& Going of The Mosque 

The Mas/ id or mosque is the house of Allah and His court. The 
visitors to it come here to gain the pleasure and mercy of Alah 
through worshipping Him. So, the Prophet H has instrucred us 
that none of us must enter the mosque carelessly nor emerge from 
it negligently. We must have proper words for supplication on our 
lips both when we enter it and when we come out of it. This is the 
correct etiquette for the court of Allah. 

(1 192/149) Sayyidina Abu Usayd 4& reported that the 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat \ 73 

Messenger of Allah H said, "When one of you enters the 
mosque he must make supplication to Allah in these words: 

*^5*^J 4*' j? ^ ^ 

(O Allah! open for me the gates of Your mercy). 
And when he comes out, he should say: 

(O Allah! 1 ask You for Your favour). (Muslim) 
Commentary: We learn from the Qur'an that the word 
(mercy) is used particularly for the spiritual and next-world 
blessings, for example, mtbuwat, wilayat, position of closeness to, 
and pleasure of, Allah and blessings of Paradise. Thus, we see in 
surah Az-zukhruf: 

(And the mercy of your Lord is better than what they amass). 

(AzZakhruf 43:32) 
The word J^ai (favour, bounty) is used particularly for worldly 
blessings, for example, abundant sustenance, happy life, and so on. 
Thus, we see in Surah Al-Jumu'ah: 

(Then, when the is ended, disperse in the land and seek 

the bounty of Allah). (A | Jumu'ah 62:10) 

Hence, because masjid is the centre of deeds whose rewards are 
spiritual and next-world blessings, we pray, on entering it, for the 
gates of mercy to be opened. Similarly, on coming forth from it, we 
seek the favour of Allah. 

Supplication On Getting Up 
From An Assembly 

When one sits among some people, he sometimes says 
something, or listens to something, which does not behave a 
Believer. He might have to account for that. Therefore, the 
Messenger of Allah % has taught us that when we leave assembly 
we must praise and glorify Allah, utter words of testimony of unity 
of Allah, repentance and forgiveness. This would serve as an 



174 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



expiation for the carelessness in the metting. 

(1 193/150) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4& has said that the 
Messenger of Allah iH said that if anyone sits in an assembly 
where there is much clamour, wicked and meaningless talk and 
says before getting up: 

(Glory be to You, O Allah, and I begin with Your praise; I 
testify that there is no God but You; I ask Your forgiveness for 
my sins and I turn to You in repentance). 
He will be forgiven for what took place in that assembly where 
he was. (Tirmizi) 

%\ JL>>i S£> J* Ji5 J> )jJ> ( m t/> ° \ ) 

% £>\y tUiS AaQ X* <lJ&> Jl^OV fkj 4* 

(1194/151) It is related by Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Amr ibn 
A!-Aas 4&> that the Messenger of Allah S 1 said, "There are 
some expressions which a man utters three times when he gets 
up from an assembly he will be forgiven for what happened in 
the assembly; and no one utters them in an assembly held for a 
noble cause or for remembrance of Allah but that is stamped 
with them just as a document is stampted with a signet-ring. 
These expressions are: 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 1 75 

(Glory be to You, O Allah, and I begin with praise of You, there 
is no God but you; 1 ask for Your forgiveness and turn to You in 
repentance)." (AbuDawood) 

Commentary: This is a brief but comprehensive expression which 
glorifies and praises Allah. It also affirms that He is One and 
Alone, and it also has words of forgiveness and repentnece for the 
supplicant. 

I have seen some close slaves of Allah who, after every little 
while, particularly after speaking with someone, repeated this 
expression from the depth of their hearts. Their sincerity was 
apparent from their faces and their voices, and their listeners were 
impressed by their words. 

Indeed, the expression is deep in meaning and choice ofits 
word-sequence, if uttered sincerely before Allah then His mcercy 
and favours would definitely descend on him. It is among the main 
gifts of the Prophet Hi. May Allah enable us to realise its value and 
cause us to benefit from it. 

*t est) ( ^4^ Xj *t Sj*a> ^4A^ 

b&UJrfL \mj> j '£>ll\ il>\V..fl» life Aj Oj^iU ja^pl J*J cJv»r 
L&^J* Ujtt j^lj 'b felj ^ U bjjf j Ujtftf j 

dill *ij UJi lnn,/T» Ji*i 'UlilP <y Uj-iitj 

(1 195/152) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar <^> said that it was 
very rare that the Prophet W> got up from an asembiy and did 
not pray for his Companions sjfe> also when he prayed for 
himself. 

'UiJjl Olll^ai blip *j o}^* Jaf^' <>?3 <*£ci*r *j UaLjU <J£sp& 



176 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



* ^ * 3 uiip^tivjui* ^ri tito Jj^j 

"O Allah! Grant us so much fear of You as obstructs us from 
disobedience to You (so that our steps do not go towards 
disobedience from fear of You). 

And grant us much obedience and worship so that by virtue of 
which You may send us to Paradise (and they become a means 
to our entry into Paradise). 

And give us so much of belief in fate and decree as makes the 
worldly hardships light for us. 

And let us use our ears, eyes and other senses and organs as 
long as You keep us alive. (So that until) we die we benefit 
from Your favours and blessings of the eyes, ears and so on) 
and retain them even after we die (so that we leave behind such 
things and deeds as are useful even after we are no more). 

And (O Owner and Protector) let us retaliate against him who 
oppresses us (Your believing slaves). 

And help us against him who displays enmity to us (and give us 
an upperhand against him) 

And let us not misfortunes befall us in our religion (and protect 
us from religious problems and trials) 

And do not make the world our chief goal and the limit of our 
knowledge and sight. 

And (O Allah!) do not set him over us as authority who does not 
show mercy to us." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: This again is one of the most comprehensive 
supplications of the Messenger of Allah The truth is that we 
lack the words whereby we may express the value and esteem of 
his supplications. 

May Allah grant light to the graves for the Companions & and 
their successors in every age who preserved these supplications for 
the Ummahl And may He enable us to recognise their worth and 
benefit from them. Aameen\ 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



177 



Supplication On Going To The Market 

Man needs to go to the market to buy or sell and faces there 
possibilities of gain or loss. More than anywhere else, the market 
contains what may cause him to be neglectful and, therefore, it is 
called MiJi ji, the worst of places. So, whenever the Messenger of 
Allah m had to go there he was careful to pay more attention to 
Zikr (remembrance of Allah) and to make the following 
supplication. 

'fa ^ (^j $ & J* fo# & 0 m/\or> 

(1 196/153) Sayyidina Buraydah has reported that when the 
Prophet H went to the market, he was in the habit of making 
this supplication: 

"In the Name of Allah. O Allah, I ask You for the good of this 
market and the good of what it has, and 1 seek refuge in You 
from its evil and the evil of what it contains. O Allah! I seek 
refuge in You lest I strike a bad bargain in it and incur loss. 

(Bayhaqi) 

Zikr in The Evil Atmosphere ofThe 
Market Fetches Extraordinary Reward 

fl% ^ > > ^ ^j, ^ >>j d4*j 
& ifo j L# 4>R utf ^ aii j al^. jtfi 

(1 197/154) Sayyidina Umar <&> said that the Messenger of 



178 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Allah said that if anyone goes to the market and 
(umimpressed by the lould and worldly atmosphere there, 
sincerely) says: 

3** 3*3 >h Ajirf 

"There is no God but Allah, Alone; no partner has He, to Him 
belongs the dominion, and all praise is for Him; He gives life 
and causes death while He is Living and never dies; in His Hand 
is all the good and He is Omnipotent." 

Then Allah records for him millions of good deeds, obliterates 
from him millions of evil deeds, raises him millions of degrees 
and builds him a house in Paradise. (Tirmizi, Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: Certainly, markets are places of negligence and sin, 
and haunts of the devils. The slave of Allah is worthy of being 
rewarded heavily if he chants such devotional expressions in the 
evil, devilish atmosphere of the market and remembers Allah 
much. In this way he counters the wicked atmosphere. He will 
recieve credit for millions of pious deeds, millions of his wrongs 
will be erased from his record's his ranks will be raised millions 
elevations and a beautiful palace will be built for him in Paradise. 

In the market, a person sees so many things which divert him 
from Allah and make him forget that the world and what it contains 
will persih. He is attracted to those things which look to him 
beautiful and advantageous. He draws himself towards a big and 
successful trader or wealthy man in the hope that relations with 
him will further his ends. These are the thoughts and temptations 
that lead hearts and sights astray. The Messenger of Allah H has 
suggested a cure and protective measure against this malady, the 
Kalimah tawheed: 

34* ir* J* 3*3 3**' f£j 

"There is no God but Allah. He is Alone. He has no partner. The 
dominion belongs to Him. All praise is for Him. He gives life 
and death and He is the Ever-living Who does not die. He holds 
all the good and He is powerful over all things." 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 



179 



These phrases directly deal a blow on the misleading thoughts 
and devilish promptings which one gets in the markets. These 
phrases refresh the following facts: 

1. Allah is True. It is worthy of Him that we should love Him 
dearly with heart and should, and worship Him. We must 
make Him alone the aim of our life, and not associate anyone 
with Him. 

2. Only He is the Sovereign over all the creation. His Command 
and rule holds supreme without any other partnership and 
only He is the Absolute Owner and Ruler of the entire 
universe. 

3. Only He deserves praise. Anything else that appeals to us and 
seems worthy of praise are His Own creation and making and 
their beauty is bestowed on them by Him alone. 

4. Only He owns the attribute <fjM*iy (Ever living, who does 
not die). Everyone and everything besides Him will perish and 
He alone holds the life and death of everyone. 

5. He has in His Hand all the good and no one else has authority 
and control over anything. 

6. He alone is Omnipotent. He has power and authority over 
everything; every change and turn of events is determined by 
Him. 

Therefore, the person who remembers Allah in this way in the 
hustle and bustle of the market is one who raises the banner of 
Allah in the land of the devil and lights the light of guidance in the 
darkness of misguidance. He thus deserves the bounties promised 
to him in the hadith. 

The words of the* hadith JA\ *__aJ» are not translated a million but 
millions. We agree with those commentators who say that here a 
specific number is not indicted but the words c^Ji J&\ refer to excess. 
But Allah knows best. 

Supplication On Seeing 
Anything In Distress 

Sometimes we see slaves of Allah who are distresed and in very 
strained circumstances. They are in a very bad condition. The 
Messenger of Allah 0 has commended us to praise Allah and 



180 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



thank Him for preserving us from that condition when we see 
anyone so afflicted. He has assured us that if we do that then Allah 
will keep us safe from that misfortune. 

(1 198/155) Sayyidina Umar Ibn Al-Khattab and Sayyidina 
Abu Hurayrah 4& have reported that the Messenger of Allah m 
said: "If anyone sees a person who is afflicted and in distress 
and says: 

**** 

(Praise belongs to Allah Who protected me from that which has 
afflicted you and made me to excel many others whom He has 
created with a marked excellence). 

That affliciton, whatever it be will not smite him." (Tirmizi) 
Commentary: As if by way of, Imam Tirmizi has transmitted from 
Imam Baqir 4& the son of Imam Zayn al-Aabideen 4&> that he said, 
"If anyone sees a person in distress, he must first ask for Allah's 
protection from that misfortune and then make this supplication 
inaudibly in such a way that the unfortunate person does not hear 
him otherwise his grief will increase." 

It is stated about Shaykh Shibli W ^ that when he found 
anyone who was forgetful of Allah and unmindful of the Hereafter 
and occupied wholly in worldy affairs he made the above 
supplication, namely: 

"Praise belongs'to Allah Who has protected me from what has 
afflicted you and has shown me favour and many whom He has 
created with marked favour." 



Book of Azkar and Da 'wat 



181 



Supplications Before & After Meals 

Eating and drinking are necessary for man to continue living. 
Whenever the Prophet iH got any thing to eat or drink, he regarded 
that as a gift from Allah and praised and thanked Him for that. He 
exhorted his companions to behave likewise. 

JT» \i\ JU ^Ji ^ jii ^ ^ ( ^ > ^/\ »n) 

# ifej Jiiij ilufci (ioji Jj iufi" jii jt 

(1199/156) Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed Al-Khudri has said that 
when the Prophet $jl ate or drank something, he said: 

"Praise belongs to Allah Who fed us and gave us drink and 
made us Muslims." (Abu Dawood, Tirmizi) 

£fk*jAfe%\ JU&Jj-j J 1 * J 1 * j-Jtf k&jKw "/^v) 

(1200/157) Sayyidina Mu'az Ibn Anas said that the 
Messenger of Allah iH said, that if anyone eats food and says: 

"Praise belongs to Allah Who has fed me this food and provided 
me with it through no might or power on my part." 

He will be forgiven his former sins because of his gratitude. 

(Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Some actions are very minor to look at but they are 
esteemed highly by Allah and very heavy in the balance. Their 
reward is exceptional. This hadith tells us of such people who eat 
their food and then affirm sincerely that their Lord had given them 
the food and their own skill or ability had nothing to do with its 
procurement. They affirm that Allah had given the food to them 
merely out of His mercy and favour and He is worthy of all praise. 
When they do that Allah values so much that He forgives all their 
past sins. 



182 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Sunan Abu Dawood carries this hadith with an addition: 
If anyone wore a garment and praised Allah in these words: 
"All praise belogns to Allah ^ > ^ Jj 
Who has clothed me with this ^ 
and provided me with it *ij {j* Sy~ jt* J? £?YjJ 
through no might or power on ,,, *; ' - ,„ #<, 
my part." U J & f U U & 

.>S 

will be forgiven his former and latter sins. 

In fact the confession by a slave of Allah that whatever he has 
is a bounty from the Lord and he himself has no ability to get those 
things is the essence of servitude. It is viewed by Allah very highly, 
and is one of those deeds against which past sins are pardoned. 
May Allah enable us to understand these things and to practice the 
teachings. 

Supplication For The Host 

(i£Vt \ (JJLjj &s>%\ l Jufi JlS ills Julswiij 

iiut> jfi j & j>i lit j£> •>! Ji5 ^3 > u ijfif 

(1201/158) Sayyidina Jabir <4^> has reported that Abu 
Al-Haytham ibn At-Tayyihan prepared food at his house and 
invited the Prophet and his Companions dHfe> to the 
meal. When they had partaken of the food, the Prophet £H said: 
"Repay your brother." They said, "Messengr of Allah How 
may we repay him?" He said, "When we visit a brother and eat 
and drink with him and if we pray for his welfare and for 
blessings on him then that is the return from fellow-men to 
him." (Abu Dawood) 

ji jjt a* fa &%\ JU $ & ^\ & (\ y . y/\oO 

^JupjkSl" ^ j aIIp %\ JU> JtS jjj JrU cJjJ • **** 

(i jb y o1 j j) . i&UJi ji^Ilip di* j '/J?i\ fade jil) ' 5}ij»JjJt 
(1202/1 59) Sayyidina Anas 4$> has narrated that the Prophet 0 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



183 



visited Sayyidina Sa'd ibn Ubadah $b He presented before him 
cooked bread and olive oil. He ate it and then prayed for him 
thus: 

"May the fasting slaves of Allah break their fast with you. May 
the righteous pious eat your meals and may the angels of Allah 
keep praying for you." (Abu Dawood) 

l _ s iij j aATU j*^ ij) p & J^^ j 3 Q\ ^ 

t,t ***** 

(1203/160) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Busr ^> said, the 
Messenger of Allah £H was a guest of my father, Busr Aslami, 
once. So, we presented before him food and watbah 1 , He ate 
that and then dates were presented to him. He ate them and took 
the seeds with the middle finger and the fore-finger and threw 
them away with these fingers. Then he was given something to 
drink and he drank it. As he was departing, my father held the 
reins of his beast and said to him, 'Please pray for us!' So, he 
made this supplication: 

j r$'s* v 3 ^33 ^ $ ^ 

"O Allah! Bless them in the provision You have bestowed on 
them. Forgive them, and have mercy on them. (Muslim) 

Commentary: These ahadith tell us that just as we are required to 
praise Allah and thank Him after we have eaten and drunk so too 
we must supplicate Allah for His slave who serves us with meal. 
The Messenger of Allah $S made a supplication after eating with 
Sayyidina Ubadah as is seen in the hadith narrated by 
Sayyidina Anas (May the fasting men break their fast with 

you ). He also made a supplication at the house of Sayyidina 

Busr Aslami Abdullah ibn Busr 4&> (O Allah! Bless them the 
provision You have given them ). Perhaps, the difference in 

O. A prepartion from dates, cheese and butter, Muslim p. 1 127 H. M 5070 



184 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



the words and request of the two supplications is because of the 
difference in the religious standing of the two men. Sayyidina Sa'd 
ibn Ubadah 4& was very close to him and front-ranking 
Companion The Prophet 0 prayed for him: 

"May Allah always send fasting men to you to break their fasts, 
and may pious and righteous men always eat your food, and 
may the angels pray for blessings on you." 

This supplication was more suited for the religious standing of 
Sayyidina Sa'd ibn Ubadah 4^>. 

Sayyidina Busr Aslami 4$s> did not belong to the same rank. So, 
the supplication made by the Prophet $1 was worthy for him in 
accordance with his rank — may they have goodness and blesings 
and may they recieve forgiveness and mercy. But Allah knows 
best. 

Supplication On Donning New Garments 

Dress too is a great blessing of Allah and like food and drink it 
is a basic necessity of man. The Messenger of Allah Hi has 
instructed us that when Allah lets one of us have a new garment 
and he puts it on, he must remeber the favour of Allah and praise 
and thank Him and he must give away in cahrity the old clothes 
that he is discarding. He has assured us that one who follows this 
advice will be protected and his secrets concealed by Allah in this 
life and the next. 

J> j> jg'Jtf* j& JfiJi y> J\ V ^ 

(1204/161) Sayyidina Umar 4& reported that the Messenger of 
Allah Hi said: "If anyone puts on a new garment and says: 

"(Praise be to Allah Who clad me with something with which I 

cover my shame and adorn myself in my lifetime), 

and takes the garment which he has worn out and gives it in 



Book ofAzkar and Dci'wat 



185 



charity then he will remain in Allah's protection, guardianship 
and cover as long as he is alive and after death. 

(Ahmad, Tirmizi, Ibn Majah) 

Supplication On Beholding 
Oneself in The Mirror 

J 'J* lit (i-j %\ JL? $\ jiT Ji5 jS\ y.e/nt) 
^lili ^i* o'jj j-^'j ^j- - ^4 <i**J'" s 1 ! 

(1205/162) Sayyidina Anas said that it was^the practice of 
the Prophet that when he saw the mirror, he siad: 

l*J£ b* 1& Id)}* £r**J *k 

"P'raise belongs to Allah Who has formed my person well, made 
me fair of favour, and adorned in me that which He made 
unsigthtly in other than me." (Bazzar) 

Commentary: The spirit of this du'a like that of all other 
supplications is that the man who sees in himself the beauty and 
fairness must regard it as given by Allah. He must praise and thank 
Allah for that. This behaviour will increase in him love for Allah 
and servitude for Him, and he will be safe from the wrong conduct 
of egotism and arrogance. 

Supplications At the Time of Wedding 

Marriage too is one of the necessaties of a person's life. On the 
face of it, its purpose might seem merely to satisfy one's animal 
instincts and there is a great possibility of a man forgetting Allah in 
looking after the urge, however, the Prophet mt has taught the 
ummah, that they must remember Allah even at the time of 
consummation of marriage. It is in the Hands of Allah to allot good 
or bad to His slaves who must persist in making supplications to 
Him. The Messenger of Allah gave this aspect of life also the 
colour of religion." 



& jylfr jfcS ty* ity ijjs \i\ jii fa 



, 86 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

£fe U^j U> ^ l*fe^J 

(1206/163) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Amr Ibn A-Aas has 
reported that the Prophet 0 said, "If anyone of you marries a 
woman or buys slave to serve him then he must make the 
following supplication: 

O Allah! I seek of You, her goodness and the good of the nature 
upon which You creatd her, and 1 beg Your protection from her 
mischief and the mischieveous nature upon which You created 
^ er (Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah) 

uft jjjrj Jafc J* tt» 

(1207/164) It is reported by Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah «b that 
the Prophet $1 congratulated the bridegroom with this 
supplication: 

> a uft ^) u£i* J*S<J ^ ^ 

"May Allah bless you and shower His blessings on both of you 
and may He grant you both a pleasant and prosperous life." 
(May you both see eye to eye in affairs of the world and the 
hereafter and may the evil not make mischief between you." 

(Ahmad, Tirmizi, Abu Dawood Ibn Majah) 

Supplication At The Time 
of Sexual Intercourse 



(in 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



187 



(1208/165) Sayyidina Ibn Abbas 4<h has said that the Messenger 
of Allah £H said, "If one of you says, when he has sexual 
relation? with his wife: 

(In the Name of Allah, O Allah! Protect me from the devil and 
protect what you bestow upon us from the devil). 

and if it is destined that they should have a child then the devil 
will never be able to harm him." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Shaykh Abdul Haq Muhaddith DahalviU* &\ ju^j 

in commenting on this hadith has written: 

"It may be gathered from this hadith that if one does not make 
supplication to Allah in this manner (forgetting Allah and 
behaving like an animal) at the time of having sexual 
intercourse then children born out of such intercourse will not 
be protected from the mischief of the devil." 

He has written further, 

"The basic reason why the children of our times are misbehaved 
and ill-mannered is the omission to make supplication at the 
time of couplation." 

May Allah enable us to hold the teachings of the Prophet in 
this respect and to derive benefit from them. 

Supplication Before & After Journey 

The traveller to a new place may face many dangers and 
varying situations. The Messenger of Allah & has instructed us 
what we should ask Allah for when we embark on a journey and at 
the time of departure we must picture ourselves embraking on the 
unavoidable journey to the Hereafter, the most important journey. 
We must make preparations for that journey. 



1 88 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

J ^j&Jt ^ X&j j£A &j & A & tffi 

6$ o& W 'd* & *j dd»j J** 

(1209/166) Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Umar 4$b has reported that 
when the Messenger of Allah $1 began a journey and sat down 
on a camel, he first called out thrice j$\ & (Allah is greatest). 
Then, he said: 

& yj wj &jl ufrj iJbi j^li 6^ 

^IlUIi ^3 >J'i a^ITj >Ui i. A 3>i i jtfti 1 JUlij 

"Glory be to Allah Who is without blemish Who has subjugated 
this creature (for our journey). By oursleves we were unable to 
subdue it (through our skill and strength and He did it out of 
mercy towards us). After all we are to return to our Lord. O 
Allah! We ask You in this journey of ours for righteousness and 
piety and a conduct which pleases You. O Allah! make this 
journey easy for us and, through Your mercy and power, roll up 
its distance for us. 

O Allah! Only You are our Friend and Companion in this 
journey (and the greatest support lies in Your Cmpanionship). 
And, behind us, only You are the One to look after our family 
members and wealth and property (and in this regard too we rely 
on You and trust You). 

O Allah! I seek refuge in You from the toil of this journey and 
from beholding a sad sight in the journey, and from finding a 
bad reverse in my wealth and household on returning from the 
journey." 

And when returned, he said the same words again and added: 

"We are now returning, repenting to Allah, worshipping Him 
and praising our Lord." (Muslim) 



Book of Azkar and Da 'wat 



189 



Commentary: Every phrase of this supplication carries a deep 
meaning. The hadith begins by telling us that the Messenger of 
Allah & said Allahu Akbar three times on settling himself on the 
camel. People rode on camels in those days and both rider and the 
on lookers could be impressed by the height and the former (riders) 
could have taken it into his head. The Prophet 0 dealt three blows 
to such a fancy by calling out jf\ (Allah is the Greatest) and 
making it clear to everyone that greatness belongs to Allah alone. 
He then said: 

"Glorified and without blemish is Allah Who has subjugated 

this beast to our use otherwise we had no ability to subdue it." 

These words confirm that the speaker is unable on his own to 
seize control of his conveyance and us it for his own good; only 
Allah gives him control over it by His mercy. 

The Prophet H said after that: 

And, after all, we are to return to You. 

This is to say that just as we are undertaking this journey today, 
in the same way we shall journey away from this world one day 
and travel to our God Who is our True Goal. That journey will be 
the real journey and we should never be careless in preparing 
ourselves for that journey and in thinking about it. 

He then followed it with this supplication O Allah, enable me 
to be pious and righteous in this journey and to conduct myself in a 
manner that earns Your pleasure." In deed, this is the main concern 
of those who believe in Allah and the Hereafter and it, therefore 
was the Prophet's 0 first supplication. 

He then requested Allah to make his journey easy and make 
him travel through the distance quickly. He placed reliance on 
Allah, saying: 

JUlj Jjtft J l£&\j j&\J cS\ $\ 

O Allah! You are my Companion in the journey and The 
Surpervisor over my household and property." 



190 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



It places trust in Allah's Companionship as well as in His 
supervision over his family members and possessions whom he has 
left behind. 

The Prophet S then sought refuge in Allah from the hardship 
in the journey as well as the toil of travelling and of return journey. 
It is to say that His protection looked upon during the journey and 
upon returning too. 

The concluding part of the hadith tells us that when he set forth 
for the return journey, the Prophet % presented the same request 
before Allah and at the final words he added: 

tii**\Qbfr*'b&b% 
"We are now returning home, repenting our shortcomings and 
mistakes and worshipping our Lord and Master with praise for 
Him." 

We must imagine what his feelings would have been for Allah 
in solitude when this was his condition on riding the camel and 
journeying! 

How fortunate are the people who own the treasure left behind 
by their Prophet %\ And how unfortunate they ninety-nine percent 
of whom any more than that, are simply unware of this treasure 
and so cannot use it! 

(1210/167) Sayyidina Uthman has said that the Messenger 
of Allah m said, "If a Muslim goes out of his house with an 
intention to travel or without such an intention and says on 
leaving his house: 

(1 have'betieved in Allah and I hold fast to Him placing trust in 
Him and 1 am confident that no power or might can help me 
without the Command of Allah) 

then he will surely receive the blessings on emerging from his 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 

house and he will be protected from its evil." 



191 

(Ahmad) 



Supplication During Transit 

(121 1/168) Sayyidah Khawlah ibnt Hakeem *W said that 
she heart the Messenger of Allah iH say that one who stops 
durign his journey and says: 

$± U'j* ja jit oUl& i'jti 

"1 seek refuge in the perfect words of Allah from the mischief of 
what He has created," 

no harm will be fall him for as long as he remains in that place. 

(Muslim) 

Supplication On Entering A Town 

9 i> ^ u Jty fjjTr jii 6i a# #3 tiu 

(1212/169) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar has said that they 
used to travel with the Porphet iH, It was his practice that when 
he saw a town or city which he intended to enter, he said three 
times: 

"O Allah grant us blessing and prosperity in this town." 
He then said: 

uji ijti y i j ui^ us]} 

"O Allah! Let the best produce of this place be our sustenance 
and put in the hearts of these people love for us and let its pious 
people be lovable to us." (Tabarani) 

Commentary: These three things can be the most significant 



192 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



concern of any visitor to a new settlement. Praise be to Allah! How 
brief yet complete this supplication is! 

Supplication For & 
Advice To a Traveller 

J j Oii ^> ^13 >i * J£U jis jid 
(tf >ji tijj) . ?t >l)i 5> 3 iijft ^jjt" jil 

(1213/170) It is related by Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah <$k> that 
someone came to the Messenger of Allah and submitted to 
him that he intended to proceed on a journey and requested him 
to give him some advice and instructions. The Messenger of 
Allah Wt instructed him to maintain fear of Allah (and be 
mindful of not earning His wrath keeping himself away from 
even minor lapses and negligence). The next thing he advised 
him to do was to call out Allahu Akbar, (Allah is the Greatest) 
on every rising ground. As the man turned away, the Prophet W* 
made this supplication for him: 

yLUt aIU j}a j ^ s 
"O Allah , roll up the (long) distance for him and make the 
journey easy for him." (Tirmizi) 

Jv5j j^L-3 &s>'&\ JU J\ J^-3 J 1 * u~> ] j* ( ^ \U \ v ^ ) 
v£4^- 3^i» J£J>li3 Jtf ^ 3 ish J* 

(is JUjsJt «i jj) .C-TU 

(1214/17!) Sayyidina Anas has reported that a man came to 
the Prophet HI and submitted to him, "Messenger of Allah iH*! 
I intend to make a journey so give me provisions (meaning 
make supplications for me which might assist me in my 
journey). "He said, "May Allah let piety be your provision for 
the journey (and may you find that wealth with you all through 
the journey)." That man requested him to give him more and the 
Prophet Wf obliged him, "And may Allah forgive you your 
sins." But, that man insisted, saying. "May my father and 



Book ofAzkur and DaSval 



193 



mother be ransomed to you, say more! "So, the Prophet W* 
added. "May Allah give you abundance of good wherever you 
go and are." (Tirmizi) 

Cs> %\ JU <&1 J 15 ^Ja^jl &\J& (u \ o/ IVT) 

^Ulj ^ 'ill Jl5 # Srj» 1*1 ^3 

(1215/172) It is narrated by Sayyidina Abdullah al-Khutami 
that the Prophet J$& used to say when he bid farewell to an 

army: 

^JtUl j^yf-} ,i^U(3 

"1 entrust to Allah your religion, your trustworthy character and 
you final deeds." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: In this passage the word amunah is rendered 
trusworthiness. It refers to that character and condition in man 
which requires him to give the rights of Allah and His creatures in 
a correct manner. We may briefly interpret it as the consciousness 
of the responsibilities ofw orship. 

The main asset of a Believer is made up of his trustworthy 
nature, his religion and his pious deeds. This is why the Messenger 
of Allah m entrusted these thing of the warriors to Allah and 
prayed to Mini to protect them. 

In the same w ay. it was the habit of the Prophet 0 that when 
he bid farewell to anyone, he held his hand in his and said: 

j&tij i^vi>i £■? j=-^ 

"I entrust your religion , your trustworthiness and your last deed 
to Allah. May lie protect them."(TirmizihastransmitteditltomIbnUmar). 

We learn from this hadilh that it was a custom of the Prophet 
m that when he bid farewell to anyone he shook hands with him. 
Allah knows best. 

Supplication In Times of Severe Danger 

iii Jji^ij J.U*ji fa uil Jii JsjJwJi ^ 'J> ( \ y ^ 1/ wr) 
list j ffi" ft jti >l*Ji cjSj JLii j* Ja 



194 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



(1216/173) It is reported by Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri 
that on the day of the Battle of Trenches they asked the 
Messenger of Allah £H if there was anything they could repeat 
and supplicate with for their hearts were in their mouths. He 
told them that they should make this supplication to Allah: 

"O Allah! cover our openings (on the borders with the enemy) 
and give us security from fears." 

Abu Sa'eed added that Allah sent a violet wind in the faces 
of His enemies and He routed them thus. (Ahmad) 

Commentary: Of the most difficult days that the Messenger of 
Allah iH and his companions «&> faced were some days during the 
Battle of Trench (jjlaJi Al-Khunduq). The Qur'an has also 
mentioned them: 

(Recall) when they came upon . ,( , 

you from above and you from J*-» i>?J (**>?J* J* 3***\ 
below you, and when (your) c jy^* Li j$ ^ 
eyes swerved and (your) heats ' , t 
reached (your) throats, you <tflb J yr\&*l\ 

were imaging vain thoughts ' ;> y ^ ^fca'Sfa 
about Allah. There it was that OJ**J*» ijuu«oujjmi 

the Believers were tried, and ,\&XS>*}\$j tyj'jj 

they were shaken with a severe . -rr<->i 

shaking. (AI-Ahzab,33:I0-l 1) ' 

It was in these conditions that Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed Al-Khudri 
4& requested the Prophet 0 if they could supplicate Allah in any 
way and the Messenger of Allah H taught him the brief 
supplication: 

as we have seen. 

After that, violent wind was released by Allah which caused 
severe confusion in the enemy forces and they were compelled to 
flee. 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wal j 95 

(1217/174) It is reported by Sayyidina Abu Musa Al-Asli'ari 4& 
that when the Prophet H faced the treat of an enemy attack, he 
made supplication to Allah in these words: 

"O Allah , we put You in front of them and we seek refuge in 
You from their evils." (Ahamd, Abu Dawood) 

Supplication At The Time of Worry & Anxiety 

Sjk d& fa JU Al 5' \ Y 1 A/ Wo) 

>&fi j^tfi ^ tit if^ji ^ '^t 4 ft r jl* 

(1218/175) Sayyidina Ibn Abbas ^ has said that when the 
Messenger of Allah ^ was anxious he would say: 

i^-^ 1 4*3 u^j^ 1 4*33 ^'j^J' 4*3 

"There is no God but Allah, the Incomparably Great, the 
Clement. There is no God but Allah, Lord of the mighty Throne. 
There is no God but Allah, Lord of the heavens, Lord of the 
earth, Lord of the noble Throne." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

(1219/176) It is reported by Sayyidina Anas that when 
anything caused anxiety to the Messenger of Allah & he made 
this supplication: 



1 96 Meaning and Massage of the Traditions Part V 

"O Living One, O Eternal One! In Your mercy I seek help!" 
and he said to the other people: 

"Attach yourselves to ya zui ja/afiwa al-ikram (O the Lord of 
Majesty and Bounty)." (Tirmizi) 

Up %\ $\ ^JlS iUit ^ ( ^ XT . / > YY) 

« Jr>i * ^ ft ft" vj&Jk 9^ t**' * 

(1220/177) Sayyidah Asma ibnt Umais said that the 

Prophet iSft said to her, "Shall I not teach you the words that you 
may say in limes of anxiety?" (Jnsha Allah you will find peace 
on reciting them)." He taught her to say: 

"Allah, Allah! My Lord, 1 do not ascribe any associate with 
Him." (Abu Dawood) 

(1221/178) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Mas'ud 4& has said that the 
Messenger of Allah H said that if anyone is afflicted by much 
care and worry, he should present his supplication to Allah thus: 

jLe* 3^4 jt3 34 Oft ^ #3 ^ & 

'j* afcj 'Jfr £3 0^' j# 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 



197 



"O Allah! I am Your slave, the son of Your bondsman and the 
son of Your bondwoman; and I am within Your grarsp. My 
forelock is in Your Hand. Your Command is effective on me; 
Your decree is equitable concerning me. I ask You by every 
name You have, by which You have called Yourself, or which 
You have sent down in Your Book 1 , or preferred to keep to 
Yourself among Your guarded secrets, to make the Qur'an the 
spring of my heart and the means of dispelling my anxiety and 
grief." 

The Messenger of Allah said, "No slave of Allah ever says it 
but Allah lakes away his grief and gives him joy and abundance 
instead." (Razin) 

Commentary: Every phrase of this supplication taught by the 
Propcht is full of a slave's emotions of servitude. It begins with 
an expression and confirmation of his own and his parent's 
servitude. He affirms. "I am Your slave. My father too is Your 
slave and my mother, again, is Your bondwoman, so I am Your 
slave down generations. You are my Master and Lord as also 
Master and Lord of my parents. I am always in Your hands. 
Whatever You decree concerning me is fair and equitable and 
applicable. Neither I nor anyone else can raise an objection. 

This supplication further quotes the supplicant as confessing 
that he has no deed or anything else against which he might ask 
Allah for anything. Hence, he goes on to say, 1 ask You by Your 
own names which you have called Yourself by, or revealed in Your 
Books, or kept to Yourslef concealed as secret, which no one 
knows except You. So, I ask You by these Names to make Your 
Book, the Qur'an, the Spring of my heart and remove my anxieties 
through its blessings. 

The Messenger of Allah H> declared. "If anyone makes a 
supplication in this manner then his anxieties will be dispelled 
surely." 



O. There is a phrase here in other Books: j* u*-i <t«i* ji meaning (or which 

You have taught any of Your creation). 



198 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Supplications When Faced With 
Problems, Difficulties & Distress 

In his life, man does encounter problems and difficulties now 
and then. There is an aspect of good in these problems in that the 
trial trains the Believers and they get closer to Allah and their link 
with Him becomes stronger. The supplications that the Prophet 0 
taught us to be made on such occasions are not only a means of 
removing problems and difficulties but also insturmental in 
achieving nearness to Allah. 

(1 122/179) Sayyidina Sa'd ibn Abu Waqqas has reported 
that the Messenger of Allah H said, "When Zu Al-Noon (the 
Prophet of Allah, Yunus was swallowed by a fish in the 
ocean, his suppliction and call was: 

[There is no God except You. You are without blemish. Surely I 
am who has wronged himself. (Only You can be asked for 
mercy and help, and You have never wronged anyone).] 
If a Muslim supplicates Allah in these words when he 
encounters difficulties, Allah certainly accepts his supplication." 

(Ahmad, Tirmizi, Nasa'i) 

Commentary: This supplication of Prophet Yunus f$M is found 
in the Holy Qur'an (in Surah Al-Ambiya) in the same words On the 
lace of it, the expression simply declares the unity of Allah and 
glorifies Him and contains a confession of the supplicant that he is 
wrong and blameworthy; but, in reality it is the supplicant's 
repentance and request for forgiveness and his turning to Allah in 
the best possible manner. It has an unusual ability to draw the 
merey of Allah to the supplicant. 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat | 99 

\h fa J± >i j^j jii jvl 5>;> 'j. ( u y r/ u . ) 

(] 123/180) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah has said that the 
Messenger of Allah H said, "When a heavy and difficult affair 
is before you, say: 

(wrr & j+* ji) J*(jJ' (iij^ul^ 
(Allah is Sufficient for us, and He is an excellent Guardian) 1 

(Ibn Mardawiyeh) 

Commentary: This too is an expression from the Qur'an. It is 
transmitted by Bukhari that Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Abbas 4& said 
that when the idolaters put Prophet Ibrahim %M in the fire, he had 
these very words on his lips: 

{ \ vr:r J') Js^ 1 
Allah is Sufficient for us, and He is an excellent Guardian 

This must be the call on the tongues of every Muslim in times 
of difficulty and problems. 

& ^ # jr >J;\ ^ ^ ^ ^j, o 4,3 $r 

( 1 124/181) Sayyidina Ali 4^> said that the Messenger of Allah 
stated that a slave of Allah (who is surrounded by distress 
and problem) barely make the following supplication when Alah 
removes his problems and solves his difficulty. The supplication is: 

^ oi & ft i# ^ j& vj3 ^ ^ tf& 



"O Allah! Lord of the seven heavens and Lord of the great 
Throne, suffice me in every difficulty and solve them as You 
desire and wherever You desire." (Al-Khara'iti) 

> Sjtf-j 4j*'Ai JU> Jjija3* Jtf£*i*(m«/uY) 

O. Aa! Imran, 3:173 ' ~~" ~ " 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

(P25/I82) Savyidina Ali 4& said that the Messenger of 
Allah ^ said to him. "O Ali! If you are faced with a difficult 
affair, make this supplication to Allah: 

^ 3& Jt* 34* ^ 

"O Allah' Watch me with Your eye that never sleeps and never 
even winks, protect me with Your strength which none can 
assail and show mercy to me with Your power over me (and 
forgive me. the helpless sinner that 1 am. my sins) so that 1 may 
not perish while You are my Hope. 

How mam a bounty there is with which You have favoured me! 
Yet little has been my gratitude for that ! And . how many a trial 
have You passed me through for which little has been my 
patience! So. O You. my Generous Lord, for Whose bounties 
my gratitude has been little, yet You have not deprived me (ot 
Your boundless favours). 

And. O You. against whose trial I showed little patience, yet 
You did not abandon me (and continued to favour me). And. O 
You, my Kind Lord. Who saw me committing sin yet did not 
disgrace me (before the creation and concealed my faults). O 



Book ofAzkar ami Da'wal 



201 



Possessor (and Dispenser) of good that will never end, and O 
Possessor (and Dispenser) of favours that can never be counted. 
I beseech You to shower blessings on (our chief. Your Prophet 
and Messenger) Muhammad (O Allah, my Lord), it is with 
Your strength alone that 1 face enemies and oppressors. "< I )ailumi) 

Commentary: Let us ponder over each phrase of this supplication 
taught to us by the Messenger of Allah The entire appeal and 
request is from the tongue of a humble slave. 

May Allah cause us to understand and esteem, and then benefit 
from the truth of these words. Aameen\ 

Supplication Against A Tyrant Ruler 

It happens in a man's life, particularly if he is a pious and 
righteous man. that he falls down in the eyes of a ruler who is 
angered at and displeased with him. Me naturally fears that he 
would be subject to oppression and punishment. The Prophet 
has taught us a supplication to be made at such times. 

%\ J^-j Jli Jli & %\ fJi-Li ^Hl Jr^ T Y1/> AT) 

^Jl Ofo .111 Uj (t-fW" 5^-^' <3yu \2\ pL>j 

t'j j^-3 ^'^j* J*ifl4 £>i }i ^ # 

(1226/183) It is narrated by Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud 
that the Messenger of Allah said that if anyone of you fears 
oppression and wrong at the hands of the ruler then he must 
make the following supplication: 

J*Ja| J» j» ^ & & ^jH 6' j cT^J ^'J* J cH' 

^S'j£ *jj v'3 j^3 Jr^> 

"() Allah! Lord of the seven heavens and Lord of the great 
Throne, be m> Protector from the mischief of such-and-such, 
and the mischief of all mischievous jinns and men and their 
henchmen — and take me in Your protection — lest any of 



202 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



them oppress me or exceed against me. Honoured is he who is 
in Your protection. Indeed, Your praise is great! And, there is 
none worthy of worship except You (You alone are the God). 

(Tabarani) 

Supplication For Relief From Debt 

{'jit, Jtl ajJL^Ji cJj ^ a^LLJi J CJUf ^JU kill 4 
% Cjiit ial lil l&T uXUpI ^ Jt3 > jjiij 

dA^i lit ji jvs > J3i>; cJi jis JO ^3 

(1227/184) Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed Al-Khudri ^ narrated that 
one day the Messenger of Allah HH came to the mosque and 
found an Ansar Companion, by the name of Abu Umamah 4^>, 
already seated there. So, the Prophet HtHfe asked him, "O Abu 
Umamah! Why is it that you are sitting in the mosque while it is 
not yet time of prayer?" The Companion said, "Messenger 
of AlFah! I have a burden of debts over me, and I am drowned in 
anxiety." The Prophet said to him, "Shall 1 not teach you 
words which if you repeat, Allah will relieve you of your 
anxieties and pay all your debts?" 

Abu Umamah 4& said that he ask the Prophet to teach him 
those words. So, he said that he should make this supplication 
in the morning and in the evening: 

^ pi\ # 3^3 oj^'j # & & 
jus-ji ^3 g*Ui # & ^'3 # ^4#} 

"O Allah! I seek refuge in You from care and grief. I seek refuge 
in You from incapacity and slackness. I seek refuge in You from 
being overcome, by debt and being put in subjection by men." 



Book of Azkar and Da'wal 



203 



Sayyidina Abu Umamah said that he followed the guidance 
of the Prophet 0 (making the supplication his daily exercise in 
the morning and evening). His care was removed and his debts 
were settled. (AbuDawood) 
Commentary: The Companion who is mentioned in the hadith as 
(Sayyidina) Abu Umamah $k> is not the same persn as Sayyidina 
Abu Umamah Bahili the well-known Companion. 

'J fa 4*%\ JU> &y ouir Jc&i jil 

" .0 jaP t jC l. ftfl; ^iiPlj ^l&A'y- 'j* 

(1228/185) Sayyidina Ali 4£> has narrated that a mukatab, (a 
slave who had a contract with his master to pay for his freedom) 
came to him and said that he was unable to fulfil his contract so 
requested help. Sayyidina Ali 4& asked him, "Shall I not teach 
you the supplication which the Messenger of Allah % had 
taught me? If you had a debt as large as a huge mountan, Allah 
would pay it for you." (The brief words are:) 

"O Ahah! Grant me so much of what you make lawful as is 
enough for me so that I may dispense with what You make 
unlawful. And make me able, by Your benevolence, to be 
independent of all except You." (Tirmizi, Bayhaqi) 

Commentary: Mukatab is a slave whose Master has agreed to set 
him free if he pays a certain sum of money. When the slave will 
pay the specified amount he would be emancipated. 

It was one such Mukatab who came to Sayyidina Ali ^ with 
his predicament that he was helpless and could not buy his 
freedom. Sayyidina Ali did not help him monetarily but taught 
him a valuable supplication which he had learnt from the 
Messenger of Allah iH. 

We learn from this event that if we are unable to help a needy 
person monetarily then we must help him by guiding him to such a 



204 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



supplication. This too is a way to support and serve someone. 

Supplication In Times 
Of Sorrow And Happiness 

5^: c iii "ouuiiii ,tsj ^ tiili ajj iuir jii * 

(1229/186) Sayyidah Ayshah 1**^^ said that when the 
Prophet £H saw what pleased him he said: 

"All praise belongs to Allah by Whose favours and grace the 
good things are perfected." 

And when he saw something that displeased, he said: 

"All praise belongs to Allah under all circumstance." 

(Ibn An Najjar) 

Commentary: Whatever happens in this world, happens with the 
will of Allah whether it is pleasing to us or displeasing. Allah is 
All-Wise and his decision is never without wisdom. Therefore, he 
is always worthy of praise. 

Supplication At the Time of Anger 

(1230/187) Sayyidina Mu'az ibn Jabal said that two men 
were disputing with each other in the presence of the Prophet 
£H until anger was apparent on the countenance of one of them. 
The Messenger of Allah 0 said, "I know of certain words of 
supplication which if he repeats, his anger would subside. These 
words are: 



Book of'Azkar and Du'wat 



205 



"I seek refuge in Allah from the accursed devil." (Tirmizi) 
Commentary: There is no doubt at all that if a man who is 
severely angry says these words consciously and with a spirit of 
supplication then Allah will cool down the heat of his anger. His 
anger will not produce evil consequences, the Qu'an says: 
"If a provocation from Satan 

should provoke you (and ^jj ^ikliJl j» c_Sup Ul j 

arouse in you fiery anger) then „ >, t > *, * 

seek refuge in Allah. Surely, p^Wt 4iJ 4*lj 

He is the Hearer, the Knower. ^Vi \ <■ 'r Jl 
(Ha-mim Al-Sajdah 41: 36) 

But it is also true that when in his anger man loses control over 
himself and fails to recognise the difference between good and bad, 
he rarely remembers the directions of the Prophet %>. At such 
times, well-wishers must intervene and draw the angry person's 
attention to the instructions of the Prophet $1 judiciously. 

Supplications On Visiting The Sick 

The Messenger of Allah % has declared that visiting the sick 
and helping them out are very commendable deeds of worship. He 
has exhorted Muslims to adopt this behaviour. Besides, his practice 
and words teach us that we must visit the sick and pray for his 
recovery. Obviously, the patient will feel comforted by this 
behaviour. We have narrated many ahadith on this topic in the 
chapter Kitab Al-Jana'iz (Book of Funerals) in the third volume. 
We reproduce here some more ahadith on this subject. 

Sj^'j (Sir ciil if* 'in iife ^ ( \ rr \/iaa> 

j uJji^i 41 J j) 

(1231/188) Sayyidah Ayshah if* -3H said that if one of us 
complained (of an illness), the Messenger of Allah wiped 
him (over the body) with his right hand saying the while: 



206 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



"Remove the harm, Lord of men. And give him healing, You 
only are the Healer. There is no healing but Yours, a healing 
that leaves no illness behind." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

.« J At ^ JQii'Ai j ^ > ^ ^ 

(1232/189) It is narrated by Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed Al-Khurdn 
4& that once Jibril came to the Prophet 0 (When he was 

a' en ill). He siad, "Do you have a complaint, Muhammad?" 

The Prophet S affrimed that he was ill, Jibril #SSft made this 
supplication (and breathed over the Prophet 0): 

% ^ j ^ ^ Atf # # ^ 

"In the Name of Allah, I am applying a charm to you (and 1 am 
blowing over you) from every thing that may harm you, from 
the evil of every evil eye, or eye of an envious one. May Allah 
heal you. In the Name of Allah, I am applying a charm to you 
(and 1 am blowing over you)." (Muslim) 

JL> i> & cJ'tf tjirti ^ if ( \ trr/i \ 0 
ilii t£ j & g-li j oiijU^ 4J9 j£ *iis Jwii & 

(1233/190) Sayyidah Ayshah i^it^j has said when the 
Prophet 0 had a complaint (of illness) he would breathe on 
himself (ejecting saliva), reciting the Mu'awwizat, (Surah 
al-Falaq, and surah art-Naas, and wipe himself with his hand. 
When he suffered from the pain of which he died, she would 
blow on him ejecting salvia and recite the Mu'awwizat, as he 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 



207 



did, and would take the Prophet's hand to rub over his body. 

(Bukhari, Muslim) 

Commentary: The Mu'awwizat, in this hadith means the two 
surah of the Qur'an, al-falaq and an-Naas. It is also possible that 
this word refers to the supplictions with which refuge in Allah is 
sought and which he often said in illness and blew over the sick. 
Some of these supplications have been mentioned above. 

Supplication On Sneezing 

It may seem to us that if a man sneezes, it is nothing of 
importance. But the Prophet has recommended to us that we 
must make a supplication on sneezing too. Accordingly, it is one of 
the means of establishing closer links with Allah. 

tii <uU J ii JU in jil jti ^i^(uri/H\) 

lit* ^l a^Lp j\ Vf\ ji-J ) Jj JlUJl jili ^Jb-l ^JaP 

(1234/191) It is reported by Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4&> that 
the Messenger of Allah ill said, "When one of you sneezes, he 
must say ii j-^i {All praise belongs to Allah). And, his brothers 
who are near to him should say h^S^-y, (May Allah have 
mercy on you!) . On hearing them the person who had sneezed 
must say, 

"(May Allah guide you and correct your affairs)". (Bukhari) 

Commentary: If someone sneezes without being ill with cold or a 
similar illness then it cleans his brain and makes him feel lighVl^ 
he does not discharge mucus with sneeze then he might suffer from 
some kind of brain disease. 

That is why the sneezer must praise Allah and thank Him, the 
least he must say is A ju*Ji (All praise belongs to Allah). Some 
versions suggest that he should say: 

(All praise belongs to Allah under all circumstances) 
and some others that he should say: 



208 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



(All praise belongs to Allah, Lord of the worlds). 

The one who hears him must respond «^ *S**-j. (May Allah 
have mercy on you!). This would be a supplication for the sneezer. 
Hence, he must now respond with a prayer Tor the second man and 
the Messenger of Allah has said that he should say: 

"(May Allah guide you and correct your affairs!)." 

Glory be to Allah! A sneeze is a means of getting blessings on 
the sneezer and those people who are around him and of increasing 
his relationship with Allah. 

If anyone gels a bout of sneezes because of cold or any other 
illness then neither is he required to say & ju«*Ji every time nor are 
those around bound to respond to him with M (if he says 

& ju^Ji every lime). 

J*> Lsj# J^p fi'M y^^'Ji & *±* cr^J 

({» jTjl. *il iiJUJl ,y *J JV* Ail t5 JU ^aij 3bl j j j pi— ji At j j) .fj5 y> 

(1235/192) Sayyidina Salamah ibn al-Akwa' has narrated 

that someone sneezed and the Prophet Hi who was there, said 

.ii j>. He sneezed again and the Prophet Hi said. "This man 

has a cold so it is not necessary to say i»i everytime." 

(Muslim) 

Commentary: A hadith in Tirmizi tells us that the Prophet Hi said 
this w hen the man had sneezed three times. 

Another Companion Ubayd Ibn Rifa'ah has said that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi said: 

cla j)j &ii cli oj* A'j ^ ^ J-^ 1 

"Say *Ut ^ to the sneezer (upto) three times. Beyond that 

say it. if you like, or do not say it. if you like". 

(Abu Dawood, Tirmizi) 



Book ofAzkar and Da 'wat 209 

j> : # -uU 'in J^p <0& jjj'j it 

(1236/193) Sayyidina Nafi' 4& the attendant of Sayyidina 
Abdullah ibn Umar 4b has related that someone who was 
sitting next to Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar sneezed and 
said : 

"All praise belongs to Allah, and peace be on the Messenger of 
Allah S." 

Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar 4& said, " I too agree that all 
praise belongs to Allah and peace be on His Messenger ." (That 
is, the expression is very auspisious without doubt, there being 
praise of Allah and blessigns on the Prophet &)." But it is not 
correct to say it on this occasion. The Prophet m has taught us 
to say on this occasion: 

(All praise belongs to Allah under all circumstances). (Tirmizi) 
Commentary: We learn of an important principle from the saying 
of Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar <&>. It is tha it is not correct to 
make additions to the supplications taught by the Messenger of 
Allah m even by invocating blessings on him although by itself 
that is a commendable act. May Allah cause us to esteem the 
Prophet m in a proper way and to abide by his teachings correctly. 

Supplication During 
Thunder & Lightening 

Thunder and lightening are signs of Allah's glory and might. 
When a slave of Allah faces them, he must supplicate Allah very 
humbly for mercy and compassion, and forgiveness of his sins. 
This is exactly what the Prophet 0 has taught us and what he 
practiced. 



2 ] o Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

AOs, <£4 it uffi Hffi jvi ^> 

(1237/194) According to Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umarf&> 
when the Prophet tifc heard thunder-clap or a thunder-bolt he 
supplicated Allah in these words: 

JStyS 14^3 A&i uft? * J A**! ***** 

O Allah! exterminate us not with Your wrath and destroy us not 

with Your punishment, but preserve us before that." 

(Ahmad, Tirmizi) 

Supplication When The 
Wind Blows Violently 

A strong wind or strom has brought punishment with it, 
sometimes and has come as mercy, sometimes (as a prelude to 
rain). Therefore, pious slaves of Allah must sit down to make 
supplications to Allah when a strong wind blows, fearing the wrath 
of Allah. They must pray that the winds should not be a fore runner 
for loss and destruction, but they should be theherald of the mercy 
of Allah. This is what the Messenger of Allah & did. 

%\ jj, $ ttrfl & C*J ^ U & tf* $K WAMo) 

tf& H tf* ^ 5*3 

(1238/195) Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Abbas has narrated that 
never did a wind blow but the Prophet % bowed down n his 
knees before Allah and made this supplication: 

^ « *o tf* f# *J* *Uj « ^ tf* $\ 

"O Allah, let this wind be a herald of mercy and life and let it 
not be a haribnger of punishment and death. Let it be what the 
Qur'an calls w 0 {Riyah), a blessed wind, not i«o (Reek), an 
accursed wind. (Bayhaqi) 
Commentary: Some of the verses of the Qur'an describe the wind 
which was sent to destroy the disobedient people as Reeh. Other 
verses of the Qur'an describe the wind that was sent as mercy as 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 



211 



Riyah. On this basis the Prophet & made this supplication when a 
strong wind blew, "O Allah, let it not be Reeh that is the wind of 
punishment but let it be Riyah, the wind of mercy." 

* cl-ji 1^3 i^iu> 3 Jsfc.i Q,\ jj 

iiftp Jfltf ci>i & ^ ^4 $j ^3 
j^iw oj?3 ilia fa jil ur lijut u aX^j jii* *3Li 

(1239/196) Sayyidah Ayshah i#* in ^ has said that when a 
strong wind blew and darkness enveloped the sky, the Prophet 
0 made this supplication: 

"O Allah! 1 ask You for this wind and the good of what it 
contains, and the good of that with which it is sent. And 1 seek 
refuge .in You from the evil of this wind and the evil of what it 
contains, and the evil of that with which it is sent." 

When clouds gathered over head (which might spell good and 
evil or mercy and punishment), the Messenger of Allah & 
feared Allah's wrath and the colour of his face changed. He went 
out now, and came in now; he paced forward now and retrace 
his steps now. When the rain was over peacefully, this condition 
in him ended. Sayyidah Ayshah i^Jit^j observed this 
condition and asked him, "Why does this condition come over 
you?" He said, "On seeing the clouds above in the sky, 1 feel the 
danger lest these clouds may be of the kind that came over the 
people of Aad who saw them moving towards the valley and 
said that they would rain down and irrigate their fields (although 
they were the clouds of punishment that brought them 
destrcution and annihilation). (Bukhari) 



2 1 2 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

Supplication When Clouds 
Are Overhead & It Rains 

u>? lij (&>j JU l£ v£Ji9 lite (U t ./^ v) 

(1240/197) It is reported by Sayyidah Ayshah l*p ^ that 
when they perceived clouds rising in the sky, the Prophet m 
ceased to work in what he was occupied and turning toward the 
cloud would say to Allah: 

"O Allah! 1 seek refuge in You from the evil of that which is in 
these clouds." 

Then, when the clouds dispresed and the sky was clear, he 
praised Allah and thanked Him. But, if the clouds burst down in 
rain, he would say: 

"O Allah, make it a wholesome drink." U*u Law 

(Abu Dawood, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, Musnad Shafa'ee) 

(1241/198) Sayyidah Ayshah i^ait^ said that when he saw 
it rain, the Messenger of Allah S made this supplication to 
Allah: ^ ^ 

"O Allah! Let it be a profitable downpour!" pi^ 

' (Bukhari) 

Commentary: It is again the same thing with rain that it plays 
havoc with people and land, causes destrcution all round, or it 
comes as mercy for the creation and a means of life for them. 

Therefore, the pious people must pray to Allah to make the rain 
profitable and merciful. 

Also, when the need of rain was felt the Messenger of Allah m 
supplicated Allah to send to them which is profitable and merciful. 



Book of Azkar and Da 'wat 



213 



Supplication For Rain 

jis -^i ^ ju> > Uiu i^^i & iki, jOa 

(1242/199) Sayyidina Jabir said that he once saw the 
Messenger of Allah i$| raise he hands and pray for rain He was 
supplicating Allah, in these words: 

O Allah, send us rain abudantly, good' for the land, making the 
fields green, and fertile, profitable wholesomely, very harmless. 
(And, O Allah!) quickly, not delayed!" (Abu Dawood) 

(i jl J jjIj ol jj) . c4J t ^Ij 

(1243/200) It is repoted by Sayyidina Amr ibn Shuaib that 
when the Prophet m supplicated Allah for rain, he said: 

c^ii ^\ j 3^-3 ;JLm j 3^3 «p 

"O Allah, send down rain to Your slaves and the mute 
quadrupeds and animals created by You. Send Your mercy. 
And, enliven with rain Your lands which have died for want for 
rain." (Muwatta Imam Malik, Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: What an appeal this supplication has! And, how 
well may it atlaract the mercy of Allah to the supplicants! 

Supplication on Observing The New Moon 

<io f&V'j 0^13 $\" jtl j^'i tfj 

(cf^iotjj) ;iiij^33 

(1244/201) Sayyidina Talha ibn Ubaydullah has reported 
that when the Messenger of Allah $| saw the new moon he 
said: 



214 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



%\ f&tfl j jUiVi j u& 

"O Allah, make the new moon rise on us with security, faith, 
safety and Islam. (O moon!) My Lord and Your Lord is Allah". 

(Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Every month is a stage in a man's life. As a month 
ends and the new moon is signalling the beginning of the next 
month it seems to announce that a stage in every man's life has 
been passed and a new one begins. The most suitable supplication 
at this time can only be: "O Allah! Cause the new stage, which is 
the new month, to pass with peace, security, faith and Islam, and 
make us obedient to You." 

Because there are people in the world who worship the moon, 
the Messenger of Allah $1 made part of the supplication as a 
declaration that moon is merely a creation of Allah and just as 
Allah is our Lord so too He is the Lord of the moon. 

iSl & £*3 4* J* M # fctf jp( H t o/y . T ) 

(1245/202) Sayyidina Qatadah has reported having heard 
that the Messenger of Allah when he saw the new moon, 
said three times: 

"Moon of good and right guidance," ^jj^ J*** 
and added, again three times: 

"I believe in Him Who created you." ^ jJl^ c*iil 

And then he said: 

"All praise belongs to Allah Who has made such-and-such a 
month to pass and has brought such-and-such a month." 

(Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: This is the second supplication on beholding the 
new moon. The Prophet $H made either of the two supplications on 
seeing the new moon. 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 



215 



The saying a-ij j j~r J^a (Moon of good and right guidance) 
three times was perhaps to counter those people who considered 
some months to be inauspicious. These words reject such an idea 
and suspicion and they confirm that every month is a month of 
good, blessings and guidance. 

By saying uXiU ^jJb c-wt (I have believed in Him Who has 
created you), the misled, polytheists who regard the moon as a 
deity are firmly belied. 

The narrator of this hadith, Qatadah, is probably Qatadah ibn 
Di'amah As-Sadusi, the taba'ee. He must have heard the hadith 
from one of the Companions. Some of these people, the iabaee, or 
their successors even (known as the taba' taba'ee) related a hadith 
without naming the source of the narrators in the chain of 
transmissions, saying only that they had heard the hadith. These 
ahadith are called balaghal in the terminology of the science of 
hadith. There are many such in the Muwatta of Imam Malik 

Supplication On The Laylat-ul-Qadr 

We have presented already the ahadith on the significance of 
Laylat ul-Qadr in regard to the acceptance of du'a. these will be 
found in volume 4 in the Chapter Kitab As-Sawm (Book of 
Fasting). We reproduce here, too, the briefest of supplications of 
the Prophet ^ on this night. 

(1246/203) It is narrated by Sayidah Ayshah t^aii^; that she 
asked the Messenger of Allah what supplication should she 
make if she found out the Laylat al-Qadr. He said to her that 
she should make this supplication: 

^JS> c-ftPli jtw\ Ljy jifi v_Sut*^AJl 

"O Allah! You are Frogiving (for those who are sinful), You 
love to forgive. So, forgive me." (Tjmizi) 



216 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Supplication AX Arafah 

It is on the 9th Zul Hajjah that the pilgrims who perform Hajj 
stand on the plain of Arafah as guests of Allah. We have seen in 
the ahadith narrated in the Chapter on Hajj (Kitaab Al-Hajj) that 
mercy of Allah seems to rain on them heavily. That place is the 
most worthy place where supplications are answered. Let us read 
the du'a taught by the Messenger fo Allah S to us for this 
occasion. 

$ zpij ui diiu Jifij tf> # juii ji* ^3 

(1247/204) It is reported by Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Al-Aas <&> 
that the Messenger of Allah S said, "The best du'a on the day 
of Arafah and the best expression that I have recited and the 
Prophets fb-bf+J* before me have recited in the following 
expression: 

*4 '$ > >3 J^J' **3 i-iW ^ n »-S^f i * 

"There is no deity except Allah. He is Alone. He has no partner. 
To Him belongs the dominion. All praise is for him. And, He is 
over all things Powerful." (Tirmizi) 
Commentary: This expression does not look like a supplication 
because there is no request in it. However, if one says, "Only You 
are the Lord and worthy of worship, You alone are Omnipotent and 
Sovereign," then this is a kind of resignation and, therefore, a 
supplication. Indeed, it is the most eloquent one. According to 
some ahadith and some angles it is the most excellent of 
supplicactions. We have explained this expression somewhat 
earlier in this Book when the phrases of Zikr were discussed. 

itf 40 ^3 ^ ^3«5 ^ ^ 3 ^3 iA> ^ 



Book of Azkar and Da 'wat 2 1 7 

$\ /is obi ) jliJt 1^.3 j ^ j- 34>« ^! j^ili 

(tso-jji »i j j> -B? ] * r* 34>i i;! 

(1248/205) It is related by Sayyidina Ali 4$> that the 
supplication the Prophet of Allah lH made frequently on the day 
of Arafah was: 

^jju 33 $\ i^j j> : ^jjV jluji 33 
& $ & 3ij jg'ij ^3 ^3 ^3 
>vi oui 3 jJL^t Lijij 3 ^ait v ilp ^ J^i^i 

*^ <>? 3o 

"O Allah, praise belongs to You just as You mention, and better 
than what we utter. O Allah! My prayer {as-Salah), my sacrifice 
and hajj and every worship, my living and my dying are all for 
You. To You is my returning (after death) and (whatever 1 leave 
behind) for You is my heritage. O Allah! I seek refuge in You 
from the punishment in the grave, from the evil suggestions of 
the heart and from confusion in affairs. O Allah! I seek refuge in 
You from the evil of what the wind brings." (Tirmizi) 

3 -J ' 

^ilSli tJjSj .J^ji J* 

*JJ&\ Jjrftwj <jj # 3CU ^3 ^ ^3 

all; Jdbii 3 ^ulijitfi .i^ifi 

«£i*fi art 3>iij jjlft vjUi 33j j^j acji 

Aj^t t_5vJ C— istij Allij CJLia>- ^ j-lfOj jjjj Jill 

i j CiA JteJj ife^^to J® 33 ^33 iLt 

(1249/206) It is reported by Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Abbas 4* 
that the Messenger of Allah Ws made the following supplication 
in the evening at Arafah during his farewell pilgrimage (Hajjah 
Al-Waday. 



218 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



d^u ^ ^3 >:^t ^ m 3>*j jaJ» tei 

^ *S 33 #J Ui* 3i & 31 ^ 03 3a 

"O Allah! You hear my speech and behold my situation. You 
know my secret and that which is manifest in me. Nothing is 
concealed from You of my affairs. And I am the miserable, 
needy, suppliant who seeks succour and protection, fearful and 
anxious. I acknowledge and confess my sins. I beg of You the 
begging of the destitute. I implore You the imploring of an 
abased sinner. And I pray to You the prayer of the fearful 
inflicted, whose neck is bowed down before You, whose eyes 
pour out tears before You, whose body has languished for You 
and whose nose cleaves to ground for You. O Allah! Do not 
make me, my Lord, unblest in my supplication to You. And be 
You to me Compassionate, Merciful. O You! The Best of those 
who are asked, and the Best of all bestowers!" (Tabarani) 
Commentary: Every word of this supplication comes out from the 
core of the supplicant's heart and shows how deep an intimate 
knowledge does he possess. We cannot find an example of these 
eloquence of this passage in the literature of the world in any 
language and in their supplications and prayers to Allah. 

Quite often did I get an opportunity to read out the 
supplications of the beloved Prophet 0 to educate and intelligent 
non-Muslims. Their reaction on listening to them and the 
translation was that only one who has been granted specialised 
knowledge by Allah can make such deep meaning, heart-rendering 
supplications. They were compelled to agree that only one having 
an intimate knowledge of Allah and possessed of His awareness 
can make such soul-inspiring supplications. This person also has a 
proper awareness of the soul and its relationship with Allah. 

May Allah enable us to value and esteem the worth of the 
heritage of the Prophet 0 and to benefit from it. 



COMPREHENSIVE SUPPLICATIONS 

We have stated earlier in this Book of Supplications that the 
supplications of the Messenger of Allah may be divided into 
three types as for as their subject-matter is concerned. 

(i) Those that pertain to As-Salah (Prayer). 

(ii) Those that relate to sepcified moments or specified 
occasions and situations, and 

(iii) Those that do not fall in the forgoing two classes but are of 
a general nature. 

We have narrated the supplications of the first two kinds in the 
preceding pages and now present the third kind before our readers. 
Most of these are compehensive and blancket type as far as the 
nature of their contents is concerned. Therefore, scholars of hadith 
tend to place them under the heading JamV ad-Do'waal 
(All-embracing Supplications) in their collections. These 
supplictions are the choicest gift for the Ummah. May Allah inspire 
us to value them and to show gratitude, and to make these 
supplications the voice of our hearts and its palpitation. He who 
attains this position truelly gets every thing. 

JU Jk\ Sj^'j 6^ Ji* *>ly» it' \ v o . /y . v) 
ig J\ A# a cl* j ^ tie > Aili ife i! fjto 
i? J iiuj s jjJi j tf *j ia iJ, ^ ^ui 

(1250/207) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah has said that the 
Messenger of Allah ^1 used to make this supplication often: 

10 iJi ids ii ^Uij iiiP > iii ^ j ^ 
y ^ i! J*»j ^ i^i j yijj i^u; 



220 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



"O Allah! Put in order for me my religion on which lies the 
safety of my affairs. And put in ofder for me my worldly affairs 
in which lies my livelihood. And put in order my life to come 
which is my ultimate destination and where I have to live for 
ever. And make life for me a means of increase in all that is 
good, and cause death a rest for me from every evil. (Muslim) 

Commentary: This is a very comprehensive suupplication. Its first 

sentence is: 

"O Allah ! Correct for me my religious life which is the support 
of my living. The good of my affairs depends on that." 

Actually, it is religion alone, which is sound and on a right 
course, allows man to be safe from the wrath of Allah and His 
curse and punishment. He then entitles himself to His pleasure and 
mercy. The Islamic law then allows him protection of his life, 
porperty and honour, and they are respected. Thus, his security, 
peace, well-being and success depend on religion. This is to what 
the words <$ y 1 '^-^ (safety of my affairs) refer. 

correction, or putting to order, of religion implies that the man's 
faith and belief are correct. So are his thoughts, sentiments, deeds 
and manners. In every department of life, he abides by the 
Commands of Allah and shuns the temptations of his base self. 
Obviously, this attitude depends on the prompting of Allah and the 
ability given by Him. Hence, this request should be made to Allah 
by every believing person and he should make it the demand of his 
heart. 

The second phrase of the du'a is: 

"And correct for me my worldly life in which lies my 
livelihood." 

To get one's worldly life corrected is to have one's needs like 
provision etc, in a proper lawful manner. Indeed, every Believer's 
second request to Allah must centre round these things. 

The third phrase of the supplication is: 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



22! 



"And let my next life be good for I have to return to it for ever." 

Although correction of religion necessarily means correction of 
the next life and success there, but the Messenger of Allah 0 has 
specifically included this phrase in the supplication. This could be 
because of the extra-ordinary importance of the Hereafter. The 
second reason is that even if a man is on a sound religious footing, 
he must continue to worry about the Hereafter and not become 
complacent about his chances. The Qur'an defines the nature of the 
pious people in these words: 

And those who give whatever they give, while their hearts are 
full of fear that to their Lord they are to be returned. 

(al-Mu'minoon, 23:60) 
The fourth and fifth phrases of the supplication are: 

> ft h* 2 f&jjfi J U 2 jrf Jfir» j 

"And cause life for me a means of increase in piety and 
goodness and death a means of comfort and protection from 
every evil." 

Every man has to pass though his life in this world, spend the 
alloted number of days and die. Man can use the life alloted to him 
by Allah to do good deeds and be pious, or to be wicked. His life 
may become a means of auspiciousness, or a means of loss and 
degradation. Everything is in the Hand of Allah. Therefore, where 
the Messenger of Allah S prayed for success and progress in 
religion, worldly life and Hereafter, he also included a supplication 
to Allah to make his life a means of increase in piety and 
auspiciousness, to enable him to spend the moments of his life in a 
way that pleased Alah and thus progress to higher stations in life. 
His supplication also included a request to make death a means of 
relief from evil and trials. If there is a rise in evil and wickedness, 
Allah may cause his death to prevent him being subjected to that 
trial. 

This supplication too is an example of comprehensive 
supplications. The phraese are very brief but the meanings are very 



222 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



significant and deep. 

^Lj aOp %\ JU ^Jl frlPi >T' 6^ Jl* tr* J* ( M 0 M - A) 

(1251/208) It is reported by Sayyidina Anas that the 
Messenger of Allah frequently made this suppliation: 

O Allah! Grant us what is good in this world, and what is good 
in the Hereafter, and save us from the chastisement of the Fire!" 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Glory be to Allah! This is a very brief but complete 
supplication. Allah is asked for the blessings of this life and of the 
next too. Clearly this includes all the wishes of the two worlds. The 
du'a concludes with a request for protection from punishment in 
Hell. In short, the supplication in its few words includes whatever a 
man could want in this life and the next. Further, it is its distinction 
that it is a supplication from the Qur'an with the only difference 
that it begins in the Qur'an with the word (Rabbana, meaning 
"Our Lord") while in the hadith the word is ^ (Allahumma, "O 
Allah"), both referring to the same Being. 

Sayyidina Anas 4& has said that the Prophet 0 made this 
supplication very often. May Allah make us follow in the footsteps 
of the Prophet and supplicate Allah in these words frequently. 

(1252/209) It is reported by Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud 4fr 
that the Messenger of Allah often made this supplication: 

"O Allah! I ask you for guidance, piety, self-control and a 
complete independence from Your creatures." (Muslim) 

Commentary: The Believer asks Allah for four things in this 
supplication: 

(i) Guidance — that is to tread the Right Path and be steadfast on 
that path. 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



223 



(ii) Piety and a Godfearing attitude — that is, fear of Allah 
should keep us away from disobedience, sin and forbidden 
things. 

(iii) Self-control — to be chaste and to shun immorality. 

(iv) Competence and independence from Allah's creatures — that 
is, the Believer must not feel dependent on anyone besides 
Allah in Whose obedience he must find satisfaction. 

This is another example of a comprehensive supplication. 

jUJi fcitfij &itj ^s&a £\ $v> ±% fa 

(1253/210) Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Amr Ibn Al-Aas '4b has 
reported that the Messenger of Allah used to make this 
supplication: 

jJUiu ^LUi ^J-j iu^j &)i j £\ $\ 

"O Allah! I ask You for health, chastity, integrity, good 
character and acceptance of what is decreed." (Bayhaqi) 

Commentary: The first thing that the Prophet & has asked Allah 
for in this supplication is health. Sound health is indeed a great 
blessing from the point of view of this life and the next. A person 
comes to realise this fact when he is sometimes deprived of this 
blessing and falls ill. It is then that he knows that every moment of 
health was a great asset and a great blessing. The mystics feel the 
loss to a greater extent because heir schedule of devotional 
exercises gets upset when they fall ill. Their condition and 
dedicaion to Allah is some what distrubed. Such a thing causes 
them a spiritual restlessness. 

Integrity or trustworthiness is used here for the Arabic word 
cju (Amanat) which is an important word of the Qur'an having a 
wide meaning. It implies that the internal feelings of man are such 
that he is constantly thinking of ways and means to fulfil his 
responsibilities concerning Allah and fellow-men correctly. 

As for good character and acceptance of what is decreed, these 
things are self-explanatory and need no more explanation. The 
Prophet & has prayed to Allah for sound health and with it for 



224 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



chastity, integrity, good character and acceptance of what is 
decreed. These things are characteristics of faith and are its 
departments, and if anyone is deprived of them then he misses 
many things. Like other blessings of religion and the world they 
too are favoured by Allah on whom He wishes. 

i&fr fas & i V (HJJ»" ji J* 3 

Jjiij JUJO Jifi ^ J-uh ^yU ^ ^ ijS&ii & $\ 

(1254/21 1) Sayyidina Umar 4^ has said that the Messenger of 
Allah H taught him a supplication and told him to make it to 
Allah in these words; 

is kju ^ 35*3 ^ # ^ ^ ^ 

juJi^i aijlij juiij Jitf # J*Ui ^ J£kii 

J*^3 

"O Allah! make my secret conduct better than my known 
conduct and make my known good and righteous. O Allah! I too 
ask You of the abundance that You bestow upon Your slaves of 
family, wealth and property, and children who are neither 
misled nor mislead anyone." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The first part of this supplication requests Allah to 
make the outer nature of the supplicant good and righteous and his 
concealed or inner nature not only good and righteous but also 
better than the hidden nature in this respect. 

The second part of the supplication requests that his family 
members, his children and his wealth and property may all be 
righteous, good and lawful. They may not be misled nor may they 
lead anyone astray. 

JU^I &»■ tlpi Jli Sjjji 'J^ ( \ Y o o/x \ Y) 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



225 



(1255/212) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4^ has narrated that he 
learnt a supplication from the Messenger of Allah S (and kept 
supplicating Allah in those words) and never omitted it. 

32^3 il^j 3^J y I j 3#Jj« j ^'J& &\ J±S $\ 
"O Allah! Make me such as 1 may thank You for Your blessings 
regularly realising the importance of it, i may remember You 
much, 1 may follow Your counsel, and 1 may maintain and 
reserve Your Commands (and always abide by them). (Tirmizi) 

* iK^j > ^ * &*j b* « & y3 'SA 

i*# «J£fi 3a 3a u;u»3 3a i^i 3a ^a 

*4-J ^ C^j ^ ^ J_*j ^j, j£ 

(1256/213) It i- reported by Sayyidina Ibn Abbas'*^, that the 
Messenger of Allah S used to make this supplication: 

1*1 ji 35) 3a iftjL 3a b;i*3 3a ijft »3& 

^ ^43 s-r'i ^> j-r^tj i# jJS y3oC^i 

t5 X^LfyU jLlj ^jtf .Ail j ^jLJ 

"My Lrod help me and do not help my enemies against me, aid 
me to victory and do not aid my enemies to victory over me. 
Use Your plan for me and do not use You plan against me. 
Guide me and make it easy for me to walk on the Right Path. 
Aid me to victory against those who act wrongfully towards me. 
My Lord, make me grateful to You, one who constantly 
remembers You, full of fear towards You, fully obedient to 
You, humble before You, earnest in supplication and petient. 
My Lord, accept my repentance, wash away my sin, grant my 
supplication, strengthen my faith (which will be evidence for me 



226 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Pari V 

in the Hereafter), make my tongue true, guide my heart, and 
throw out the malice in my heart (and every lie). 

(Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: It is very obvious that this supplication is 
comprehensive. The peculiarity of all the above supplications is 
that the Prophet S has presented himself before Allah as one who 
depends on Him for everything and all his affairs of this life. He 
has shown himself absolutely dependent and helpless in all matters 
so much so that he confirmed that he had no say even on his outer 
and his inner nature, and on his tongue and his heart. Also, in 
correcting and setting to order his character and sentiments, his 
deeds and his conditions he depended on the mercy and guidance 
of Allah. His sound health and illness was in Allah's Hand and he 
could be protected from his enemies and antagonists only by Allah, 
he was always helpless and dependent. While Allah was his Lord, 
Merciful and Sustainer, he was the supplicant who begged of _Him. 
This was the perfect servitude of the Messenger of Allah m in 
relation to Allah and, without doubt, perfection ended with him 
and the seal was applied at this stage. This perfection was superior 
to all other perfections: 

"(May blessings of Allah, the Exalted, be on him and his family, 
and his companions. And, likewise peace!)" 



fa & c-a* *w»3 # >a & -aa ^ ati* 

y j ^ o»j j> .»> a ^ 3* 

(1257/214) Sayyidah Ayshah i**^^*; has said that the 
Messenger of Allah A had taught her the following 
comprehensive supplication: 



Book qf'Azkar and Da'wat 



227 



*0 Allah , I ask You for all the good and blessings of this world 
and of the next, even those of which I know and which I know 
not. And I seek refuge in You against all evil and wickedness of 
this world and of the next, even those of which I know and 
which I know not. O Allah! I ask You for every good that Your 
close slave and Prophet H asked You for, and I seek refuge in 
You from everything from which Your close slave and Prophet 
m sought refuge. O Allah! I ask You for Paradise and I ask 
You for the word and deed that may take me near to it. And, O 
Allah! I ask You that You make every decree, which You have 
ordianed for me, a blessing for me. (Ibn Abi Sahybah, Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: Let us ponder over every word of this supplication 
which encompasses every need a man could want. In a version of 
this hadith, the circumstance are also mentioned in which the 
Prophet S taught it to Sayyidah Ayshah i^-dii^j One day 
Sayyidina Abu Bakr visited the Prophet 0 and wished to 
speak to him privately while Sayyidah Ayshah in was also 
there and she was engaged in As-Salah (prayer) and making long 
supplication to Allah. In order to gain privacy with Sayyidina Abu 
Bakr the Prophet m said to her, "Make a comprehensive 
supplication and hurry up!" She submitted that he may teach her 
one such supplication . So, the Prophet S taught her this 
supplication. 



228 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



(1258/215) Sayyidina Abu Umamah said that the Prophet 
iH taught them many supplications which they could not 
remember so they said to the Prophet 0, "Messenger of Allah 
0! You have made many supplications all of which we cannot 
remember (but wish to ask Allah for all that, so what should we 
do?)" The Prophet 0 said, "1 will teach you a supplication that 
will include all those other requests. Pray to Allah in these 
words." 

ibb -si $ ^3 £*sCii ^U3 

"O Allah! We ask You for all the blessings and good that Your 
Prophet, Muhammad S, asked You for. and we seek refuge in 
YSu from all those things .from which Your Prophet, 
Muhammad sought refuge in You. Indeed, You are The One 
Whose help is sought, and hopes and aims depend on reaching 
Your mercy. And, endeavour to attain an objective depends on 
power and might which rest in Allah alone and no one else. 

(Tirmizi) 

Commentary: There are many people in the world who cannot 
commit to memory all the supplications attributed to the Prophet 
S. This hadith shows them an easy way to make all those requests 
in these simple words: "O Allah! I ask You for whatever Your 
Prophet, Sayyidina Muhammad S, asked Your for, and I seek 
refuge in You from whatever he sought Your protection." 

Humble and lowly that I am, I wish to submit that there is no 
harm and nothing wrong in making this request in one's own 
language. Only, the request must be made to Allah sincerely with 
proper devotion. For, du'a is actually what comes from the heart. 

ol» UJ tffr J>\ & (UoV TH) 

ji Jr ja u^J<3 '$ 'est #^3 ^=^3 



Book of Azkar and Da 'wat 229 

(^tJt «l j j) . jLJ* ja SW-cJlj 4i»*Jb jjiillj 

(1259/216) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Mas'ud 4& has reported the 
following supplication from the Prophet 8§fc: 

JT j ^SSjBi^ pftjej ^f^ji tJ&Ui UM £4ih 

"O Allah! We ask You to make Your mercy on us definite, and 
(We ask You) for confirmation of Your forgiveness (through 
deeds of that type), and for safety from all sins, and to enable us 
to do pious deeds , and for honouring us with Paradise and 
delivering us from Hell." (Hakim) 

Oai ffofx, *Jk\ jtffi" >'jLJ> gjj & (m./Yw) 
^ Sjtfj 'ja Jritil j^ui ii-u- 

(1260/217) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Mas'ud 4§e> has reported that 
the following supplication from the Messenger of Allah B^: 

> jr ^ ^ tjui^ tj fa ^ c-ii Oji j 

"O Allah! Protect me with Islam while I am standing. Protect me 
with Islam while 1 am sitting and Protect me with Islam while I 
am lying down (whether 1 am standing, sitting, or sleeping — in 
every condition, protect me with Islam). And let not an enemy 
or a jealous person feel happy over my plight. O Allah! I ask 
You for all the good and blessings whose treasures are in Your 
Hands, and I seek refuge in You from all the evil whose 
treasures are in Your Hands." (Hakim) 

J&j \yp, 'Jifr fo# ( \ n \/y\ a) 

oLr 11 et jj) " ■ \'JJ> s& & 'J* ^ ife-O 

(1261/218) Sayyidina Buraydah has reported the following 
du'a from the Messenger of Allah ^1: 



230 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

"O Allah! Make me one who is grateful make me one who is 
patient and preseverant. And (O Allah! Let me (see myself) 
small in my sight but large and prominent in the eyes of other 
people." < Bazaar) 
Commentary: The concluding part of this supplication is worth 
heeding. One must consider oneself lowly and humble but go on 
requesting Allah not to cause him despised and degraded in the 
sight of other people. 

(1262/219) Imam Awza'ee has reorted the tollowing 
supplication from the Prophet 0 in a mursal form: 

jfjji JU*4 & ^ ^ 

"O Allah! I beseech You to enable to do those deeds which You 
love and to grant me sincere reliance on You and pure thoughts 
about You." (AbuNa'eem) 

(J^jV^^jJ* ^ii-J **^3 JAM 

(1263/220) It is reported by Sayyidina Ali 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah A made the following supplication: 

V 

jOjij ^i)3o iJ/ii ^ ^ 

"O Allah! Open the hearing of my heart to remember You 
(better, and to recieve Your guidance). And cause me to obey 
You and to obey Your Messenger m and to abide by Your 
Book, the Holy Qur'an. (Tabarani) 



Book of Azkar and Da'wal 



231 



s^iii) ajipj J ^-^Jj j^- cr^~ ^ ^UJij 

(1264/221) It is reported by Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4» that 
the Messenger of Allah made this supplication: 

Ut yp j j &i» 0 ji**J *s*^J <U*-j j 

"O Allah! I ask You for sound health with faith, and for faith 
with good manners, and for success in receiving my objectives 
followed by success in the Hereafter and, mercy from You and 
Your security and forgiveness with Your pleasure." 

(Tabarani, Hakim) 

(1265/222) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar has said that the 
Prophet W> made the following supplication: 

"O Allah! I ask You for faith that settles deep in my heart and 
firm conviction with true belief so that I may know that nothing 
can afflict me beyond what You have decreed for me and that 1 
may be pleased with the provision which You have appotioned 
forme." (Bazzar) 

(1266/223) It is reported by Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah <4^> that 
the Prophet ^ made this supplication: 



232 Meaning and Message of (he Traditions Part V 

"O Allah! be gracious to me in making all difficulties easy, for 
to make a difficulty easy is very easy for You. And, I ask You 
for ease and safety in the world and the Hereafter. (Tabarani) 

$\ S' i*6 J* ^« & onvmt) 

(tfcjJl^^U)' 

(1267/224) It is stated by Imam Maalik aJ* 4i i+* 3 that he learnt 
that the Prophet iH made this supplication: 

"O Allah! I ask You to enable me to do good deeds and to shun 
bad deeds, and to love the poor. And when intend to try a people 
cause me to die without putting me to trial." (Imam Maalik) 

Commentary: We have stated before that Imam Maalik U^tU^j 

was a tuba' taba'een (a successor of the successors of the 
Companions — third generation) and he has related some ahadith 
without mentioning the chain of narrators, saying simply ^ 
(Balaghni) it has reached me). These ahadith are known as 
(Balaghaat Maalik) and Scholars of hadith have regrated them as 
worthy of acceptance. The foregoing hadith is one of them. 

j j^iii" & ji j5 j-h \ r n a/ t r o ) 

<p rbJi j ji^r ju*-i iijj) "3>r^ yil*j dli* ^ # u>»3 i^fr 

(1268/225) Sayyidina Busr ibn Artah has reported this 
supplication from the Prophet Hi: 

"O Allah, let the conclusion of all our affairs be the best and 
deliver us from disappointment and disgrace in this world and 
torment in the Hereafter. (Ahmad, Ibn Hiban, Hakim) 



Book of Azkar and Da 'wat 233 
Commentary: This is a very brief but very complete supplication. 

(1269/226) Sayyidah Umm Ma'bad Khuza'iyah -3*1 has 
reported that the Prophet 0 made the following supplication: 

o* 'J*i <>? i^J J* i^*J & ti4* # ^ 

"O Allah! Purge my heart from hypocrisy, my deeds from vain 
show, my tongue from falsehood, and my eyes from wrongful 
glances. For, indeed, You know the treacherous looks of the 
eyes and that which is concealed in breasts. Nothing about me is 
hidden from You." (Hakim, Tirmizi, Khateeb) 

Commentary: It is very obvious that all these supplications are 
all-embracing and complete. They also do not demand futher 
explanation. Those who ponder over them and understand their 
inner meaning know that they are part of a treasure of intimate 
knowldege of Allah. 

May Allah cause us to value the preciuous gift of the 
Messenger of Allah ill which is presented for us. May we receive 
blessings and mercy of the Absolute Sovereign by making these 
supplications to Him. 

tfoU ULJ >-£«Cp 3i~Ju Jll JdLiij ai^Ji 

(^JL-Ji j tsJL. ai jj) . o CJI s-£j\ U-o i_5 ^ aAaJot j 

(1270/227) Sayyidina Shaddad ibn Aws has said that the 
Messenger of Allah $H taught them to make supplication to 
Allah in these words: 



234 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



"O Allah! I ask You for steadfastness and firm footedness in 
religious affairs. And I ask You for great mental ability and 
guidance. And I ask You to enable me to show gratitude for 
Your bounties and to be able to worship You with best 
devotion. And I ask You for a truthful tongue and sound heart. 
And I seek Your protection from every evil of which You know. 
And, I ask You of the good and blessings of which You know. 
And I seek forgiveness from what You know (of my sins). 
Surely, You are the All-Knowing, and nothing is hidden from 
You. 1 (Tirmizi, Nasa'i) 

Commentary: Just pay attention to the words of this supplication. 
This du'a includes every request that a Believer should make. 

This supplication is reported by Ibn Asakir too with the 
addition that after exhorting Shaddad ibn Aws 4& to make this 
supplication, the Messenger of Allah said: 

"O Shaddad ibn Aws! When you see people hoarding gold and 

sivler ask their treasure, you must take this supplication as Your 

treasure." 

& diw> j>v> g jtf ^-3 s>:> ^ > < \ y v \h y a) 

i ^33 & JS* $ n &^&'J\ 5» 
* M & ^> jis "^33 Q Jsj* ^ 

(1271/228) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah <^fe said that a man said to 
the Prophet 0, "Messenger of Allah last night I heard you 
making a supplication. I received the words very well and you 
were saying:" 

^33 Q ^ Jtyfc ^ ^ ^33 ^ ^ 

"O Allah! Forgive me my sin, and make my house spacious for 
me, and bless me in the provision You have provided me with." 
The Prophet $k asked him, "Did you find these words omit 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



235 



anything?" (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: A man gets everything from Allah when He 
blesses his provision for him, gives him a house to live in and then 
makes it spacious so that it is more than enough for him and then 
He forgives him so that he is safe in the Hereafter. 

The Messenger of Allah concluded his message with the 
question. "Did you find the words omit anything?" It meanse that 
whatever one could wish for is found in this brief supplication. The 
three small phrases in Arabic have omitted nothing. 

j* J* J3 5jS 3g jui j*3 *» j 
&f (f«y« i\ gj* ^ ^-j) j ^3 j 
^ • 1 j j> ■ 3 ^ <3**** 

(1272/229) Sayyidina Tariq Al-Ashja'ee ^ has narrated that 
someone came to the Messenger of Allah and asked him, 
"Tell me when I ask my Lord for something what should I ask 
him for and how should I ask?" He said to him that he should 

say: 

"O Allah! Forgive me my sins have mercy on me, give me 
comfort and peace, and provide me with sustenance." 

Then he joined the four fingers of his hand leaving aside the 
thumb and said, "These four expressions are enough for all your 
needs of this world and the Hereafter." (Ibn Abi Shaybah) 

Commentary: Indeed, if anyone gets from Allah in this life what 
he needs of sustenance and peace and comfort and is assured of 
forgiveness and mercy in the Hereafter then he has every thing one 
could wish for. 

This supplication is again one of the brief and comprehensive 
supplication taught by the Prophet |j|>. 

There is a hadith in Sahih Muslim which tells us that when 
anyone embraced Islam, the Messenger of Allah taught him 
how to offer prayers (salah) and urged him to make this 
supplication: 



236 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

(1273/230) Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Ulnar has reported this 
suppliction from the Messenger of Allah H: 

"O Allah, grant me security with Your power, admit me to Your 
mercy, enable me to spend my life in Your obedience and 
worship (so that 1 continue to obey and worship You till the last 
moments of my life), and let my life end with my best deed and 
make Paradise its reward." (Bayhaqi) 

(1274/231) Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud has said that the 
Messenger of Allah made this supplication: 

"O Allah! I ask You for Your favours and Your mercy for no 
one owns them except You." (Tabarani) 
Commentary: We have pointed out earlier in this book The 
Ma'riful lladith that the material bounties and blessigns of Allah 
received in this world are called in the terminology of the Qur'an 
J-fli (Fad!) and the spiritual next-world blessings are called 
(Rahmah). Hence the supplication may be interpreted in this way: 
"O Allah! You alone are the Owner of the blessings of this 
world and the next, the material and the spiritual. There is no 
one besides You who may give us anything. Hence, I request 
You alone for the blessings of both kinds." 



Book of Azkar and Da \val 237 



(1275/232) It is related by Abdullah ibn Umar4&that the 
Messenger of Allah iHl made his supplication in these words: 

"O Allah! I ask You for a pure, righteous life and a clear, 
straight death (without disgrace or an evil mark) and a return (to 
the original place) without regret and disgrace. 

(Bazzaai\ Hakim, Tabarani) 

Commentary: There are only three stages in a man's life: 

(i) The life of this world. 

(ii) Death. 

(iii) The life of the Hereafter. 

The supplication covers all the three stages in very simple 
words and style. 

li^-j tir^- ^ i^ 1 ffi (t*>V) 8>!> <>J j* ( > y v v y r r) 

(1276/233) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4^> has narrated the 
following supplication from the Messenger of Allah ^: 

jLJ» Jj*t Jl^- Abb 3 jPtj Jl*- 

"O Allah, Cause me to profit by what You have taught me (so 
that 1 am enabled to practice what I know) and give me the 
knowledge that will profit me and increase me in knowledge. 
All praise belongs to Allah in every condition and I seek refuge 
in Allah from the condition of the dwellers of the Fire." 

(Tirmizi, Ibn Majah) 



(1277/234) Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Umar has transmitted 
this invocation from the Messenger of Allah ill: 



238 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



"O Allah, do not leave me to my slef even for the twinkling of 
an eye and do not take away from me the good (deed or 
anythinglese) which You have bestowed on me." (Bazzaar) 

Commentary: Whatever good man possesses is besotwed on him 
by Allah alone. If Allah turns away His sight from man for so much 
as a moment and leaves him to himself then he will deprive 
himself. Hence every knowing slave of Allah must make it his call: 
" O Allah, do not entrust me for a moment even to my self. Keep 
Your eyes on me always and ever be favourable to me." 

■ilp 6 J* vJSojj J££i j^Ur (i&jly) liJip 4* ( \ t ya/\to) 

(1278/235) The mother of the Faithful, Sayyidah Ayshah & ^ 
if* has reported that the Messenger of Allah ^ made the 
following suplication: 

& j**£tla&l) J* «-£*3j t^J 1 J**"' 

"O Allah! Let the greater share of my provision be during my 
old age and when my life is on the verge of being seized. "Hakim 

Commentary: Paucity of provision can be very telling in old age 
when one is at the fag end of one's life. The reason is that, at that 
age, one is not capable of doing much work. Besides, that period of 
one's life is just a step away from death and every Believer must 
hope to devote himself to Allah and prepare for the next world by 
giving up all other engagements. Therefore, this du'a of the 
Prophet ^1 must be the heart beat of every Believer. 

J^^lLiij Q^g 'Ji. J£j>3j ^.ji Ji^-t ffi 

(1279/236) Sayyidina Anas 4^> has said that the Messenger of 
Allah 0 made supplication in the following words: 

"O Allah, cause the last portion of my life to be the best, and the 
best of my deeds to be the last ones, and the best of my days the 



Book oj'Azkar and Da'wat 239 
day on which I meet You." (Tabarani) 

Up J» jlj UT^Pl ^l" (lPj*>) lilit^i^P O YA »/TTV) 

Jii uSj Uiii U ^U»ij jUJi uiij ui^Stj iL jlfcj 

(1280/237) Sayyidina Abu Umamah has narrated the 
following supplication from the Messenger of Allah ill: 

jUJl ja llsrsJj ia»Jl uI>Sl j Up Ji>j1 j Ui^-jlj ul^*' |»4JJ' 

Jr^i UU£ JLi J~ty Jt5 uSj J3 ".^ Uii U £Ut j 

"O Allah! Forgive lis! Have mercy on us! And be pleased with 
us! Accept from us!Admit us to Paradise and protect us from 
Hell! And rectify our affairs!" 

Someone said to the Prophet ill, "Make more (supplication)," 
and he said, "Is it not that we have included the blessings, all of 
them?" (Ahmad, Ibn Majah, Tabarani) 

Commentary: This supplication inculdes a request to Allah for 
forgiveness. His mercy. His pleasure and acceptance. It also 
includes a request for admittance to Paradise and deliverance from 
Hell. The final appeal is to correct and reform the suplicant's affairs 
and overall condition" 

arUiliUJ^U'lj 

It leaves no human desire outside the scope of this supplication. 
If anyone asks more then that would only be an expansion of the 
basic requests contained in this invocation. That is why the Prophet 
ill asked this supplication all that a man could need in this world 
and the next?) 

Jf\fcj4s.%\ JU^Ji j\ j/jj. if Gu\/xrA) 

r } uij jilj aJju #j jJ^a lijj »ji & 

jp'/j u>& rj tyj ui>i j uV<) <4 *S ^/'J 

(1281/238) Sayyidina Umar Ibn Al-Khattab ^ has said that 
one day the Prophet ill received a revelation (wahi). He turned 



240 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



towards the qiblah and raised his hands and supplicated Allah in 
these words: 

"O Allah! Increase us and do not decrease us (in numbers). 
Honour us and do not humilate us. Give us all kinds of Your 
bounties and do not withhold from us. Choose us and do not 
prefer others to us. Please us and be pleased with us." 

(Ahmad, Tirmizi) 

Commentary: This hadith goes on to say that the initial ten verses 
of the surah Al-Mu'minoon were revealed to him and he had found 
an extra-ordinary effect on himself because of that . That is why he 
made this supplication for his Companions and Ummah. This 
hadith also tells us that if a supplication has to be made with a 
greater devotion then the supplicant must face the qiblah and raise 
his hands. 

JS^J ^rta 0^3 ^> ^Jl cJi Jsft op 4J-3 ^ji3 
jo^i j ^ruji Jjs ^i ^ 4ljJ) . £ip 1^3 t^is ^ 

(1282/239) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Mas'ud 4& has reported that 
the Prophet 0 made the following supplication: 

4*$i ci» ^ i>u 4Jj 1^3 uVijjij iL^iSj UjUfo lpOJ-i 
u& i^is ijj Jk^j ^/ti'ifei j ^> 

"O Allah! Correct our mutual relations and affairs, and reconcile 
our hearts, and guide us to path of peace. And deliver us from 
the dark, misled ways into light, and save us from all kinds of 
immoral acts — whatever is open of that and whatever is secret. 
O Allah! Grant us blessings in our hearing, our sight, our hearts 



Book oj'Azkar and Da'wat 



241 



and , indeed, in our spouses and our children. And relent 
towards us. You are the Ever-Relenting, the Most Merciful. And 
make us grateful for Your favours, make us appreciate and 
praise them and value and accept them. And (O Allah!) grant 
them to us fully and perfectly. (Tabarani, Hakim) 

Commentary: This is the most comprehensive of supplications. It 
begins with a request to bring mutual relations on a correct line and 
join hearts in friendship. The truth is that if hearts are not 
compromised and people bear malice towards one another then 
they will find themselves losers from the religious angle as well as 
from the worldly point of view. The blessings of Allah, whether 
religious or worldly, material or spirirtual , can all be properly 
utilised if society is not be set with the evil of malice and hatred. 
Also, mutual harmony of hearts and happy relationship are by 
themselves commendable characteristics of the Believers. 

The request for blessigns in eyes, ears, spouses and children 
implies constancy and continuance of these blessings without 
withdrawl. It is also a request for ability to recieve from them the 
benefit that Allah has placed in them. 

The ability to value a blessing and be grateful for it and praise 
it is also a Divine blessing. One who is not given to appreciate a 
blessing is a deprived person. Hence, we must continue to ask for 
that; and in the manner of a helpless and needy person we must 
also request Allah to perfect His blessings on us. 

CJI t#jj tfljfc ^Jj ±& 4/, <&$y.) Ufl» ^ ( \ T Ar/Y i • ) 

( ,283/ 24£) Sayyidah Ayshah i^JJi^j has said that the 
Prophet 0 made the following supplication: 

itt ji j 1& *A fl*3 & & ci #3 j a 4,3 

"O my Lord! Bestow on my soul its piety (and remove its 
wrongs) Purify it, for You are the Best of those who purify. You 
alone are its Guardian and Master. (Ahmad) 



242 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



(1284/241) Sayyidina Abu Umamah 4fr has said that the 
Messenger of Allah S made supplication to Allah in these 
words: 

"O Allah! I ask You for nqfs mutma'innah (a peaceful soul) that 
finds happiness with You, and firmly believes in the meeting 
with You after its death, and is pleased with Your decrees, and 
is contented with what You bestow." (Al-Mukhtarab,Tabarani) 

Commentary: The Nqfs mutma'innah is described in the hadith. 

This blessigns is granted to the chosen slaves of Allah. May He 

grant it to us! Aameen 

^ ^ £ft $i» jl Jfi dil fa JU> 

(1285/242) Sayyidina Al-Harith al-A'war said that Sayyidina Ah 
4fr said to him that he would teach him a supplication he had 
learnt from the Messenger of Allah %. And he said that it was: 

iafcj JsSafc i&ij ^ ^ £fc ^it 

"O Allah! Open the ears of my heart that I might remember You 
(and recieve Your guidance and the Qur'an) and make me obey 
You and obey Your Messenger $1 and act according to Your 
Book, the Holy Qur'an." (Tabarani) 

(1286/243) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah has reported that the 
Messenger of Allah j& made this supplication: 



Book of Azkar and Da'wal 



243 



"O Allah! Make me such lhal fear You always as though 1 see 
You (full of Majesty and Authority) until I meet You (on my 
death). Make me fortunate by bestowing on me laqwa (Your 
fear and piety) and let me not be unfortunate by disobeying 
You." (Tabarani) 

Commentary: The foregoing supplications, particularly the above 
one, are made up of brief phrases which request great blessings. 
These supplications are a heritage of the Prophet ill. May Allah 
cause us to value and esteem these legacies of the Prophet Ji&. 



^r>tfj l£o fill $ J3 JS^U ^ p&y ^% J&\ 

(1287/244) Sayyidina Ibn Umar has related that the Prophet 
made the follwing supplication: 

<^L^tf- ^'/j^i V^ 1 ii^* 3 Ja^^ 2 * 6s4* <5^JJ* 

"O Allah! Let me have eyes that shed tears profusely and water 
the heart with tears that flow out of fear of Your punishment 
and wrath before the tears of many eyes become blood and the 
teeth of many wrong-doers become cinders." (Ibn Asakir) 

Commentary: Those people who are blessed with true knowledge 
and insight consider an eye as alive and seeing only if it weeps — 
raining tears, as it were, — from fear of Allah. Their hearts are 
quenched with these tears and that is why they request Allah to 
give them eyes that w eep. 

4^ ^ fa ( lpji>) JJlkJl ggjfl (UAA/UO 

^313 ^ fa' 3 l# *J\ ^Vl 

^ ^ 6h\ jit ££\ &yj>\ 13*3 j! <3>^ $h 



244 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

(1288/245) Sayyidina Haytham ibn Maalik At-Taaiy 4& has 
reported that the Messenger of Allah made this supplication: 

>-&^ Jr* ^ # i> 

"O Allah! Make Your love dearer to me than every other thing 
and let Your fear be to me the most feared of all things. And cut 
off from me desire of everything worldly against the longing to 
meet You. And while You cool the eyes of the men of the world 
with what they crave of worldly possessions, cool my eyes with 
obedinece and worship (by making me interested in worship so 
that 1 involve myself deeply in it and so have my eyes cooled)". 

(AbuNa'eem) 

jtf-j & > J^j Jtf J* S»SJU» ( \ T A <\/Y U) 

(i-jju j=Jl 81 jj) . jij IJLPl jii aIp 

(1289/246) Sayyidina Abu Darda' 4& has said that the 
Messenger of Allah 0 said, "Of the invocations of Prophet 
Dawood SSSsfl this one stands out:" 

"O Allah! I ask You for Your love (so cause me to love You), 
and love of him who loves You, and love for deeds that will 
take me to Your love. 

O Allah! Make Your love dearer to me than myself, my family 
and cold water." 

Sayyidina Abu Darda' added that the Messenger of Allah 
said about Sayyidina Dawood whenever he mentioned him 
that he was the most worshipping human being. (Tirmizi) 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



245 



Commentary: The Prophet HI liked very much this supplication 
of Sayyidina Dawood for it reflected Prophet Dawood's 
enthusiastic love for Allah. That is why he taught it to his 
Companions 4e>- Although the qualities and characeristics of all 
Prophets p$J* are common yet there are certain traits in some 
Prophets f**~J' r ^ which distinguish them from others. 
Accrodingly, Prophet Dawood $HsQ\ was known for greater 
devotion and much worship. 

J^fi ill J^] 'J. ^jUtft &y_tfk\JL* jf. ( U <\ . ft i y) 

S^J ^ Jft «** J* Jj£ & 4*% 

Uj i^jy U-3 ^ S y 4ix?-U c-^-l U-» (^Sjj U *$AJI t— 5 JL* <U?- (^^i 

(^i-^Jiotjj) .4-^1*13^ lily iLcrll 4-^' ^^^433 

(1290/247) Sayyidian Abdullah ibn Yazid Al-Khatmi Ansari has 
stated that the following is one of the supplications of the 
Messenger of Allah: 

Lsr*jj u p* 13 * ^-S^e V* *S*r ^ijjjl ^1 

lily iii^-li lL? ^ cJjj 4**?* ^ (i! 5 J* 4^' 

"O Allah! Provide me with Your love and the love of those 
whose love will benefit me with You. 

O Allah! With the things that I love and which You have 
provided me grant me strength to do what You love. 

O Allah! With the hours available to me because of the things 
that 1 crave but which You have not provided me let me devote 
myself to do what You love." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: It is possible that man may use the things that he 
craves for, and which Allah gives him, in such a way that he begins 
to neglect Allah through deep involvement in them. It is also 
possible that he might distance himself from Allah because of his 
involvement in those things, may Allah forbid that. In the same 
way, if he does not get those things, he might involve himself in 
undesirable pursuit and waste his time. 

Therefore, man must always pray to Allah that if he grants him 



246 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Pari V 



his wishes. He may also enable him to use them to earn His 
pleasure and nearness to Him. Again, if he does not get what he 
wants, Allah may make him use the spare time available to him to 
please Allah. 

Without doubt, every supplication of the Messenger of Allah 
0 and every phrase of it is a treasure of insight and intimate 
knowledge of Allah. 

(1291/248) Sayyidina lmran ibn Husayn said that the 
Prophet taught him the following supplication: 

"O Allah! Put in my heart that in which I find good for me. and 
save me from the mischief of my (base) self. And keep me in 
Your protection." (Tirmizi) 

tit ,JL) &%\ ju ^ # iai pi (\ xiY/Yt O 

(tf JL. >Jt at j j) . J JiP ^ c4 44*^1 6 ^ 

(1292/249) It is narrated by the Mother of the Faithful. Sayyidah 
Umm Salamah t#* that whenever the Prophet i£ was 

with her. he made this supplication frequently. 

"O Turner of hearts! Keep my heart steadfast on Your religion!" 

(Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The hadith goes on to quote Sayyidah Umm 
Salamah \#*&\ ^ j that she asked the Prophet $k why was it that he 
made this du'u often. (Perhaps, she meant to say that he was safe 
from committing mistakes and there was no need for him to make 
such a request.) The Prophet & said to her, "Allah holds the heart 
of every man. It is in His Power to keep it on the Straight Path or to 
let it go astray." The Prophet H meant to assert that his conduct 
also depended on the Will of Allah and so he too needed to pray to 
Allah and request Him. 



Book of Azkar and Da 'wat 247 

Surely, he who has intimate knowledge of his own self and of 
Allah will behave in this manner and he will never consider himself 
safe and protected. Indeed, this is the elevated station of Allah's 
slaves: 

(The more close one is, the more he is subject to censure.) 

& Jjto inij j# Ji^ij >i> J\ &j 
^jj^ *b»"-{jY$ A 'Jj^ 33* 

(1293/250) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar <$fe> has reported that 
the Prophet made this supplication: 

ur*h^ j& tfflj ^i* 1 * J3 a t*Jl? vjdJ 5 * ^ l^ 1 

"O Allah! i am weak, give strength to my weakeness that I may 
seek Your pleasure. And turn me by my forelocks towards what 
is good (piety). And, make Islam the ultimate goal of my 
pleasure (so that 1 am extremely happy on entering it fully). 

O Allah! I am weak, so turn my weakness into strength. I am 
humilated. so give me honour. And I am indigent and poor, so 
provide me with my necessities." (Tabai-ani) 

* 

(1294/25 1) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Mas'ud has said that the 
following supplication was among the Prophet's 0 
supplications, 

"O Allah! Make me dear to You. And, make me such that I 
consider myself humble before You and in the eyes of other 
slaves (of Yours) make me honourable, and protect me from bad 
manners and distance me from them." (Ibn Laal) 



248 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Commentary: It is the greatest asset of a slave of Allah if Allah 
loves him. Every Believer must cherish it with his heart. This 
supplication requests for this blessing right in its first words. 

In the same way. it is also a greater favour of Allah on a slave if 
he regards himself as humble and lowly but his fellow-men regard 
him highly and give him respect. In the preceding pages, we have 
seen the supplication of the Messenger of Allah ill: 

("O Allah! Let me be small in my own eyes but great in the eyes 
of men.) 

y£ Js3j fjto £j* ^ JsS jtftf *W cJi fifo 
ifiiwi /3| M< ^ ^ e** ^ ^3 ^ 
iW 

"-j^r»> ^ S *W ^3 

(1295/252) Sayyidina Jabir has said that the Messenger of 
Allah %s exhorted him to make this supplication: 

^LUlj ^j»J JLnf»j ^jS-»'j i*>JJ tje? U J tfj^J 

"O Allah! You are the Mighty Creator of everything. O Allah! 
You are All-Hearing, All-Knowing. O Allah You are the 
Forgiving, The Merciful. O Allah! You are the Lord of the great 
Throne! O Allah, You are The Most Generous, The Benevolent. 
Forgive me! Have mercy on me! Protect me! Provide me 
sustenance! Conceal my faults! Support me! Grant me honour 
and rank! Guide me a right! Do not let me go astray! And admit 
me to Paradise through Your mercy, O The Most Merciful of 
those who show Mercy." 



Book of Azkur and Da'wat 24V 

Sayyidina Jabir 4k> said further that the Messenger of Allah 0 
exhorted him to make this supplication and said to him, "Learn 
it and teach it to those who will follow you." (Daylami) 

Commentary: This is a very comprehensive supplication. He who 

does not learn it is indeed in a great loss. 

May Allah cause us to realise the worth of these precious 

words. And, may He cause us to derive benefit from them. 

Aameen\ 



SEEKING REFUGE IN ALLAH 



In the ahadith that transmit to us the supplications which the 
Messenger of Allah $k made to Allah himself or taught his 
Ummah. most of them comprise requests for blessings in this life 
or the next, physical or spiritual, individual or collective. They 
contain a spec i ficd request to get a desire or a need fulfilled. The 
supplications that we have seen in this Book so far are of this 
nature, and are positive. 

There are supplications apart from these in which no request is 
made for any favour or a specified desire or need but the Prophet 
iiSfjft has taught us to seek refuge in Allah from an evil, a trial or a 
punishment in this world or the Hereafter. 

We have seen that the supplications of the first type do not 
leave out request for any good, favour or blessing of this life or the 
Next. The Messenger of Allah has not omitted any request to 
Allah in these supplications and every imaginable goodness and 
piety and desire is inculded. In the same way, we can safely say of 
the second type of supplications that he has sought protection of 
Allah from every imaginable evil, mischief, corruption, trial and 
calamity and has taught his Ummah accrodingly. 

For those people who are intelligent and understand it, this is a 
bright and clear a miracle as can be. His supplications embrace all 
needs and desires of man. They may relate to this life or the next. 
They may relate to his spiritual life or physical. Or, they may have 
to do with an individual life or a collecitve life and have manifest 
or secret character. They may be of an affairmative and definite 
nature or they may be requests to avert and avoid something. We 
cannot point out to the most trivial need of man and say that the 
Prophet's supplications do not include it: in fact, he Ivas 
requested Alalh for the least imaginable needs in the best possible 



252 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



manner and has taught his Ummah to use those words. The Qur'an, 
too, has within its contents supplications of these two types - 
requests for something of a definite nature and requests to avert 
something. Its last two chapters, the sural Al-Falaq and the surah 
An-Naas are entirely of the second type from the first word to the 
last, they teach us to seek refuge in Allah and are, therefore, called 
the ma'uzatayn and the text of the Qur'an concludes with these 
surah. 

It is in following the style of the Qur'an which has concluded its 
text with these chapters of the nature of seeking to avert something 
that we have chosen to place the ahadith of this nature in our 
concluding pages. These ahadith are made up of such invocations 
which seek Allah's protection from evil, mischief, trial, corruption, 
bad deeds and bad manners and all those things which are disliked. 
Let us now see the ahadith. 

jjLj ds> %\ JU ill Jll Jl§ iyjjk 'Jfr 0 Y 11/Y or) 
.frlJL^l ajU-ij frUaili ijLt j tliiJl £ j ja 4JL 'jij*J 

(1296/253) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah ^ has reported that the 
Messenger of Allah said, "Seek refuge in Allah from severe 
calamity, the depth of misery, evil destiny, and triumphant 
mockery of enemies." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: On the face of it this hadith exhorts us to seek 
refuge from four things . However, we cannot find any evil, 
hardship, difficulty or anxiety of this world or the next which may 
be outside the purview of this classification. 

The first kind is t*AJi l#r (severity and pain of calamity). The 
•jUi (Al-Bala) is used for every condition which is painful and 
worrying to man and and he is put to test because of it and it could 
be faced in religion or worldly life. It might be of a spiritual kind or 
physical, individual or collective. This one word embraces all 
problems, difficulties, calamities and trial. 

The second kind is tii-iJi (depth of misery) and the third 
kind frUaili if (evil desitiny). The hadith urges us to seek refuge 
from these two kinds too. The comibnation of the two types is very 
obvious . The man who recieves the protection of Allah from every 



Book of Azkar and Da'wal 



253 



kind of misfortune and misery, and evil destiny, in fact , has every 
thing he could want. 

The last kind from which we are asked to seek refuge is Jjua 
tu^i (mockery of enemies on our reverses). Often happiness and 
mockery of enemies is very painful spiritually and it is very 
unbearable. This has been mentioned specifically although the first 
three kinds encompass it. 

The correct and appropriate words of the supplication are thus: 

"O Allah I seek Your 

protection from severity of a ^» ^SAyA £\ 

trial, from being overtaken by , , „ ' _ 

misery and misfortune, from tHJ 5 ,U 4 J1 hTA? $Q> S 
evil destiny and from rejoicing *\l*^\\*l\j f \'y& i 
of enemies and their mockery." 

£L>j Jtflj ^Jfj ajdlj '^j, ^ Js; Sy, J, 

(1297/254) It is reported by Sayyidina Anas <fc> that the 
Prophet lip supplicated Allah in these words: 

jtfij j-^j ^3 ojAJij ^ ^ ^ i jtf $\ 

"O Allah! I sek refuge in You from anxiety and grief, inability 
and sloth, higardliness and cowardice, burden of indebtedness 
and coecion of men." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In this supplication refuge is sought in Allah from 
eight things. Four of them — anxiety and grief, indebtedness and 
coercion of men — are such prblems that if a sensistive man is 
overpwered by any of them, he misses the joy of life and he is 
spiritually uneasy so that he finds himself incapable of doing many 
things. He cannot then achieve success in the world and his ability 
to improve his next life is hampered. 

As for the remaining four things — inability sloth, cowardice 
and miserliness — they are weaknesses that take away from him 
boldness and hard-working nature. Again, he cannot hope to 



254 Meaning and Message of (he Traditions Pari V 

achieve success in this life and the next and thus is unable to attain 
the position that could bring him the pleasure of Allah. 

J>: fa $\ & & P"A/roo) 

A fite tiidj ^ i ^ a^; 

y* ^3 jiSi ^1*3 yft ^3 3^ ^3 <ir? 

J^il ^ 'Jl^ill & > j*j ^ > JfJ ^ 

^ # ±& J* ur ^ £3 ti*J 5& *s ^ 

(1298/255) Sayyidah Ayshah if* has said that the Prophet 
used to say: 



^iipj ^aii &3 $ M3 ^ of & ffi 
js J** 4>> ^ ft ri*3 ^ i* «^ J** 

"O Allah! 1 seek' refuge in You from sloth (and slackness) and 
decrepitude (old, infirm age when one is unable to do anything 
at all) and from the burden of debt and all kinds of sin. 
O Allah! I seek refuge in You from the punishment in Hell and 
the trial that leads to Hell, from the trial in the grave and the 
torment in the grave, from the evil of the trial of wealth and 
riches and the evil of the trial of poverty and destitution, and 
from the evil of the trial of dajjal. 

O Allah! Wash away the stains of my sins with snow and hail 
water and purify my heart (of the filth of bad deeds and evil 
conduct) as a white garment is purified from filth, and put my 
sins as far away from me as You have put the East away from 
the West. (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Among other things, refuge in Allah is sought from 
tS> extreme old age. Life is requested to such an extent that the 
senses are not disturbed and one is able to precieve and think 
correctly (so that he continues to earn for the Hereafter); this is a 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



255 



great blessing of Allah. But the old age that robs man from his 
abilities and capabilities is from what refuge in Allah is sought. 
The Qur'an refers to it as Jijt 1 (Meanest of age, most abject 
age) arid f j* is that age. 

In this suppliction, Allah is requested to give protection from 
punishment in the Fire as well as from the trial of Fire, and from 
the punishment in the grave as well as from the trial in the grave. 
Punishment in the fire in the punishment that its denizens will be 
given for their serious crimes of disbelief and polytheism. 
Similarly, punishment in the grave is the punishment these people 
will receive in the grave. 

However, there are other criminals who are not first rank 
criminals. Their crime is of a lesser degree than the ones punished 
in Hell and tormented in the grave. They will not be thrown in Hell 
like the denizens of Hell and they will not be punished in the grave 
with the first-degree punishment. However, they will have to face 
some of the torment of Hell-fire and the grave and that would be 
enough punishment for them. In the opinion of this humble writer 
this is what is meant by, p\ and jJ»J> iui (translated respectively 
as trial of the Fire and trial of the grave). The Messenger of Allah 

has asked for Allah's protection from the torment in the grave as 
well as from the trial of the Fire and the trial of the fire and the 
torment in the grave, and he has taught us too to do so by the 
example of his own action. 

The trial of dajjal, too, is among the great trials from which the 
Prophet ft sought refuge in Allah, and asked the Believers to do 
likewise. May Allah protect us from the trial of dajjal (about which 
the Messenger of Allah ft informed us) and from every other trial 
of similar nature. And may He keep us on the believing and Islamic 
course till we die. Aameen\ 

This du'a also includes a request to be protected from the trial 
of riches and the trial of poverty. Wealth and riches are not bad 
things. Rather it is a blessing of Allah for a man to possess wealth 
. if he is enabled to give his rights as a wealthy man and to spend his 
wealth in a proper way. Sayyidina Uthman used his wealth in 
such a pious way that the Messenger of Allah ft said about him, 
O.An.Nahl, 16:70 



256 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



"Uthman 4^= may do anything after this, it will not count against 
him. Anything he does will not count against Uthman after 
this". (Tirmizi) 

In the same way, if poverty is accompanied by patience and 
contenment then it is a great blessing of Allah. The Prophet 
chose for himself and his family the life of poverty and he extolled 
the life of poverty and the poor and described their merits. 

However, if wealth makes a man arrogant and he spends it 
wrongly then he is following in the footsteps of Qaroon and will go 
to Hell. In the same way, if poverty and want are not faced with 
patience and contentment and forbidden deeds are committed to 
counter it then that is a punishment from Allah. It is about this 
attitude that the Prophet W> said: 

"Poverty may lead a man to disbelief." jJwtilT 

Hence, it is this evil and trial of riches and poverty from which 
refuge is sought and it is something from which one must seek 
protection thousands of times. 

The supplication concludes with the request to wash away 
stains of sin, purify the heart and distance the supplicant from sins. 
Although it looks like a positive supplication with a request to 
receive something but in fact it is a supplication of the second type 
with a request to avert something. It seeks to avert sin. 

C jifij j*Jij j-^Jtj # Jfcjjtf £ 

(1299/256) Sayyidina Zayd ibn Arqam has quoted the 
Messenger of Allah W> as saying: 

yllpj f^jlj jA?Yj ^J(j J-^J»3 j*^ # cJ^i>1 ^ 

igj cji l£j jjf- cJt l^Tjj uyr ^-jU 01 ^jUi ^1 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



257 



"O Allah, I seek reufge in You from incapacity and slackness, 
from cowardice and niggardliness, from extreme, infirm old age 
and torment in the grave. 

O Allah! Cause my soul to fear You and purify it. You are the 
Best of those who purify it. You are its Patron and Master. 

O Allah! I seek refuge in You from a knowldge that does not 
profit, from a heart that is not submissive, from a (greedy) soul 
that is not ever satisfied, and from a supplication that is not 
granted an answer." (Muslim) 

Commentary: Through this supplication, the supplicant requests 
Allah for protection from knowledge that does not benefit, a heart 
that does not humble itself, a greedy soul that is never satisfied and 
a supplication that is not answered. Accordingly, it means that he 
requests Allah for knowledge that benefits, a heart that is 
submissive, a soul that is purged of greed and shows contentment, 
and a du 'a that receives an answ er. 

%\ JU> # & Jii 'jU cf ( \ r . ./toy) 

(1300/257) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar said that one of 
the supplications of the Messenger of Allah Hi was: 

"O Allah! I seek refuge in You from the decline of Your 
favours, withdraw! of Your protection (from me), sudden 
punishment from You, and all (kinds of) Your displeasure." 

(Muslim) 

Commentary: We can see from this supplication of the Messenger 
of Allah indeed, from all supplications of this nature — that, 
although he was a Prophet SSjSsR and Messenger and had attainded a 
very close rank with Allah, yet he was very fearful of the decree of 



258 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Allah and vicissitudes of fate. He always considered himself 
dependent on the protection of Allah. "The more one is close, the 
more answerable he is!" 

(1301/258) It is reported by Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah that 
the Messenger of Allah w* used to make this supplication: 

"O Allah! I seek refuge in You from schism (mutual discord and 
grave disagreement), hypocrisy and evil character." 

(Abu Dawood, Nasa'i) 

Commentary: The Arabic word Jiii {shiqaq) is a violent 
disagreement that leads the gruops to separate form each other. 
They follow diverse courses. 

Hypocrisy implies a contradiction between one's external and 
intnernal attitudes. Besides religious pretence, it is also found in 
man's practical life. 

These three things — discord, hypocirsy and bad characrter — 
destroy a man's religion as well as his worldly life. Although the 
Prophet $1 was innocent and safe from these destructive things yet 
he asked for Allah's protection from them. May Allah cause us to 
endeavour to keep away from these things just as behaves a 
Believer to attempt to shun them. And may He cause us to seek 
protection of Allah from these weaknesses. Aameenl 

(1302/259) It is reported by Shakal ibn Humayd <s&> that he 
asked the Prophet of Allah to teach him a ta'awwuz by 
which he might seek refuge in Allah. The Prophet held his 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 



259 



hand in his and said to him that he should say: 

"O Allah! I seek Your protection from the evil in what I hear, 
from the evil of what I see, from the evil of my tongue, from the 
evil of my heart and from the evil arising from my sexual 
passion." (Abu Dawood, Tirmizi, Nasa'i) 

Commentary: The evil of hearing, sight, speech or tongue, 
thinking or heart and sexual passion is that one is led to use them 
against the Commands of Allah. The result is the wrath of Allah 
and His punishment. Therefore, we must always ask for Allah's 
protection from the mischief of these things. We can save ourselves 
only if He saves us therwise we will be involved in the mischief 
and suffer destitution. 

(1303/260) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah <$h said that the Messenger 
of Allah sjfe used to say: 

"O Allah! I seek refuge in You from hunger, for it is an evil 
bedfellow, and I seek refuge in You from treachery, for it is an 
evil intimate friend." (Abu Dawood, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: If a man is hungry, he cannot sleep and he keeps 
changing sides. This is why hunger is described in the hadith as an 
evil bedfellow (a companion of the bed). And, treachery or an act 
of betrayal is done always in secret. Only the perfidious person 
knows that he has behaved unfaithfully. That is why treachery is 
termed ktk» {bitanah) . 

By seeking refuge in Allah from hunger and treachery, the 
Messengr of Allah 0 has demonstrated extraordianary servitude 
which, indeed, is a mark of his distinction. There is for us a great 



260 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

lesson in it. 

(JU*ftj*Jiaj|i«ijj) 

(1304/261) Sayyidina Anas <&> said that the Messenger of Allah 
0 used to make this supplication: 

(ritf Jji id ijUAi f i W< j ^ « JKjl j« is fife 

"O Allah! fseek refuge in You from (white) leprosy, black 
leprosy (elephantiatis), madness, and from all evil diseases." 

(Abu Dawood, Nasa'i) 

Commentary: Leprosy, elephantiatis, madness and other foul 
diseases are such that people tend to keep away from those who are 
afflicted with any of them. The patient, therfore, becomes 
disheartened and prefers death to life rather than endure the stare of 
the people. 

Without doubt, every one must seek protection of Allah from 
these maladies. However, minor and ordinary ailments are a form 
of mercy from Allah from certain points of view. 

ijpju: fa jfc'ii JU> j>-3 # r& J} & < ^ r • ° m y) 
J>*3 Sf A% ^ 6s A* J* 

* * -J , y «* 

(1305/262) Sayyidina Abu Al-Yasar has said that the 
Messenger of Allah lH used to make this supplication: 

"O Allah! I seek refuge in You from the falling down (of a 
heavy object) over me. And I seek refuge in You from (my own) 
falling down (from a height), and from drowning (in a sea, or 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



261 



the like) and burning in fire, and descrepitude. And 1 seek 
refuge in You from the devil harming me in the hour of death. 
And 1 seek refuge in You fiom dying while retreating from the 
battle-field. And ! seek refuge in You from dying of the sting of 
a poisonous creature." (Abu Dawood, Nasa'i) 

Commentary: To die under the weight of a collapsing heavy 
object, or by falling down from a height, or from being drowned or 
burnt, or from the sting of a venemous creature like a snake are all 
examples of sudden and unexpected death. Besides, man has an 
instinctive fear of these things. Also, a sudden death — as any of 
t h ese — does not allow the dying man to prepare himself by 
refreshing his faith, repenting to Allah or seeking His forgiveness 
(which he normally is allowed in other forms of death which are 
called natural ). Therefore, a Believer must always seek protection 
of Allah from a death which is sudden and unexpected. 

In the same way, every Believer must seek refuge in Allah lest 
he die while fleeing from the battle-field. On the same count, 
refuge must also be sought from being misled and prompted by the 
devil at the time of death. For, all depends on how life ends, on a 
pious note or otherwise. 

In other ahadith, anyone who dies in one of these ways of 
sudden death from which refuge is sought in this supplication, is 
given the glad tidings of martyrdom and he is raised to the status of 
a shaheed (martyr). However, there is no contradiction in these two 
things — the suppplication and the ahadith. 

Given man's weakness, we must all seek Allah's protection 
from these forms of death. However, if anyone dies in one of these 
ways through Divine decree, we must remember that Allah is The 
Most Merciful of those who show mercy. We must expect that He 
will grant the dying man an honorary martyrdom because of his 
sudden death; if his belief and deeds allow for it then we must be 
certain that the Gracious, Compassionate Lord will definitely give 
him that status.^ j jjiM (Surely, He is the Forgiving, the Merciful). 



262 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

(1306/263) Sayyidina Qutbah ibn Maaiik ^ has said that the 
Prophet used to make this supplication: 

"O Allah! i seek refuge in You from despised morals, deeds and 
passions." (Tirmizi) 

jjiii jiij 4Jp ^ JU> 6^ £M ^ ( i r • y/y i 0 

(1307/264) Sayyidah Ayshah i^-OJi^j has said that the 
Messenger of Allah would say these words of dtt'a: 

"O Allah. I seek refuge in You from the evil of what I have done 
and from the evil of what 1 have not done." (Muslim) 

Commentary: Common people like us seek refuge in Allah from 
the evil of their bad deeds (that they have done) and from the evil 
of the omission of the good deeds that they should have done. But 
the Aaiifcen (the devout, the mystics) fear even after doing very 
good deeds and shuning evil deeds lest they begin to think of 
themselves as pious, righteous and holy (which is wrong for people 
of Allah). Hence they seek refuge from the evil of not doing bad 
deeds. It is very true that <>> yuJi ji ju^ 
(The commendable of the pious are the evil of those who are close). 

Refuge From Illness & Evil Influence 

iyl ^\y>\ ii& jjL;} ".Ay ^ 

(1308/265) Sayyidina Abdullah lbn Abbas has said that the 
Messenger of Allah used to blow on (both his grandsons) 
Hasan and I lusayn (U^-dii^j) (after reciting these words:) 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



263 



"I place you both in the protection of the perfect words of Allah 
from the influence of every devil and every stinging, venemous 
insect, and from every evil eye." 

And he said that Prophet Ibrahim $?M sought refuge for 
Sayyidina Ishaq Sayyidina Isma'il 3^1 in this way. 

(Tirmizi, Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: To blow on children after reciting these words is 
the sunnah (practice) of the Prophet 0 and before him of the 
Prophet 0 Sayyidina Ibrahim $SsB. Surely , these are very blessed 
expressions. 

&\ jj-i*3 & p& & H-*^ Jt *3°h ^3 (*^-*3 4*^ *^ tf^* 

ill pLi. Jij Ji-^ Jj^Ji j£ oili pL*j aUp 43*1 JU> 

(1309/266) Sayyidina Uthman ibn Abu Al-Aas Thaqafi 4fr has 
said that he complained to the Messenger of Allah W» that he 
felt pain in his body since the time he had embraced Islam. So, 
the Messenger of Allah said to him, "Place you hand where 
it pains you on your body, and say: 1 (In the Name of 
Allah) three times, and say again seven times: 

(I seek refuge in Allah and in His Power from the evil that I find 
and (the evil) that I fear." (Muslim) 

Commentary: This is a precious gift of the Prophet i§l for every 
kind of bodily pain. It is action comibned with ta'awwuz and it is 
very effective. 



SEEKING FORGIVENESS & REPENTING 



One of the kinds of supplication is istighfar which is to seek 
forgiveness of Allah for sins and wrongs. Tawabah, or repentance, 
is inseparable from it. In fact, they are interwined with each other. 
We might define tawabah in this way. Suppose a man has 
committed a sin or an act of disobedience or done somthing 
undesirable and then he is fearful of the consequences of his 
wrong. Tawabah is this man's being sorry and repentant for his 
behaviour and his resolve to keep away from that mistake and to be 
obedient to Allah and seek His Pleasure. 

It follows; therefore, that a man who has these feelings of 
repentance will ask Allah to forgive him his sins so that he will not 
have to face punishment and adverse consequences. In the same 
way, if he asks to be forgiven, he will be sorry for his mistake and 
will resolve not to approach the sin ever again. That is why. the 
two — istighfar and tawabah are said to be inseparable and 
complementary to each other. 

We can try to understand tawabah and istighfar by an example. 
Suppose someone is desperate and decides to end his life and 
swallows a phial of poison. Soon the effects tell on him. His 
stomach, his intestines and his whole body protest with pain that is 
severe and unbearable. He is restless. Death stares him in the face 
and he realises his folly. In his regret, he longs to be saved. He 
hopes to get back his life and is willing to swallow any antidote his 
doctor might suggest. He is also willing to vomit out the poison 
and pursue all means to that end. Surely, he will resolve and 
commit himself not to repeat his folly ever again. 

It is in the same way that a believing person sometimes falls 
into the trap of the devil or succumbs to his own base soul and 
negligetnly commits sin. But, when Allah enables him to wake up 



266 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



with his believing, faithful feelings, he realises his folly. He sees 
that he has been disobedient to his Master and Patron, and has 
destroyed himself. He laments that instead of receiving the mercy 
and favour of Allah, he has made himself worthy of His Wrath and 
punishment. He imagines the torment he would face in the grave 
and on the day of Gathering if he died in his sinful condition. He 
asks himself, "How will I face my Lord? How will I endure the 
chastisement of the next world?" 

In short, when Allah helps him regain his believing attitude, he 
knows thatt his Master is very Merciful and Compassionate, and he 
has full faith in Him. He is sure that Allah forgives the most 
sinning man happily once he turns to Him and seeks His 
forgiveness. So, he implores Him and prays to Him to forgive him 
— considering it as an antidote for the poison he had swallowed by 
sinning. At the same time, he resolves never again to disobey his 
Master or approach sin. This attitude of a slave of Allah is called 
istighfar and tawabah (to seek Allah's forgiveness and to repent to 
Him). 

Tawbah & Istighfar Are 
Means to Highest Station 

We have stated earlier that the station of servitude and worship 
is the highest station the people who are approved by Allah and are 
near to Him can hope to attain. And du'a is the best form of 
expression of servitude and worship to Allah. In fact, according to 
saying of the Prophet it is «u)i^» (pith of worship 1 ). Therefore, 
of all deeds of man, the most noble is du'a or supplication. We 
have cited the saying of the Messenger of Allah mt at its 
appropriate place: 

"Nothing is more honourable in the sight of Allah than 
supplication 2 " 

When a man seeks forgiveness for himself and repents to Allah, 
he feels himself very humble and intensely on the wrong and he is 
very regretful. The filth of the sin over him, he feels ashamed to 

O. Narrated by Sayyidina Anas (Tirmizi) 

•9. Narrated by Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah -upiiil (Tirmizi, !bn Majah) 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 



267 



face his Master and realising his evil-doing he begs to be forgiven 
and repents. 

Hence, the feeling of servitude and humility and being at fault 
is highest and most marked at the time of seeking forgivneess and 
repentance and the like of it is not witnessed at the time of making 
any other supplication. In fact, one cannot expect to have the same 
feeling when making any other supplication except istighfar and 
tawbah. For this very reason istighfar and tawbah are the highest 
forms of worship and the highest station near Allah. The slave who 
seeks forgiveness of Allah and repents to Him not only earns that 
but is also given the glad tidings of Allah's special favour and love. 

We will see the ahadilh that tell us that the Prophet % himself 
sought forgiveness of Alah and repented to Him always. If we pay 
attention to what has been said about istighfar and tawbah in the 
forgoing lines, we will find it easy to understand why he asked for 
forgiveness and repented. 

The truth is that the common belief is baseless and wrong that 
only the sinners and disobedient must ask to be forgiven and repent 
and only they need to do it. The men close to Allah, even His 
Prophets p-h^. who are innocent of sin and safe from it 
continue to feel that they lag behind in worshipping Allah as they 
realy should. Hence, they go on making istighfar and tawbah and 
regard all their deeds, including as-salah (prayer), as deficient and 
seeking forgiveness for that . 

In volume three of this Book we have seen a hadith narrated by 
Sayyidina Thauban 4s> telling us that after the Prophet 0 finished 
his prayer with the salutation, he repeated three times: 

"I seek forgiveness of Allah." &i j*k~>\ < ill 

The reason he sought forgiveness after prayer was that he felt 
that he had not done justice to prayer. But, Allah knows best. 

Nevertheless, tawbah and istighfar are a means to gaining 
pardon and mercy for the sinners and the disobedient. For those 
who are men of Allah, close to Him and innocent, they are 
limitlessly instrumental in raising them in rank and nearness. 

May Allah enable us to understand these facts and to benefit 
from them. Aameen 

Let this introduction be follwed by ahadith on istighfar and 



268 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



tawbah. Let us begin with the ahadilh that tell us about Prophet's 
ij& own practice of istighfar and tawbah. 

The Lovable Example of 

The ProphetS In This Regard 

(1310/267) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4& has said that the 
Messenger of Allah % said, "By Allah, I seek forgiveness of 
Allah and turn to Him in repentance more than seventy times a 
day." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: It is in keeping with the degree of his realisation of 
the Majesty and Greatness of Allah that a slave discharges his 
obligations of servitude to Him. The Messenger of Allah S had 
perfected this attitude in him so that he as perpetually under the 
impression that he had not done justice to worship of Allah, and he 
frequently asked Allah to pardon him and he frequently repented to 
Allah. He made this known to his Ummah in order that they may 
follow his example. 

( ^ i> aiu $\ J 4\ 4» j? Ji l i# J"*' 

(131 1/268) It is reported by Sayyidina Al-Agharr Al-Muzani 
that the Messenger of Allah S said, "O People! turn to Allah, 
in repentance, for I turn in repentance to Him a hundred times a 
day." (Muslim) 

Commentary: The words more than seventy times in the 
preciding hadith and a hundred times in this hadith are used only 
to represent frequency. It was only a way of expression in ancient 
Arabic to use such words, the Prophet S sought forgiveness and 
repented many more times than the figures in two hadith. This will 
be obivious from the hadith of Abudllah ibn Umar 4& which we 
will see. 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 



269 



(1312/269) Sayyidina Ibn Umar 4& said, "We counted that the 
Messenger of Allah would say a hundred times during every 
meeting: 

"O My Lord! Forgive me and relent towards me. Indeed, You 
are The Relenting, the Forgiving." 

(Ahmad, Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: Sayyidina Abudllah ibn Umar 4& does not mean to 
say that the Prophet 0 repeated this expression in a meeting by 
way of a devotional exercise. Rather, he means to say that the 
Prophet 0 would be sitting with them in an assembly and they 
would be discussing different subjects with him and conversing 
with one another, and the Prophet ill interpersed the talk with 
remembrance of Allah in those words. The Companions would 
on their own reckon that he said these words a hundred times. But, 
Allah knows best. 

(1313/270) Sayyidah Ayshah 4* -it has reported that the 
Prophet used to say: 

"O Allah, place me among those who, when they do good, are 

glad, and when they do evil ask for forgiveness." 

(Ibn Majah, Bayhaqi) 

Commentary: If anyone is enabled to do good deeds which entitle 
him to enter Paradise and gain the pleasure of Allah then it is a sign 
that Allah has favoured him. Hence, it is his duty that he must be 
happy and thank Allah for enabling him to do the good deeds. The 
Qur'ansays: 



270 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Say, In the bounty of Allah, and His mercy — therein let them 
therefore rejoice. (Yunus,10:58) 

In the same way, if any one makes a mistake or commits a sin, 
minor or major, he must feel sorry for that and immediately ask 
Alalh to forgive him. He who has these two characteristics is 
indeed very fortunate. The Messenger of Allah 0 prayed for 
himself often: 

"O Allah! Let me have these two characteristics!" 

The Stain of Sins Washed Away 
By Tawbah & Istighfar 

0) ^Lj JU> J^5 Jtl *J\ & ( \ r \ i A v \ ) 

(1314/271) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4$> has said that the 
Messenger of Allah said, "When a believer commits a sin, he 
gets a black spot in his heart. If he repents and seeks forgivenes 
for the sins, the black spot clears away and his heart is polished. 
But, if he fails to repent and ask for pardon and commits more 
sin, extending his footsteps in the valley of sin, the blackness 
increases till it gains ascendancy over his heart. That is the rust 
and blackness which Allah, the Exalted, has mentioned in the 
verse: 

( U: AT J^uft) OO *-£ ^ > ft ji # 

"Certainly not! But what they have been committing has spread 
like rust over their hearts. (Al-Mutaffifeen,83:14) 

Commentary: The Qur'an has said about the evil-doing people: 

Which means that their evil-doing has brought rust and 
darkness on their hearts. We learn from this saying of the 
Messenger of Allah & that it is not only the infidels whose hearts 
become dark because of sin but the Muslims when they commit sin 
also get dark spots on their hearts because of the inauspiciousness. 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



271 



However, if a Muslim sincerely repents and asks to be forgiven, 
the blackness and darkness vanish and his heart is cleansed to its 
original condition. 

If he does not repent after committing sin, or persists in his 
sinful attitude, then the darknes spreads till it has covered the 
whole heart. 

Indeed, it is very unfortunate for any Muslim that his heart is 
covered with darkness because of sins, there being no bright spot 
on his heart. We seek refuge in Allah from it. 

(1315/272) Sayyidina Anas $k> said that the Messenger of Allah 
said, "Ail the sons of Aadam are sinners. (There is none who 
has never sinned or done any wrong.) But, the best of sinners 
are those who are given to repentance and who turn to Allah." 

' (Tirmizi, Ibn Majah, Darami) 

Commentary: It is in the nature of man that he sins and errors and 
none of the children of Sayyidina Aadam is an exception. But, 
those slaves are really comendable who regret after having slipped 
into sin and ask Allah to forgive them. Through istighfar and 
tawbah they seek His pleasure and mercy. 

id*. %\ J-* &\ jil Jts sjJJ* ibu^ ( ^ rn/wr) 

(^Ui^i i _ s 2fJtj astU 4**^ ^ J*^ <— J*^' V? 5 *' (i^J 

(1316/273) Sayyidina Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud has quoted the 
Messenger of Allah i|& as saying: He who repents of a sin is 
exactly like him who has not committed any sin." 

(Ibn Majah, Bayhaqi) 

Commentary: The hadith means to confirm that after a sincere 
repentance there are no traces of sin, and no stains at all. Acording 
to some versions, "a man who repents and asks forgiveness for his 
sins becomes as sinless as he was at birth." (i>i *jjJj 

We will also see those ahadith shortly which tell us that the 
consequences of tawbah do not rest simply at sins being pardoned 
and their traces being wiped out but the repentant becomes the 



272 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



beloved of Allah Who is very pleased with his repentance. 

(O Allah! Cause us to be among the repentants.) 

Sins disclose Allah's Forgiving Attribute 

d^T cjk siijii Jo>^ jtS <5 OjS 'J\ 'J. Orw/rvt) 

(1317/274) It is stated about Sayyidina Abu Ayyub Ansari 
that he revealed at the time of his death, "1 have been concealing 
something from you which 1 had heard from the Messenger of 
Allah ill. 1 had heard him say: If all of you become sinless (like 
the angels) and you do not commit sin at all then Allah will 
surely create another creation who would sin and He would then 
forgive them (and in this way disclose His attribute of 
forgiving)." (Muslim) 

Commentary: It would be very foolish and senseless to suppose 
that Allah needs sins (to be committed) and that He loves them, 
and the Messenger of Allah $1 has, by this aying, encouraged the 
sinners. May Allah forbid us from imagining such ignorant deeds. 
The purpose of sending the Prophets f*-Ji is to save people 
from sin and to exhort them to do good deeds. 

Actually, this hadith aims at disclosing the forgiving attribute 
of Allah. And it means to tell us that just as to know that He is 
Al-Khalicj (the Creator), a creation was brought about, His attribute 
Ar-Razzaq (the Sustainer, the Provider) is known by the creation 
whom He feeds and His attribute Al-Hadi (One Who gives 
guidance) is known through His creation whom He guides, so to 
know his attribute AI-Ghajfar (the Forgiving) a creation had to be 
there who committed sin and asked for His forgiveness and whom 
He forgave. 

Hence, it has been decreed from the first day that there would 
be sinners in this world and those of them who would be enabled 
would seek His forgiveness and Allah would also pardon them 
their sins. In this way His attribute of Forgiving will be known. 



273 



Book ofAzkar and Da'wat 

Sayyidina Abu Ayyub Ansari $b did not disclose this saying of 
the Prophet S in his life time because people with little 
understanding might have got a wrong impression from it By 
disclosing it at the last moment of his life to those close to him he 
delivered his trust which the Prophet ft has reposed in him. 

The same thing was narrated by Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah & in 
a hadith transmitted by Bukhari and Muslim, 

Those Who Persist in Sin 
And Then Make Istighfar 

h\ fa > J— jtf j« ( m A/Y Yo) 

ft * S» ^ $ Jui ijui c4i» Jul CSS ulp 
Jtf $ *3 aau ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ y tt ^.^j 

>i # dJSi 93 jii di ^Jii aii; j$ ^ ^ 

(1318/275) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah <&> reported that the 
Messenger of Allah 0 said that a man committed a sin and 
(addressing Allah) said, "Lord, I have sinned. Forgive me my 
sm." So his Lord said, "Does My slave know that he has a Lrod 
Who forgives sin and punishes for it? 1 have forgiven My slave." 
After that he remained away from sin for such time as Allah 
willed but then commited a sin and said, "My Lord I have 
sinned, so forgive me my sin." His Lord said, "Does My slave 
know that he has a Lord Who forgives sin and punishes for it? 1 
have forgiven him." 

Then after remaining away from sin till such time as Allah 
willed he committed a sin again and said, "My Lord, I have 
committed another sin, so forgive me." His Lord said, "Does my 
slave know that he has a Lord who forgives sin and punish for 
it? I have forgiven My slave, so let him do what he likes." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 
Commentary: Some scholars of hadith have suggested that the 



274 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



man about whom the Prophet 0 has spoken in this hadith could 
have been one of his own ummah or he might have been one of the 
earlier people of a Prophet before Prophet Muhammad m. 
However, in my humble opinion, this narration is not about any 
particular man but it is simply about a character which can match 
tens of thousands or millions of Allah's slaves. Although these 
people believe in Allah and the Hereafter, they do happen to 
commit sin for which they repent and ask Allah to forgive them. 
But, they fail again and again and fall into sin. Every time they 
repent with a sincere heart and ask Allah to forgive them. Allah 
deals with these slaves of His as mercifully as shown in this hadith. 

When he asked for forgiveness and the last time, Allah forgive 
him and said *u u J~L) 3 c> 'I have forgiven My slave, so let 
him do what he likes." Certainly, this does not imply that he was 
allowed to commit sin. Rather, the Master of the slave lets him 
know of his mercy and compassion, saying that no matter how 
many times he commited sin and returned to Him with a request 
for forgiveness, He will forgive him and "you will not be destroyed 
by the poison of your sin because you make a sincere istighfar, 
rather the islighfat will aways lead you to higher ranks." 

Those slaves of Allah who are inclined to servitude with 
interest can see how such an announcement by Allah can give 
peace to a Believer's heart. He will grow sentiments of obedience 
and faithfulness for his Master. 

The version of this hadith in Sahih Muslim is very clear that the 
Prophet 0 related the entire hadith as from Allah. Hence, this is a 
hadith qudsi. 

(131 9/276) Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4$> has said that the Messenger 
of Allah m said, "He is not a confirmed sinner who seeks 
forgiveness (after committing sin) even if he returns (to his sin) 
seventy times a day." (Tirmizi, Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Anyone who stubbornly persists on sin without fear 
or worry and continues with this behaviour without compunction is 
indeed a very unfortunate person. He faces a very serious 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



275 



consequence and culprit of his kind is not worthy of the mercy of 
Allah. 

This hadith makes it clear that one who makes istighfar for his 
sins is not a confirmed sinner of the above type; even if he returns 
to his sin now and then he is not a stubborn siner. However, 
istighfar is not what only the tongue utters. Rather, it is what 
comes from the heart which the tongue conveys. If istighfar is of 
this kind from the core of the heart then the sinner deserves the 
mercy of Allah even after committing sin again and again for 
seventy times a day and he is not a stubborn sinner. 

Tawbah Is Accepted Upto a Certain Time 

(1320/277) Sayyidian Abdullah ibn Umar has reported the 
Messenger of Allah as saying," Allah accepts a slave's 
repentance till he is in the final stages of life and the ghirghir of 
death is heard from him. (Tirmizi, Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: With the throes of death, a sound emits from the 
throat of the dying man as his soul leaves his body. It is described 
in the hadith ghirghir. That is the last thing and there is no hope 
for life after that. This condition is the definite sign of death. 

The hadith tells us that if a person makes tawbah before this 
condition gets over him then his tawbah (repentance) will be 
accepted by Allah. With the beginning of the sound in his throat 
his link with this world severs and joins with the other world. So, 
if a disbeliever or an athiest expresses belief at that time or a sinner 
repents then Allah does not approve that. Only that faith and 
tawbah are reliable and acceptable which are owned before signs 
of death are apparent and as long as there is hope of life. The 
Qur'an has also made it very clear: 

jis p&s iii „jt JOi 6)u* i$i c~jj j 

And repentance is not (accepted) by Allah of those who do evil 
until,when death comes to one of them he says, "Now I repent". 

(An-Nisa,4:18) 



276 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

lstighfar\sthe Best Gift for The Dead 

31 J\ # 'j£ ji % J jiij 

jwSii 513 ig U3 dlii 4ft 4*1 0^ «W &f Ji^j' £ j' ? 
i;jui jv^Ji jtf ^3* JAS t »*J if ^ J* 

(1321/268) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Abbas 4& has reported the 
Messenger of Allah iH as saying, "A dead man in his grave is 
just like a drowing man calling for help. For, he hopes that a 
supplication from a father, a mother, a brother, or a friend may 
reach him, and when it does it is dearer 'to him than the world 
and what it contains. The supplications of the living bring great 
reward to those in the grave from Allah and their example is like 
the greatness of mountains. The gift of the living for the dead is 
their seeking forgiveness for them. (Byhaqi) 



'j t J\ 4 3 u; J3ii £Ji j qJuiit #3i fc-SU &2 J^j > 

(1322/279) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4& has reported that the 
Messenger of Allah A said that Allah will raise the rank of a 
righteous slave in Paradise. He will ask Allah how this was 
done for him and Allah will tell him that it was because his son 
had asked pardon for him. (Ahmad) 

Commentary: This hadith speaks of degrees being raised on 
supplication by a son. This is only by way of an example, for a 
supplication from any believer may profit the dead man in a similar 
way. The parents have the greatest right over their children not in 
life but also when they are dead. When parents are alive, children 
obey them and attend to their needs and look after them. When 
parents are dead, the children must pray for them and seek Allah's 
forgiveness for them. This is the best way they can discharge their 
rights to their parents. 

The objective of the two ahadith of Sayyidina abdullah ibn 



Book of Azkar and Da'wat 



277 



Abbas 4fe is not merely to convey the Prophet's S saying but also 
to exhort children and relatives to invocate blessings and seek 
forgiveness for their dead relatives. Their parents in this form are 
received by the dead in their graves and in Paradise. 

I wish to submit that sometimes Allah lets the living people 
know and see how their gifts are received by the dead in the next 
world, and how their degrees and ranks progressed. 

May Allah cause us to believe in these facts and to benefit from 
them. Aameenl 

Istighfar For General Body of Believers 

The Qur'an contains a command to the Messenger of Allah 0 
that he should seek forgiveness of Allah for himself and the general 
body of believing men and women. 

And ask forgiveness for your fault and for the believing men 
and believing women. (Muhammad, 47: 19) 

The same command applies to us. The Prophet 0 gave us 
great encouragement to do it and mentioned that it is very 
meritorious. We present two ahadiih here on this subject. 

4* %\ J^> > s^j J* Jis c^5di # r& \ n m a . ) 

(1323/280) Sayyidina Ubadah ibn As-Samit has reported 
that the Messenger of Allah said, "He who seeks forgiveness 
for the believing men and the believing women will be credited 
with a good deed against every Believer, man and woman." 

(Tabarani) 

Commentary: To ask Allah to forgive a believing man or woman 
is showing them a great favour and being helpful to them. 
Accordingly, if anyone prays to Allah to forgive all Believers, he is 
being helpful and favourable to all Believers — the first and the 
last, the living and the dead. Therefore, his record of deeds will be 
credited with a pious deed against each one of the Believers. 

Glory be to Allah! What a way for us to earn limitless pious 



278 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



deeds. May Allah make it easy for us to take advantage of this 
facility. Aameenl The best words to pray for all believing men and 
believing women are found in the Qur'an in the supplication of 
Prophet % Sayyidina Ibrahim 8£S8: 

(t\ : \ I ) o^^ 1 fife fie ^ J 
"Our Lord! Forgive me and my parents, and the believers, upon 
the day when the reckoning comes to pass." 1 

(1324/281) Sayyidina Abu Darda ^ has said that the 
Messenger of Allah S said, "If anyone prays to Allah 
twenty-seven times every day to forgive all believing men and 
believing women, he will join the ranks of the close slaves of 
Allah whose supplication is answered and by virtue of whom 
Allah grants provision to the inhabitants of the world."(Tabarani) 
Commentary: If anyone helps and serves fellowmen and looks 
after their welfare, his work is very dear to Allah. A hadith tells us: 

"The creatures are Allah's family. The most loved of men in the 
estimation of Allah are they who are most beneficial to His 
family." 

Just as to feed and clothe them and look after their daily 
necessities and comfort are ways of helping and benefiting them in 
this world, so too to pray to Allah to forgive them is a great service 
to them in terms of the next life. This thing will be very clear in the 
Hereafter when it is seen how a man's supplication for another 
benefitted him too. 

The sincere slaves of Allah who supplicate Him day and night 
to forgive believing men and women are true well-wishers of the 
Believers and social workers in terms of the Hereafter. (The hadith 
has set the number of times the supplication they make as 
twenty-seven every day.) These social workers of the Hereafter 
O. Ibrahim, 14:41 



Book of Azkar A nd Da 'wat 



279 



gain nearness to Allah and His approval to such an extent that their 
supplications are answered, and because of their supplications 
people of the world are nourished. 

Nevertheless it is worth heeding that in this life service to 
humanity may include all men and women — indeed every living 
creature — and it is a pious deed which fetches reward. The hadith 
tells us: 

But supplication for forgiveness and Paradise may be made 
only for the Believers. The unbelievers and polytheists are not 
worthy of being forgiven or entry to Paradise until they repent. So, 
supplication for their pardon and their admittance to Paradise 
should not be made. We can pray for their guidance and for their 
repenting from their ways after which doors are opened for their 
forgiveness and admittance to Paradise. To make this supplication 
for them is to wish well for them. 

Gravest Sins Are Forgiven If One Repents 

The Qur'an and the hadith tell us that the mercy of Allah is very 
large. Thus if anyone repents and requests to be forgiven, the 
gravest of his sin are forgiven to him. He pardons the 
most-hardened of sinners. Alah's attributes include Al-Qahhar and 
Zul-Jalal (Subduer, Dominant, and Lord of Majesty). These 
attributes too are perfect and in accordance with His Greatness but 
He uses them only against the wrong-doers who do not repent after 
doing wrong and do not ask to be forgiven but persist in 
wrong-doing until they die. The ahadith that follow convey this 
very message. 

Murderer of Hundred Men 
Gains Pardon On Repentance 

ufjVl J»i pfcl j* JtJj C% ^Jjj ^ ft J^j 0** & 



280 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Oii *ai 5^ >5' $ ^*J ? *J J* 

dJtfJ u&\ &Lij U^J' &£ £ Ajdi Jgfift 

jus ^ ?3> a ^iuS ii i> 

(1325/282) It is reported by Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed Al-Khudri 
4& that the Prophet S said: Among the people before you there 
was a man who had killed ninety-nine men. (One day he felt 
sorry and thought of the Hereafter.) He asked people to point 
out to him the most-learned scholar (so that he might seek his 
advice about how to gain pardon). They told him of a monk. He 
went to him and said to him that he was the (unfortunate) one 
who had killed ninety-nine people and asked him if such a man 
could hope to be forgiven. The monk told him that there was no 
possibility of his being forgiven. This man then killed the monk 
too and completed the count of a hundred. (But, the urge to be 
forgiven was there.) He asked people again to tell him of a 
scholar and they told him of one. He went to him and related 
that he had killed a hundred people and could he hope to be 
forgiven? The scholar assured him that he could surely be 
forgiven and told him that there was no obstacle between him 
and tawbah (repentance) (He meant to say that no one had the 
power to stop Allah from approving his pardon. He then gave 
him an advice.) He asked him to go to a particular village where 
some slaves of Allah were occupied in worship. He must (stay 
with them and) join them in worship (for the Mercy of Allah 
descended on that village.) The monk advised him never again 
to return to his own village for it was an evil place. 

Hence, he proceeded towards that village and when he had 
travelled half the distance, death suddenly overtook him. Now, 
the angels of mercy and the angels of punishment disputed over 
him. The angels of mercy asserted that he had renented and had 



Book of Azkar And Da'wat 



281 



sincerely tun red towrads Allah (so he was entitled to mercy). 
The angels of punishment argued that he had never done any 
pious deed (but had committed a hundred murders and was thus 
entitled to punishment). At that moment Allah sent an angel in 
human form and both groups of angels agreed to appoint him an 
arbitrator between them. He asked them to measure the distance 
between the two villages (the evil village tha he had left behind 
and the village on which the mercy of Allah descended to which 
he was going). He told them that he should be placed in the 
village nearer which his body lay. So, the measurement was 
taken and he was found nearer the village he had intended to go 
and the angels of mercy took him as their own. 

(Bukhaii and Muslim. — words of Muslim) 

Commentary: This hadith is not merely the story of a man but 
through it, the Messenger of Allah % has pointed out the attribute 
of Allah as the Most Merciful and the largeness of His mercy. The 
spirit of this narration, and its message, is that the most hardened 
and confirmed of sinners can be forgiven if he repents to Allah 
with a true heart and resolves to lead an obedient life thereafter. 
The mercy of the Most Merciful of all who show mercy will 
embrace him even if he is caused to die immediately after his 
repentance leaving him no opportunity to do a good deed and his 
record of deeds lacks any pious work. 

A scholarly objection has been raised on the subject of this 
hadith on the question of principle. To kill anyone unnecessarily is 
among the sins that relate not merely to Allah but also violate 
human rights. The cirminal who kills anyone not only disobeys 
Allah but also shows cruelty to the slain man and his family. The 
agreed principle is that such crimes are not forgiven merely by 
repentance to Allah but the oppressed have to be compensated or 
convinced and pardon obtained from them. Scholars have 
explained this correctly saying that the procedure is exactly as 
suggested that a way out is that Allah may please the offended and 
oppressed on the day or Resurrection on behalf of the 
oppressor-turned-repentor by granting them from His treasures of 
mercy. 

The Murderer of a hundred people mentioned in this hadith 
will be treated in the same way because of his repentance. Allah 



282 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



will grant the slain and the oppressed from His treasures of mercy 
on behalf of this murder and please them. As for the repentant 
murder of a hundred people, he will be sent to Paradise 
straightaway. 

Mercy is Available To The 
Polytheists And Disbelievers Too 

(JL-j JU iii fej cJl^ Jii jtiji ( ^ r y n/Y at) 

^ \-jrjA oid w tffi 04*. tfto ^ 4*?'^ 

(1326/283) Sayyidina Thauban said that he heard the 
Messenger of Allah 0 say, "I would not give this verse for the 
whole world (and its blessings): 

ft & ft # * tf~M ijtpi jali 

"O My slaves who have been prodigal against themselves, 
despair not of Allah's mercy, sruely Allah forgives sins 
altogther. surely He is the Forgiving, the Merciful." 

(Az-Zumar, 39:53) 

Someone asked him if that included those who had associated 
with Allah, and after remaining silent for a time the Prophet 
said three times, Yes, it includes even those who have 
assocaited partners with Allah." (Ahmad) 

Commentary: The hadith refers to the verse of Surah Az-Zumar. 

Indeed, it contains glad tidings for all kinds of sinners. Allah 

addresses them directly and says to them to despair not of His 

mercy. The message in the Qur'an goes on: 

f3j & ouai #j &jt cjt &> 'A fhi J ji ^ ^ T >^3 

* * J J » w 



Book of Azkar A nd Da 'wat 



283 



"Turn penitently unto your Lord and submit to Him in Islam 
before there comes upon you the chastisement, then you will not 
be helped. And follow the best (the Qur'an) that has been 
revealed to you from Your Lord before the chastisement comes 
upon you suddenly, while you perceive not. (Az-Zumar,39:54-55) 

These verses elucidate that the mercy of Allah is available to 
every kind of criminal and sinner. The door of His mercy is not 
shut to anyone provided he repents before punishment is released 
on him, or he dies, and (provided) he gives up a life of 
disobedience and follows guidance and obedience to Allah. 

The hadith makes it clear too that the all-embracing mercy of 
Allah includes the disbelievers and the polytheists. 

The Messenger of Allah 0 was himself jjJuUi mercy for 
the Worlds and that is why he was much pleased with this 
declaration of mercy. He used to say that he was so happy with the 
revelation of this verse that he would not have been as happy with 
the receipt of all the world. 

Expressions of Tawbah & Istighfar 

What has been stated about tawbah and istighfar should be 
enough to emphasise that its real significance lies in the meaning, 
purpose and condition of heart. A man may express his repentance 
and ask for Allah's forgiveness in any language but if he has made 
it sincerely then Allah regards it as tawbah and istighfar and 
accepts his gesture. In spite of that the Messenger of Allah & has 
taught us certain words of tawbah and istighfar, mentioning their 
excellence and virtue. 

Let us read some ahadith about this. 

(1327/284) Sayyidina Bilal ibn Yasar ibn Zayd, the mawla ] of 
O. A term used in muslim law for a slave but in the Qur'an fro Protector, Patron. 
Here it refers to Zayd, the freed slave of the Prophet ^t. 



)g4 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

the Prophet reported on the authority of his father that his 
father Sayyidina Zayd <^> 1 had heard the Messenger of Allah 
S say, "If anyone seeks forgiveness of Allah in the following 
words, he will be forgiven even if he has fled in time of battle." 

"\ seek pardon of Allah than whom there is no God, the Living, 

the Eternal, and I turn to Him in repentance." 

(Tirmizi, Abu Dawood) 

Commentary; To flee the battlefield to save one's skin is the worst 
and gravest of sins, yet this hadith tells us that if any one who 
prepetrates this sin seeks the forgiveness of Allah in the foregoing 
words then Allah will forgive him. 

It is obvious that the Messenger of Allah S could not have 
said this thing without having received a revelation from Allah. 
Hence, these words of Istighfar ensuring pardon for the sinners 
must have been taught to him by Allah. There also follows with 
these words an assurance of forgiveness for the greatest of the 
sinners. How great is His mercy! However, it must be remebered 
that Istighfar is not repetition of mere words but it has its roots 
deep inside the heart where it begins. 

Sayyid al-Itighfar 

In the following hadith the Messenger of Allah m has termed 
one particular expression of istighfar as Sayyid al-istighfar (the 
chief words of seeking forgiveness of Allah.) He has said that it is 
extra-ordinary meritorious. Its words and style are very appealing. 

fa &%\ > Jji3 J* J* A $ & ( *™ A/Y Ao) 

1$ c^> u > # JhS>» jr.^33 > wj 

O He is not Savyidina Zavd ibn Haritha the freed slave of th< 

Prophet He is another companion by the same name and his father wa: 
Bawli {Jr.). He too was a slave of the Prophet ^u, and freed by him. 



Book ofAzkar And Da'wal 



285 



(1328/285) Sayyidina Shaddad ibn Aws <^> said that the 
Messenger of Allah said, "The Sayyid al-htighfar (the most 
meritorious solicitation of forgiveness) is to say: 

i 

«■ jji cJL-^ Li "jit ^jjt kj^i^pl CjtkzulU *_5jLPjJ 

"O Allah! You alone are my Lord. There is no god save You. 
You have created me , and 1 am Your slave. I will abide by Your 
covenant and promise as best I can (weak and helpless as I am). 
I seek refuge in You from the evil of what I have done. 1 
acknowledge to You Your favour which You have bestowed on 
me and I confess my sins and disobedience to You. So, forgive 
me, My Lord, Pardon my sins. For, none forgives sins but You." 
The Messenger of Allah lH said, "If anyone says it during the 
day-time with firm belief in it and dies that day before evening, 
he will be one of those who go to Paradise. And, if anyone says 
it during the night with firm belief in it and dies before 
morning, he will be,one of those who go to Paradise." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: The secret of the extraordinary merit of this 
istighfar is in the spirit of servitude that each of its words conveys. 
The first words are: 

. ^JL£ Ulj cJl % & i% CJI tf& 
"O Allah! You alone are my Lord. There is no master or deity 
besides You. You alone brought me to existence and I am Your 
slave and worshipper." 

The next phrase is: 

"And I will do my utmost to be faithful to the convenant and 
promise made with You when I professed belief to worship and 
obey You." 

In these words the slave confesses his weakness while 
renewing his covenant and promise of Faith. He goes to say: 



286 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



"I seek Your protection from the evil of the sins and mistakes 
committed by me or which 1 may commit in future." 

Alongwith a confession, refuge is sought in Allah for the fault. 
He then continues: 

"I asknowledge to You Your favours which You have bestowed 
on me and I admit that 1 have sinned and erred." 

And, he ends his socilitation: 

"So, forgive me my sins for , indeed, there is no one who will 
forgive sins except You!" 

A Believer, who possesses intimate knowledge and insight 
through which he realises the superficiality of his deeds and the 
Greatness and Majesty of Allah and who knows the rights of Allah, 
will consider himself deficient in pious deeds. Then, his heart will 
speak out in supplication to Allah as the Messenger of Allah 
has taught us in the words of this istighfar. It is called Sayyid 
al-istighfar because of its peculairty which -we have just 
mentioned. 

After having of this hadith of the Prophet S it is incumbent on 
every Believer that he should seek forgiveness of Allah in these 
words at least once every day and night with a firm conviction. 

May Allah have mercy on my honoured teacher, Mawlana Siraj 
Ahmad Rashidi who, forty-five years ago, while 

teaching us the Mishkaat in the Dar ul-Uloom , Deoband, came to 
this hadith and asked the students in the class to memorise the 
Sayyid al-istighfar which he would hear from them the next day. 
So, almost all the students recited it from memory on the appointed 
day and he insturcted the class to solicit Allah's forgivenes in these 
words once, at least, every day and night. 

*3 'Jt &rti ^ tfr I* 1 * &l 



Book ofAzkar And Da 'wat 287 
j*J tfbrj 'Jfj&S ffi £ *j j&\ 

(1329/286) It is narrated by Sayyidina Abu Musa Al-Ash'ari 
that the Prophet ^ used to supplicate Allah in these words: 

*t t& &x ^3 'J. &r*J 

"O Allah! Forgive me my mistakes and my ignorance, and my 
exceeding the limits (of Your commands and Your pleasure), 
and forgive whatever You know better than I. O Allah! Forgive 
the wrong I have done jokingly or seriously and forgive my 
accidental and intentional errors. (And, O Allah! You know 
that) all that is in me." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Indeed, Allah is Great! The chief of the Prophets, 
the beloved of the Lord of the worlds m> was innocent, without 
doubt. But, he considered himself one who has committed wrong 
and, therefore, sought the mercy of Allah and His forgivenes. The 
truth is that the more one knows Allah intimately, the more he will 
consider himself falling short in discharging his duties to Him and 
in meeting his rights. Indeed, the nearer one is, the more he fears 
he might be mistaken. 

Each word of this istighfar comes from the lips of the greatest 
of Allah's slaves and is a lesson for us to follow. 

The Istighfar of Khidr MB 

v* 1 -*^ f^-'y* ^Jj^ 6' ^y*^ j-iii lJ J jSi U 



288 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



(1330/287) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar has reported that 
the Messenger of Allah j$|> used to tell them often, "O my 
Companions! What could stop you from cleansing your sins 
with a few easy expressions?" They asked, "Messenger of Allah 
What are they?" He said, "Keep repeating the words of my 
brother, Khidr." They asked "Messenger of Allah! What did he 
say?" He said, "He used to say: 

"O Allah! 1 seek forgiveness from You (for the misdeeds) for 
which I make a repentance before You and then repeated them 
(falling prey to my base desires). And, I seek Your forgiveness 
for the promise that 1 make to You on my own behalf but did 
not fulfil them and was not faithful to You. And, I seek Your 
forgiveness for (misusing) Your bounties from which I derived 
strength and committed (thereby) disobedience for all the good 
which I intended to do to obtain Your pleasure alone but I 
joined therein other aims than You. 

O Allah! disgrace me not (before other people), for, indeed. You 
know me. (None of my secrets is concealed from You). Do not 
punish me (for my sins) because You are Powerful over me (in 
all ways and I am absolutely helpless and I am in Your hands)." 

(Daylami) 

Commentary: It does happen , now and then, that although a slave 
makes a true and sincere repentance from sin yet he happens to 
commit the same sin once again. In the same way, he sometimes 
makes a commitment with Allah but goes against that or becomes 
derelict. Again, it happens that Allah bestows his bounties and 
favours on him whereby he draws strength or wealth — that is, 
physical or monetary strength — but instead of using it gratefully 
in obedience, he misuses it in disobeying Allah. 



Book of Azkar And Da'wat 



289 



Sometimes, too, he initiates something pious sincerely to gain 
the pleasure of Allah but, later on, other sentiments and undesirable 
objectives get mixed up with it (and his sincerity is corrupted). 

These things are everyday occurences and also good and pious 
people fall prey to these accidents. 

What should the heart and tongue of men of Allah solicit at 
such times? The forgoing words of istighfar guide us to the correct 
approach at such times. These expressions are truly amazing and a 
sincere regret for the error. We have presented this hadith here only 
because of this amazing istighfar, otherwise kanz al ummat has 
transmitted it only from Daylami which the scholars of hadith 
regard as a sign of weak hadith. 

We suffice with only four ahadith here under the section on 
istighfar. We have seen in other sections innumerable expressions 
of istighfar under as-Salah (prayer), specified occasion and 
moments and comprehensive supplications. There are very many 
words of istighfar reported from the Prophet & and found in 
books of hadith. Indeed, they are all very auspicious. 

Blessings of Istighfar 

The basic aim of making istighfar is to request Allah for 
forgiveness of one's sins so that one is saved from torment and 
punishment for the sins. However, we learn from the Qur'an and 
the Messenger of Allah $1 has told us very explicitly that istighfar 
also fetches us many worldly blessings and we get much in this 
world too because of it. May Allah grant us firm belief and ability 
to abide by the advice. Aameen\ 

£ fa JU> Jtf Jii j& $ & ( \ rr \/yaa) 
ie 4533 'j p # & 3 1* fa jt fit jif jUteiy r j 

(1332/289) It is reported by Sayyidina Ibn Abbas kfc that the 
Messenger of Allah ft said, "If anyone makes it regular (for 
himself) to seek (Allah's) forgiveness, Allah will appoint for him 
a way out of every distress and a relief from every anxiety, and 
will provide for him from where he did not expect." 

(Ahmad, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah) 



290 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Commentary: We must remember that this promise does not 
depend on mere oral repetition but it is commensurate with a 
sincere and intentional effort as explained earlier. May Allah 
enable us to get the spirit of it. Aameen\ 

fa 4*% JU> Jll jtf J* ( > VT Y/T A O 

( ^'UJ! j j,\ iSjj) . \ jilted «y ^-3 ii| 

(1332/289) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Busr 4& reported the 
Messenger of Allah 0 as saying, "Blessed is he who finds a 
great amount of istighfar in his record." (That is, he will find in 
the hereafter that he had asked Allah for forgiveness of sins 
frequently in the world). (Ibn Mjaha, Nasa'i) 

Commentary: It must be understood that only that istighfar will 
be recorded with a man's deeds which will have been made truely. 
The oral istighfar, if recorded, would be marked as such and if it is 
not worth even that it would not find mention at all. The 
Messenger of Allah S has not said that blessed is he who makes 
isitghfar much but he has said, "Blessed is he who finds a great 
amount of istighfar in his record." 

It is said by the well-known lady mystic of the ummah, 
Sayyidah Rabi'ah Adawiyah ^ai that our istighfar is itself of 
such a kind we should make many istighfar for that, meaning our 
efforts are so deficient that we should often seek frogiveness for 
the deficiency in our istighfar. 

The word we have translated as blessed in this hadith is It 
is very comprehensive in meaning and includes every happiness 
and blessing of this life and the next. So, there is no doubt that the 
slave of Allah who is enabled to practice sincere istighfar 
abundantly is very fortunate and he thus receives everything. May 
Allah include us among such people who seek forgiveness 
sincerely and abundantly. Aameenl 

Istighfar Brings Peace For The Ummah 

The two hadith narrated above speak of blessings available to 
the individual — to the person who makes the istighfar. The next, 
however, discloses that, apart from that advantage, there is also a 
great and general blessing of istighfar. This general blessing is 



Book of Azkar And Da'wat 



291 



available to the whole ummah in that it saves them from 
punishment and gives them complete security. The ummah is under 
its shade from the time of the Prophet's 0 death and will continue 
in that protection until the Last Hour. 

j> j,Lj JL>> J^j Jii Jis ^\ & 0 rrr/Y «i . ) 

fji 3li^}i ^di'jjcijw till "ojjj^WjUj 

(1333/290) It is reported by Sayyidina Abu Musa Al-Ash'ari 
that the Messenger of Allah ^ said that Allah has assured me 
of peace and protection for my ummah in two ways: 

(He has revealed in surah al-Anfat). 

5i/***Hi (U) ^4**^' 6^3 ^ ^'3 (^4*4*3^' <S^" ^3 

But Allah was not going to chastise them (i) while you (O 
Prophet) were among them; (ii) nor would Allah chastise them 
while they seek, forgiveness. (Al-Anfal,8:33) 

(He said further), "When 1 die, 1 will leave behind with you 
istighfar, (as a protection) until the Last Hour." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The verse 33 of surah Anfal (once again) is: 
(rr:A JUW) 

But Allah was not going to chastise them while you (O Prophet) 
were among them; nor would Allah chastise them while they 
seek frogiveness. 

The hadilh refers to this verse and it assures us that: 

(i) The Prophet ill himself and his presence is security for the 
ummah from punishment. As long as the Prophet 0 was 
among them they would not be subject to a general or 
commeon punishment. 

(ii) The second means of security from a general punishment on 
the whole ummah is their own indulgenece in istighfar. As 
long as they seek forgiveness of Allah and repent to Him they 
will not be destroyed as a whole with a general punishment. 



292 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

In other words one form of protection was the Prophet's 0 
own existance of which the Ummah was deprived when he died. 
The s'-ond form of protection was their own soliciting forgiveness 
for their sins and shortcomings. This form, too, was given to them 
through the Prophet % and will be in their hands until the 
Qiyamah. The ummah is safe from punishment till this day even 
though they are guilty of many misdeeds because there are people 
among them who seek Allah's forgiveness through istighfar, and its, 
blessings have saved them. 

Allah Is Much Pleased With 
Anyone's Tawbah & Istighfar 

We conclude the narration of ahadith on tawbah and istighfar 
with the following hadith which is transmitted by Bukhari and 
Muslim on the authority of many Companions. The Messenger of 
Allah & has given glad tidings to the sinner who turns in 
repentance and seeks forgiveness, and no other deed can match 
these tidings, howsoever great it may be. Indeed, if we only had 
this hadith to comprehend the mercy of Allah that would have been 
sufficient. This hadith of a few lines embraces an ocean of intimate 
knowldge . May Allah grant us ability to understand and to believe. 
Aameenl 

JU Ai 'Sr*j ? O mm > ) 

c4*i j .fcs/.'ii* iiy f ui cr^3* $A *** 

o#t i& i^i tt> j ttij itf* «jup 4^15 Jtf&M 

(1334/291) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Mas'ud ^> said that he 
heard the Messenger of Allah S say, "By Allah! Allah is more 
pleased with the repentance of His believing slave than the 
traveller who encamps at a place that is an uninhabited waterless 



Book of Azkar And Da 'wat 



293 



desert where his life is jeopardised. He has with him only his 
riding she-camel with a prevision of food and drink on its back. 
He then rests his head and sleeps overtasks him for a short 
while. He wakes up to find his camel missing. He looks for it 
(here and there) and suffers from severe heat and thrist and 
thinks (it was better for him) that he went back to his place (and 
stayed there) until he died. He returns and lies down (awaiting 
death). He wakes up again and raises his head to find his 
she-camel standing by him with food and water laden on her 
back (as it had been before). So, he is pleased but Allah is more 
pleased with the repentance of His believing slave than this 
traveller is with receiving back his camel. (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Just imagine the plight of this nomad traveller who 
took his provision on his she-camel and went through an 
unfrequented, desearted land where no life-sustaining things could 
be had. During the journey, he found a shady place and rested 
himself there after a lighting from his riding beast, and lied down 
to rest his back. He must have been very tired, so he was soon lost 
in slumber. When his eyes opened after some time, he was shocked 
to see that his camel had gone away with the provision laden on its 
back. Unable to endure the loss or compromise with the situation, 
he began his search for the animal but could not find it. Severe heat 
and extreme thirst added to his misery and helpless as he was, he 
prepared himself to die and returned to the place where he had lost 
his camel and meagre possessions. He stretched himself again in 
the shade consigning himself to death by starvation but again his 
eyes winked away in sleep. When he got up again, his happiness 
knew no bounds to see his animal with alf his provision untouched 
stand before him. 

How happy he must have been having once given up all hope 
of life! 

The most truthful of all J$| has said taking an oath on Allah, 
"When a slave who has wronged himself and sinned turns to Allah 
sincerely, the Merciful and Compassionate Lord is more pleased 
than this nomad traveller was on getting back his runaway beast. 

The Sahikhayn {Bukhari and Muslim) contain an almost 
identical account by Sayyidina Anas 4fr from Sayyidina Abdullah 
Ibn Mas'ud 4&>, while Muslim has accounts also by Sayyidina Abu 



294 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Hurayrah, Nu'man ibn Basheer and Bara' ibn Aazib In fact, the 
version of Sayyidina Anas has this much more that the 
Messenger of Allah S described the natural pleasure and 
happiness of the nomad on finding his missing camel and said that 
he was so happy over it that in his extreme gratefulness and 
confession of helplessness he wished to say, 

cj' (4^' 

(O Allah! You are my Lord and I am Your Salve) 
But, overjoyed as he was his tongue skipped the words and he said: 

"O Allah, You are my slave and I Your Lord." 
The Prophet 0 defended him for his mistake by explaining: 

(His tongue slipped because of much happiness and joy!) 1 

Without doubt, the glad tidings conveyed in this hadith to the 
sinners about Allah's pleasure are superior than Paradise and all the 
blessings it contains. 

Shaykh Ibn Al-Qiyyim *J* has commented on this hadith 
in Madarij As-Saalikeen when writting on Taw bah and Istighfar. 
He has written an interesting essay on the pleasure of Alah on 
anyone's repentance. It should refresh the faith of its readers. We 
give below a synopsis of that. 

"Allah has blessed man with more honour than all His 
creatures. He has created every thing in the world for him and 
created him for obeying and worshipping Him. All the creation is 
subjugated to man, even His angels are appointed to serve and 
protect him. Allah also revealed His Books for the guidance of 
mankind and sent his Prophets and Messengers to him. 

Among the Prophets and Messengers f *-Ji were those whom 
Allah chose as his Khaleel (friend), or honoured with direct 
conversation and many he blessed with nearness to Him and 
friendship. 

For mankind. He created Paradise and Hell. Whatever, is in this 
O. The jurists have interpreted from this saying of the Prophet that if 
anyone's tongue slips in this manner and he utters disbeliving words by 
mistake, he will not be regarded as a disbeliever. 



Book of Azkar And Da'wat 



295 



world and the next — whatever is or will be in the creation is all 
centred round man. It is he who has carried the burden of this trust. 
The Shari'ah is drawn for him and the principle of reward and 
punishment is designed for him. In fact, man is the central point in 
the entire universe. Allah created him with His Own Hand and 
breathed into him of His Spirit. He made His angels bow down in 
prostration before him, and Iblis was cast out and expelled only 
because he refused to prostrate himself before man and Allah took 
him as His enemy. 

This distincition is awarded to man only because the Creator 
has given him only the ability to gain intimate knowledge of 
Himself although he is an earthly creature (and Allah is behind all 
curtains, and Secret behind secret). He has also given man the 
ability to recognise His secrets and wisdoms, to love and obey 
Him, to give up for His sake all his longings and personal desires, 
and shoulder responsibilities of vicegerency in the world. Man 
may then be worthy of Allah's chosen bounties and limitless 
blessings and the receptive of His mercy, love and bountless 
compassion. Then, because Allah is Merciful and Compassionate 
(just as a mother's love is unique and matchless), it is His attribute 
that he rewards the pious and faithful with unlimited bounties. And 
He is Unique and Matchless in this regard. It gives Him great 
pleasure to reward His slaves just as it gives a mother pleasure to 
tend to her babies, to feed them, to wash them and to clothe them. 
If an unfortunate slave gives up the path of faithfulness to his Lord 
and becomes unfaithful, joining with the ranks of Allah's enemy, 
the devil, then he fails to attract Allah's mercy to himself and 
becomes entitled to His wrath and displeasure. It is seen in a 
disobedient child who gets his loving mother angry at him. 

Then, the slave of Allah might realise some day that he was 
mistaken and has been unjust. He might feel that he has displeased 
his Lord and in this ways destroyed himself. It might dawn upon 
him that there is no one else who might show him mercy and there 
is no refuge for him except in Allah. Then he would turn to Him in 
repentance and seek frogiveness, weeping and regreting his folly. If 
he is sincere in his repentance and honestly asks for forgiveness 
and resolves to reform himself then we may know that the Merciful 



296 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Lord will relent towards him because He is Merciful and 
Compassionate beyond descripition. His love is thousands of times 
more than mother's love and it gives him pleasure to shower 
favours on His slaves. His pleasure is more than the pleasure of the 
recepients of His favours. We can thus imagine how much a slave's 
repentance would please Him." 

Shaykh Ibn Al-Qayyim Up in U^j has written on this subject 
very exhaustively (while we have presented a summary) and 
concluded his discussion by narrating an incident of a mystic who 
had fallen prey to the devil's promptings or to his own base self. 
The germs of rebellion and disobedience had grown in him. He has 
written: 

"The mystic (who had strayed) once passed through a small 
lane. The door of a house before him opened and a weeping child 
emerged out of it. His mother was behind him driving him out of 
the house while he shrieked loudly. When he was out of the house, 
his mother bolted the door behind him. The child continued to 
weep and shriek as he walked some distance away from the house. 
He paused when he was a little away and realised that he had no 
other place to go to besides the house of his parents. Where else 
could he go? Who else would keep him with them? With his 
broken heart he came back to the door of his house but it was shut 
from the inside. The poor fellow knelt down at the door-step and 
rested his head on the threshold and went to sleep in this position. 
His mother came to the door, opened it (to look out for him) and 
found him asleep at the doorstep. She felt very sorry for him, 
picked him up and showered kisses over him and placed him on 
her bossom. She said to him, as tears rolled down her eyes, 'Son! 
Who do I have besides you? You chose the path of disobedience, 
foolishness and pained my heart. You caused me agony and anger 
although that is not in a mother's nature. The nature of a mother is 
to love her child and give him comfort. I choose all good for you. 
Whatever I have is for you and none else.' 

The mystic observed all that passed between mother and son. 
He had a lesson in that for him, and he derived it. " 

When you ponder over this story, keep the saying of the 
Messenger of Allah before you. He has said, 



Book of Azkar And Da'wat 



297 



"By Allah! Allah has more love and mercy for His slaves than 
this mother has for her son." 1 

How very unfortunate and deprived are the slaves of Allah who 
follow the path of disobedience and miss the mercy of the 
Beneficent Lord. They invite His anger and wrath although the 
door of repentance is open to them. They only have to take a 
step towards Him and receive His Love before which the love of 
parents :oo is eclipsed. May Allah enable us to understand these 
facts. Aameen. 

"O Great Forgiver, forgive me, O the One Who relents, accept 
my repentance. O the Most Merciful, have mercy on me. O the 
One Who pities, have pity on me. O the Great Pardoner, pardon 
me. 

i 

UJUjj OOA^MUj^jl 41lj 

O Lord! Enable me to express my gratitude for the favour You 
have bestowed on me, and grant me power to worship You well. 
Aameen. 



O. This is a piece of the haJifh in Bukhari and Muslim. There was a woman 
who repeatedly picked up her child and embraced him to her bosom and 
suckled her. Observers saw how she loved the child and the Prophet J^t made 
the observation we have quoted in the text. 



AS SALATU WA AS-SALAM 



Blessings & Peace On the Prophet S 
J 1 * ^J* j ji\ ^ c~U> US' .u*w Ji .u** jjIp ,»^J» 

J*j ^i^i ^ ci"jb US' a^u. J» J^j ^Sju 

u-AP- t^ii ^j»t ji 

As-Salutu wa As-Salam is actually a very great and noble 
supplication to be made to Allah and it is an expression of one's 
deep affection, love and fidelity to the Prophet 0. In fact, we are 
commanded by the Qur'an to make this supplication. The Qur'an 
says: 

ijiu-j 4* 'jk $ J* d'J^4 Si 

(oi:rr o\ V , \ , U 

Surely Allah and His angels send blessings on the Prophet iS^. 
O you who believe! Send your blessings on him and salute him 
with a becoming salutation. (Al-Ahzab, 33:56) 

The verse addresses the Believers and asks them to send 
belssings and peace on the Prophet ^ (and this is the purpose of 
the verse) but in order to create a balance and significance the first 
phrase announces a preface: 

( o n :rr <-jtj^i) ^ Jut jjUu i^iU j'iii £l 

Surely Allah and His angels send blessings on the Prophet iH 

The Qur'an has adopted this style of command and address only 
in this case of command of As-Salah wa As-satam. For no other 
deed, no matter how grand, it is not announced that Allah and His 



300 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

angels do that. Indeed, this is the distinction of As-Salatu wa 
As-Salam and it speaks of the degree of love for the Prophet m. 

Blessings On The Prophet A Doubt Answered 

Many people wonder what the verse of surah Al-Ahzab means 
when it uses the same word as-salah of what Allah does and what 
the Believers are asked to do although they can not be doing the 
same thing as Allah. The act of the blessings on the Prophet^ 
from Allah cannot be the same as from the angels and men 
(although the doing of the angels is grouped with Allah's using the 

word (ojM- ln the same wa y what the men do in regard (aS 
commanded by the word 0 cannot be what Allah does. 

Often this difficulty is solved by ascriibng different meanings 
for the word as-salah when used for Allah and when applied to 
men. When this word is used for Allah it means to send down 
mercy or belssings but when it is used for men and angels it means 
to solicit blessings or mercy from Allah. Whoever, the more correct 
explanation is that the word as-salah has a wide usage and means: 

To honour and respect, to laud and praise, to elevate ranks, to 
love, to bless and show mercy, to hold as beloved, to show good 
intentions and to pray for goodness. 

As-Salah embraces these meanings. Hence, it can be applied 
equally to Allah, His angels and mankind. However, the difference 
would be that Allah's blessings on the Prophet & would be 
according to as is worthy of Him, from the angels its use would be 
in accordance with their rank and from men it would be according 

to their standing. 

On this basis, the meaning would be that Allah favours His 
Prophet S in a very special way, bestowing favours and holding 
him very dear to Him. He lauds him and elevates him to the highest 
ranks of greatness and nobility. The angels honour, respect and 
laud him and invocate for him blessings and favours and elevation 
of rank from Allah. O you who believe, you too do likevise. 
Supplicate Allah to give the Prophet ft very special favours and 
high ranks, leadership of the universe and the praiseworhty station, 
and acceptance of his intercession. And, present salutation to him 
(peace). 



Book ofAzkar And Da'wat 



301 



The Greatness & Significance 
of As-Salatu WaAs-Salam 

The excellent intorductory phrase in the verse of surah 
Al-Ahzab and the command to the Believers to send blessings and 
salutation make it clear that Allah regards the deed very highly and 
holds it very dear to Himself. We will see in the ahadith to follow 
how much meritorious it is for the Believers, and how great mercy 
and blessings it will bring for them. 

Opinions Of Jurusts On 
Invocating Blessings & Peace 

The Jurists of the ummah are nearly unanimous in their opinion 
that in the light of this verse of surah Al-Ahzab it is fard (an 
absolute obligation) to invocate blessings on and send salutations 
to the Prophe' 0. Of the Imams of the Ummah, Imam Shafa'ee 
Up &\ and according to one opinion, Imam Ahmad Up i»t 
hold that in prayers it is wajib (obligation, lesser than fard) to 
invocate blessings and peace in the final qa'dah (sitting posture) 
after the tashahhud. In the opinion of these Imam, if anyone does 
not do that, his prayers are invalid. However, Imam Malik *bi 
Up, Imam Abu Hanifa Up Ai 1*^ and many other jurists hold that 
while the tashahhud is indeed wajib in the final qa'dah and it does 
include salutation to the Prophet Hi, it is neither fard nor wajib to 
blessings and peace on the Prophet 0 after tashahhud but is 
merely an auspicious and important sunnah omission of which 
render the prayers defective. 

In spite of this difference of opinion, there is ner agreement that 
in the light of the verse of surah al-Ahzab it is fard to invocate 
blessings and peace on the Prophet ^ just as every Muslim has to 
bear testimony of his Prophethood and Messengership. No fixed 
hour or number is determined for that. The minimum one must do 
is recite As-Salatu wa As-Salam once (in his life-time) and stand by 
it always. 

We will soon see the ahadith that tell us that every time the 
Prophet i$£> is mentioned, it is incumbent (on the speaker and 
listener) to send durood to him, those who omit to do so are 
warned severely. On the basis of these ahadith, the jurists have 



302 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



concluded that if someone mentions the Prophet Wi or he hears 
someone else mention him then it is wajib for him to invocate 
blessings and peace on the Prophet H. There is an opinion 
attached to this conclusion that if the Prophet $31 is mentioned 
again and again in one sitting or in one piece of conversation then 
it is wajib to recite the durood 1 each time he is mentioned but a 
second opinion is that it is wajib only once and mustahabb every 
other time and the scholars have adopted the second opinion. But, 
Allah knows best. 

The Distinctive Nature of 
As-Salatu Wa As-Salam 

We see in the physical world that Allah has given fruit and 
flowers of different colours and smell. In the same way, there are 
varying blessings and pecularities of different forms of worship 
and azkar and suppplications. Thus, durood has a distinct 
characteristic that if one frequently invocates blessings on the 
Prophet 0 with a sincere devotion then Allah sees him with a 
special mercy, he gains spiritual nearness to the Prophet 0 and his 
kindness and loving attention. We will see in the ahadith to follow 
that the solicitation of blessings for the Prophet & by each of his 
people is presented to him with the name of the sender. This duty 
of conveying the durood from the sender to the Prophet $ is 
assigned to a distinct force of angels. 

Let us see it in this way. If we were to learn of a slave of Allah 
who prays much for us and our family members and all those 
concerned with us and he does not ask that much for himself then 
we will esteem him very highly and wish well for him. Naturally, 
we will be delighted to meet him. 

This example should be enough to make us realise the standing 

of one who sends durood io the Prophet &. Surely, the Prophet W 

would favour him with a kind sight and treat him honourably on 

the Day of Resurrection when they meet. Then, keeping in view the 

closeness of the Prophet ill with Allah, we can imagine how much 

0. Durood is the Urdu word for the invocation of blessings and peace on the 
Prophet or as-Salah (Arabic) which is used for regular prayers. The title of 
thischapter as-Salaltu waas-Salam means blessings and peace (on the Prophet fcli). 



Book o/Azkar And Da'wat 



303 



Allah would be happy with that slave and what favour He would 
grant him. 

The Objective of 
As-Salatu Wa As-Salaam 

We must clarify something here. While to invocate blessings on 
the Prophet 0 is a kind of supplication and to make a supplication 
for someone is to solicit benefit for him, the purpose of invocating 
blessings is not to give any benefit to him. He does not in the least 
require our supplications. What have kings to do with the gifts of 
the mendicants and beggars. Rather, it is like the duty of the slaves 
to worship, praise and glorify Allah and offer servitude to Him 
Who does not at all benefit from our conduct and the benefit truely 
accrues to us alone. So, too, we are under many obligations of the 
Prophet ill who has shown us guidance and led us on the right 
path. It is his right that we should present gratitude to him and 
show our love for him. The best way to fulfil our obligation in this 
regard is to invocate peace and blessings for him. It is not intended 
to benefit him in any way but invocating the blessings but the 
benefit accrues to us alone. We recite the durood hoping to gain 
the pleasure of Allah, reward in the Hereafter and spiritual nearness 
to His Messenger and his favour. 

It is Allah's mercy on us that He conveys our invocation to the 
Prophet & through the angels who are deputed specially for this 
prupose, while the invocation of quite a number he is enabled to 
hear directly in his grave (as we will see in the ahadith to follow). 
Further, Allah enhances his favour, mercy and honour for His 
Messenger against anyone's durood. 

Wisdom Behind The Blessings 

Invocating blessings and peace on the Prophets — J* is a 
way to express our fealty and gratitude to them. The main wisdom 
behind that is to sever all ideas of polytheism and idolatry. The 
most sacred beings after Allah are the noble Prophets and 
the most honourable and excellent of them is the seal of the 
Prophets, the last of them, is Prophet Muhammad A. Once 
Believers are commanded to send durood to him (requesting Allah 



304 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



thereby to give him special favours and show him tremendous 
mercy and grant him peace) it follows clearly that he too is 
depedant on the mercy and favours of Allah. It is his right that we 
supplicate Allah with the best of invocations for him in keeping 
with his high station. That leaves no room for polytheism any one. 
Indeed, it is the favour and magnificent grant of Allah that this 
command affords slaves like us an opportunity to supplicate for the 
Prophets f">LJi ^j-U particularly the chief of them The person 
who prays for these sacred men can nerver be a worshipper of any 
creature. 

Ahadith That Exhort us To Invocate 
Blessings & That Relate Its Merits 

Let us now read the ahadith that exhort us to send durood to 
the Messenger of Allah & and describe its blessings and merits. 

(1335/292) It is related by Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah ^ that the 
Messenger of Allah JH> said, "If anyone conveys blessings on 
me once, Allah will bless him ten times." (Muslim) 

Commentary: We have explained already that the Arabic word 
salah has a very wide meaning. Allah's honour and respect and 
favours on His Messenger are referred to as as-Salah and the 
treatment of common Believers with Mercy and favours is also 
as-salah. Therefore, the hadith uses the same word (as-salah) fot 
mercy and favour of Allah on him who sends durood to the 
Prophet 0 as it does for the durood itself. The expression is: 

Allah will bless him ten times who sends blessings on the 
Messenger of Allah ill once. 

Obviously, the difference in Allah's salah on His Messenger iill 
and His Salah on any other Believer will be similar to the 
difference in the station of the Prophet 0 and the rank of the 

Believer. 

The ahadith that we are going to see later in this chapter 



Book ofAzkar And Da'wat 



305 



explain that our invocation of blessings on the Prophet $| is 
actually a request to Allah to shower His blessings on him. 

Besides, the hadith that we have just seen does not simply 
mean to inform us the merit of the deed but it encourages us to 
frequently invoke blessings on the Prophet j&. In this way, we will 
recieve Allah's blessings — mercy and favours — and gain 
spiritual nearness to His Prophet S. The ahadith that follow also 
have the same purpose behind them. 

(1336/293) Sayyidina Anas 4& has said that the Messenger of 
Allah 0 said, "If anyone invokes a blessing on me, Allah will 
grant him ten blessings , ten of his sins will be remitted and he 
will be raised ten degrees." (Nasa'i) 

(1337/294) It is related by Sayyidina Abu Burdah ibn Niyar 4& 
that the Messenger of Allah H said, "If any of my people 
invokes a blessing on me with a sincere heart then Allah will 
grant him for that ten blessings, raise because of that ten ranks, 
and record for him ten good deeds in return and expunge ten 
bad deeds. (Nasa <i) 

Commentary: The first hadith narrated by Sayyidina Abu 
Hurayrah told us that anyone who invokes blessing on the 
Prophet & once will recieve ten blessings from Allah. The second 
hadith which was narrated by Sayyidina Anas <&> disclosed that he 
would not only receive ten blessings but also he will be raised ten 
ranks and ten sins will be remitted for him. The third hadith by 
Abu Bardah ibn Niyar 4& assures him of all these things and adds 
that ten good deeds would also be recorded for him. 



306 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

My humble opinion is that the third hadith is an explanation of 
the first two ahadith. But Allah knows best. 

The third hadith also makes it clear that to get these rewards it 
is necessary to invoke blessing with a sincere heart. 

(1338/295) Sayyidina Abu Talha 4&> has reported that the 

Messenger of Allah 0 came one day with a cheerful look on 

his face, saying (in explanation of his happy condition), "Jibril 

ftggH came to me and told me that my Lord says, 'Does it not 

please you, Muhammad, that none of your people will invoke a 

blessing on you without my blessing him ten times and that 

none of your people will present his salutation (of peace) 

without my granting him the same (peace) ten times?" 

(Nasa'i, Darami) 

Commentary: The Qur'an tells us: 

And soon shall your Lord give you and you shall be 
well-pleased. (Ad-duha,93:5) 
The final and complete fulfilment of this promise will take 
place in the Hereafter. But, this also is part of its fulfilment that the 
slave who conveys blessing to the Prophet A sincerely out of love 
for him will recieve ten blessings from Alah and ten salutations (of 
peace). This is indeed a display of Allah's deep love for the Prophet 
A and His mercy on him. Allah conveyed these tidings to the 
Prophet S through Jibril in a very loving manner: 

"Your Lord says, O Muhammad , Will you not be pleased with 
My decision?" 

If Allah grants us the power to understand, we might fathom 
the station of the Prophet & through these ahadith. 



Book ofAzkar A nd Da 'wat 



307 



J&b iJ fJsfo JlsI ^ jifi ci*i Jtf ilijj JiJ 'ill 

(1339/296) Sayyidina Abdur Rahman ibn Awf has said that 
once the Messenger of Allah A went out and entered among 
some palm trees and prostrated himself so long that he was 
afraid Allah may have taken his soul. So, he went and looked, 
and he (the Prophet) raised his head and said, "What is the 
matter with you?" Sayyidina Abdur Rahman mentioned that 
to him (about his fear and the Prophet's A not raising his head 
from prostration). The Prophet A said, "Jibril Ml had come 
and gave me the good news that Alah said, "If anyone invokes 
one blessing on you I will bless him and if anyone conveys 
salutation to you I will convey peace to him." (Ahmad) 

Commentary: This hadith confirms that if anyone invokes 
blessing on the Prophet A, Allah will send blesings on him. 
However, it does not mention the number ten, but the hadith 
preceding it and narrated by Sayyidina Abu Talha 4fc has informed 
us that Jibril SfejsSI has conveyed the good news that Allah will send 
ten blessings in lien of anyone's blessing on the Prophet A. Either 
the Prophet A did not find it necessary to mention the number ten 
when he gave the good news to Sayyidina Abdur Rahman ibn Awf 
4&> or later on one of the narrators forgot it. 

In another version of this hadith in Musnad Ahmad there are 
these words: 

(So, I fell down in prostration in gratitude for the good news.) 
While mentioning this hadith, Imam Bayhaqi has said "I have 
not found any hadith more authentic than this in proof of 
prostration for gratitude". But Allah knows best. 



308 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



(1340/297) Tabarani has transmitted a hadith of similar nature 
from Sayyidina Umaf 4*>. It too mentions of an unusual 
prostration of the Messenger of Allah S and it concludes with 
his follwoing saying after arising from the prostration. 
Jibril came to me and convyed the message: If Jibril 
came to me and conveyed the message: If anyone from your 
ummah invokes a blessing on you, Allah will bless him ten 
times and raise his ranks ten times. 
Commentary: The purpose of all these ahadith is one, and. that is 
to inform us that an easy way to receive the blessings of Allah — 
His favours and mercy — is to invoke blessing and peace on the - 
Prophet 'S with a sincere heart. In reward from invoking a 
blessing on the Prophet Allah sends ten blessings, raises rank 
ten times, wipes out ten sins from the record of deeds and credits it 
with ten good deeds. (These ahadith are not narrated by merely one 
or two Companions <& but by a large number of them 1 and 
transmitted by almost all the Books of hadith, the Sahah, Sunan 
and Musnad, on reliable authority.) Thus, if anyone invocates 
blessings on the Prophet % only ten times every day then, 
according to these ahadith, Allah blesses him one thousand times 
and this includes His mercy and bounties, raises his rank one 
thousand times, remits one thousand of his sins and records one 
thousand good deeds in his name. What a good bargain! How very 
dispossesed are those who do not seize this opportunity! 

May Allah grant us firm belief and ability to act accordingly. 
Aameenl 



O Sayyidina Abu Huraryrah, Anas, Abu Buradah ibn Niyar, Abdur Rahman ibn 
Awf, Abu Talha Ansari and Umar *Ui ; whose narrations we have seen 
here] and (.these too have narrated similar ahadith transmitted, in different 
Books): Bara ibn Aazib, Sa'eed ibn Umar Ansari and Abdullah ibn Al-Aas 
-^p aJJi we might say that this hadith topic is narrated in a continuous 
way by deferent Companions in terms of its common nature. Accordingly, it 
is proved from the Prophet <i*£ surely and definitely. 



Book ofAzkar And Da'wut 309 

To Neglect Blessings On His 
Mention Spells Destruction 

•,ui3 4* y> ^ utf ^33 d>'f} u& 

(1 341/298J Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4& said that the Messenger 
of Allah said, "May he be abased who does not invoke a 
blessing on me when 1 am mentioned in his presence. May he be 
abased who passes through the whole of Ramadan without his 
sin being forgiven him (and he fails to make repentance and 
seek forgiveness in the month). May he be abased one or both 
of whose parents have reached old age without causing him to 
enter Paradise (that is, he does not look after them and make 
them happy). (Tirmizi) 
Commentary: The three kinds of people for whom the hadith 
reports the Prophet's S curse that they should be abased have one 
thing in. common. Their grave folly is that they fail to seize the 
opportunity afforded them by Allah to gain His favour, Mercy and 
forgiveness. They simply do not wish to get that. They prefer to be 
dispossesed of Allah's grants and thus deserve the Prophet's % 
prayer against them We will read in the next selection of hadith 
that Sayyidina Jibril 3& too has prayed against such people. 

JiS ip}lll Jt>\ $ &\ jiS M-jlil J&Ji lUft U>^i 

<& ^ ? & i) & & ^ & $ ^ 



310 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



(1342/299) It is reported by Sayyidina Ka'b ibn Ujrah Ansari 
that one day the Messenger of Allah 0 asked them to get close 
to him. The Companions drew nearer to him (for he wished 
to say something and he climbed up the pulpit.) As he put his 
foot down on the first step, he called out, Aameenl on the 
second step, he again said, Aameenl In the same way, on the 
third step, he called out, Aameenl Then he spoke to them and 
when he had concluded his address, he came down the pulpit. 
The Companions 4> asked him, "Messenger of Allah m\ We 
heard from you something today which we have not heard 
before (you said Aameen at every step of the pulpit.)" So, he 
disclosed that as he had climbed the first step, Jibril $M came 
and said, 

. iJyuJ ph oUwj & 

"May he perish who finds the month of Ramadan but cannot 
gain pardon for himself." On that, he said Aameen! 
When he climbed the second step, Jibril said, 

"May he perish before whom you are mentioned but he does not 
invoke blessings on You! Again, the Prophet 0 said, Aameen! 

Then, when he raised himself on the third step, Jibril said, 

&j \ J> Jul pi UaI^ jl £y) & 

"May he perish whose parents, or one of them, grow old and 
aged in his life but he cannot make himself worhy of Paradise 
(by making them happy and comfortable with his attention and 
care of them)." The Prophet S said, Aameen! (Haakim) 

Commentary: This hadith conveys nearly the same message that 
the previous hadith narrated by Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4& 
conveyed with the difference that in this hadith Sayyidina Jibril 

is the one who cursed the negligent people and the Prophet 
said Aameen! 

The same, incident in which Jibril j^sB has prayed against such 
people and the Prophet iS has said, Aameen, is also reported with 
a slight variance by Sayyidina Ibn Abbas, Anas, Jabir ibn Samurah, 
MaaHK ibn Al-Huwayrith and Abdullah ibn Al-Harith apart 
from Sayyidina Ka'b ibn Ujrah And these find mention in 



Book of Azkar And Da 'wut 



311 



different books of hadith. Some of these mention that Sayyidina 
Jibril $g&n cursed the negligent people and asked the Prophet #1 to 
say Aameen, which he did. In all of these ahadith, the curse is 
called upon the three kinds of unfortunate people in a very severe 
manner by Jibril $5$ and the Prophet 0, and they have done it 
very angrily. Actually, this is a svere warning against these three 
shortcomings in anyone. The incident also reveals that the Prophet 

is regarded very highly and loved by the angels because of 
Allah's love for him. The love and estimation of the angels is 
reflected in the strong curse of Sayyidina Jibril #£B, the chief of 
the angels, for anyone who merely omits to bless the Prophet $1 
when his name is mentioned in his presence, and the Prophet & 
said Aameen on that. The gravity of the shortcoming is clear from 
this conduct of Jibril SSEft and the Prophet A. 

May Allah preserve us from making such mistakes and being 
neglectful and may He enable us to recognise the worth of the 
Prophet A. Aameen. 

It is not the basis of these ahadith that the jurists have ruled 
that it is wajib (obligatory) for the speaker of the Prophet's A 
name and the listener to invoke blessings on him on mentioning 
him. 

dp %\ jj* > jis jvS & %\^ p ^( \r t r/r . . ) 

(300) Sayyidina Ali has reported the Messenger of Allah A 
as saying, "The niggardly one is he in whose presence I am 
mentioned but who does not (so much as move his lips and) 
invoke a blessing on me." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Normally a man who is stingy in spending his 
wealth is considered niggardly and miser but here is one who is 
more niggardly and a greater miser. He is the man before whom the 
Prophet 0 is mentioned but who does not utter the brief 
expression of durood although the Prophet 0 has done for his 
ummah a great piece of work and they have received a great wealth 
from his hands so that if each of them gives away his life for his 
sake they will not have paid back for his favours. 



312 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



None of The Muslim Gatherings 
Should Go Without Mention of Allah 
& Blessings On The On The Prophet 

^3 a* %\ > J* J* ti} cf C^rti/r. 0 

(1344/301) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4$b has said that the 
Messenger of Allah ft told them that if some people sit 
together and, in their meeting, fail to remember Allah and 
invoke blessings on their Prophet ft (and their assembly 
remains void of mention of Allah and benediction on the 
Prophet ft) then on the Day of Resurrpection that would be for 
them a cause of regret and loss. Then, Allah may punish them, if 
He will, or forgive them, if He will. (Tirmizi) 
Commentary: This could be enough to make us realise that none 
of our sittings should be bereft of zikr of Allah and durood on His 
Messenger ft. If there is even one meeting in anyone's life in 
which these things are omitted then that would cause him to regret 
and he would have to answer for his conduct on the Day of 
Resurrection. Allah may punish or forgive such people. 

The same message with a slight difference of words is narrated, 
besides Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah, by Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed 
Al-Khudri, Abu Umamah Bahili, Wathilah ibn Al- Asqa' & and 
transmitted in different Books of hadilh. 

Abundance Of Invocation Will 
Procure Nearness To The Prophet m 
On The Day of Resurrection 



Book of Azkar And Da 'xvat ■> 1 3 

(1345/302) Sayyidina Ibn Mas'ud 4&e> said that the Messenger of 
Allah % said, "The one who will be nearest on the Day of 
Resurrection will be the one who invoked most blessings on 
me." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Any practicing believer who invokes blessings on 
the Prophet ill frequently will gain nearness to him on the Pay of 
Resurrection. May Allah cause us to be one of those who receive 
this honour. 

ft Lfr* juUi ii^ pjfat Jiij > JU £ 

(1346/303) Sayyidina Ruwayfi ibn Thabit Ansari ^ as 
reported that the Messenger of Allah S said, "If anyone 
invokes a blessing on Muhammad, saying: 

:^J\ ft 3k* C/yS&S JuiUt *i jii fjtti 

(O Allah! Let him occupy the place near You on the Day of 
Resurrection) 

he will be assured of my intercession". (Ahmad) 
Commentary: This hadilh is also transmitted by Tabarani in 
Mu'ajjam al-Kabecr in the following words: 

The person is assured of my intercession who says: 

.ULijl ft uISjl* 4>yuJl JuiJ» *i> l j ft^i Jlp JJj 

(O Allah! Shower blessings on Muhammad j£& and cause him to 
occupy a place near You on the Day of Resurrection.)" 
This contains all the words of the blessing and supplication and 
it is very brief. 

The Prophet will intercede he will consider it a special right 
(to his intercession) of those people who invoke blesings on him in 
these words. He will make a particular reference to these people in 
the court of Allah when interceding for his Ummah. 

.iijj'i ft Cfps tfjii 3 xUi > ^ fjiti 



314 



Meaning and Message of (he Traditions Part V 



If Anyone Continues To Invocate 
Blessings Instead of Making Supplication 
That Would Get His Purpose Served 

Jtf j# dJi ' Jd> JiS^jS cliU jii JAM cis 

(1347/304) Sayyidina Ubayy ibn Ka'b -i&> said that he told the 
Messenger of Allah S>, I frequently invoke biesings on you but 
how much of my supplication must I devote to You?" So he 
said, "You may set aside as such as you wish." Ubayy ibn Ka'b 
<$k> suggested that he would set aside a quarter of his 
supplication to Allah to invoke blessings on the Prophet iH who 
said to him, "Whatever you wish, but if you increase it that will 
be better for you." Then Ubayy ^ suggested that it should be 
half of his supplications and the Prophet JH said, "Whatever 
you wish, but if you increase it, that will be better for you." At 
that , he suggested two-thirds of his supplications (to invoke 
blessings) and the Prophet ill said, "Whatever you wish, but if 
you increase it, that will be better for you." So, Ubayy ibn Ka'b 
said that he would devote all his suppliction to invoke 
blessings on him and would be freed from care and need (and 
Allah would take care of all that, and his worldly and religious 
needs would be fulfilled from the unseen) and his sin will be 
expiated. (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The translation is clear and the hadith is 
self-explanatory. The Arabic word salah in the text here refers to 
supplication as generally pointed out by exponents of the hadith. 

Sayyidina Ubayy ibn Ka'b was given to making many 
supplications to Allah and he thought that he should set aside some 
of that to invoke blessings on the Prophet He sought the advice 
of the Prophet 0 on how much time he should devote to him. 
TheProphet HI did not determine any time, limit for him but left it 
to his own discretion indicating to him, however, that whatever 



Book of Azkar And Da'wat 



315 



time he set aside to would be better for him. Finally, Sayyidina 
Ubayy ibn Ka'b 4*> decided to substitute all that he requested Allah 
in his suppliction with invocation of blessings for Messenger of 
Allah S> — that is asking Allah for His Messenger Hi alone. 
When he decided thus, the Messenger of Allah & conveyed to him 
the good news that in that case all his needs and problems would 
be solved without his having to make a supplication or effort and 
his sins will be forgiven without taking him to task for that. 

We have seen in this very volume in the chapter on the 
Excellence or Merit of the Qur'an, the hadith qudsi in which the 
Messenger of Allah $1 has reported the saying of Allah: 

"He whom the Qur'an keeps busy (and away) from remebering 
Me and making supplications, 1 will give him better than that 
what I give those who ask and make supplications." 
This hadith qudsi promises the favours and bountines of Allah 
to those who devote all their time to recital of Qur'an and make it 
their sole devotional exercise and also assures them that they would 
get more than those who request Allah and make supplications to 
Him. Similarly, the hadith narrated by Ubayy ibn Ka'b 4^> which is 
under-discussion assures the lovers of the Prophet % and sincere 
Muslims who devote all their supplications to invocate blessings 
on the Prophet % skipping personal requests that Allah will favour 
them much and all their problems and difficulties will be solved 
without their realising how. Their sins will be forgiven too. 

The secret lies in the fact that just as keeping oneself attached 
to the Qur'an is a sign of love and faith in Allah's Book which 
entitles the devoted person to Allah's choicest favours, so too it is a 
sign of love and true faith and attachment to the Messenger of 
Allah ft to keep oneself occupied in invocating blessings on him. 
Such sincere slaves of Allah are entitled to the mercy of Allah 
without making a request for it. 

Besides, we have seen the ahadith that assure a man who 
invokes a blessing on the Prophet ft that Allah will shower on him 
ten blessings, credit his record of deeds with ten pious acts, 
obliterate ten sins for his record of deeds and elevate him ten ranks. 
In the light of this assurance, how well blessed that person would 



316 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



be who devotes his entire supplication to invocating blessings for 
the beloved Prophet S making all his requests for the Prophet 0 
and none whatsoever for himself. Surely, Allah's blessings, favours 
and mercy would pour down on him heavily. The obvious 
consequence would be that the mercy of Allah would get him his 
wants without his asking and cleanse him of the traces of sin. May 
Allah cause us to believe in these things and then to act 
accordingly. 

Durood Gets Supplications Answered 

3fy l\ jii & <y. 'J- ( \ r t A/r . °) 

(1348/305) Sayyidina Umar lbn Al-Khattab 4b said that the 
supplicationg is stopped between heaven and earthy none of it 
ascending till you invoke blessing on your Prophet 0. (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: We have seen a hadilh (No.91) in the etiquettes of 
du'a that one who makes a supplication should first praise Allah nd 
glorify Him and then invocate blessings on His Messenger S 
before presenting his request to Allah. This narrative of Sayyidina 
Umar 4& tells us that we must invocate blessings even after 
making a supplication for that is a chief means of acceptance of the 
request. 

It is reported from Shaykh Abu Sulayman in the Hisn Hasecrt 
that durood (which really is a supplication on behalf of the Prophet 
A) is surely accepted by Allah and if one of His slaves invocates a 
blessing on the Prophet H before making a supplication and again 
on concluding it then it is surely alien to His Mercy that He accept 
what is in the begining and what is at the end but overlook what is 
in-betwen of the needy man's request. Therefore, the supplicant 
must be fully confident that his supplication would be granted if he 
has invoked blessing on the Prophet S before and after it, Insha 
Allah. 

The foregoing hadilh does not say that Sayyidina Umar 4$ had 
heard the words( about acceptance of du'a) from the Prophet H. 
However, this is something that no one can suggest on his own 



Book ofAzkar And Da'wat 



317 



through his personal idea of understanding but can only say such a 
thing after hearing it from the Prophet S>, therefore, according to 
the scholars of hadith this narrative is a marfoo ' hadith. 

No Matter In Which Corner Of 
The World One Calls For Blessings 
On Him It Does Reach The Prophet 0 

(1349/306) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah has reported the 
Messenger of Allah Hi as saying, "Do not turn your houses into 
graves, and do not make my grave into a place of festival, but 
invoke blessings on me for wherever you are your blessing will 
reach me. (Nasa'i) 

Commentary: This hadith teaches us three things: 

(i) "Do not turn your houses into graves;" scholars have pointed 
out that the dead do not practice zikr or worship in the grave. 
Graves are thus void of worship and zikr so do not let your houses 
be like that, lacking in zikr and worship of Allah." Houses should 
be enlivened with remembrance of Allah and worship. This tells us 
that houses where neither is Allah remembered nor worshipped are 
not places of the living but they are reposes of the dead. 

(ii) "Do not make my grave into a place of festival. Just as 
people assemble and enjoy themselves at some place on an 
appointed date every year so do not make my grve a fair ground." 
The graves of saints and religious people are turned into fairs in the 
name of urs (celebration of death anniversary). If such a thing were 
held at the grave of the Prophet $1 that would be very painful and 
agonising to his soul. 

(iii) "You may send blessings to me from the east or the west, 
from dry land or oceans, wherever you are. I will recieve your 
blessings." The same message has been transmitted by Tabarani in 
almost the same words from Sayyidina Hasan ibn Ali <^e>. 

J&fe^ jli 'Jp < i U4 fit Uv- 



318 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



"Wherever you are invoke blessing on me, for your blessings are 
conveyed to me." 

Those people who have something of a relationship with the 
Prophet %t from the heart will see in these words a very good 
news. They are comforted that though they might be thousands of 
miles away yet their as-salatu wa aslam will reach them. 

(1350/307) Sayyidina Ibn Mas'ud reported the Messenger of 
Allah $H as saying, "Allah has some angels who travel about in 
the earth and convey to me the salutation (peace) of my people." 

(Nasa'i, Darami) 

Commentary: Another hadith transmitted by Tabarani and others 
and narrated by Sayyidina Ammar ibn Yasir $$t> adds to this the 
message that the angel who conveys the blessings discloses the 
name of the person who invocates the blessings. He says: 

"O Muhammad! So-and-so has invocked blessings on you." 

In some versions of the hadith of Sayyidina Ammar ibn Yasir 
^ it is said that "the angel discloses the name of the man's father 
also. He says: j> j^AA u (O Mhammad! So-and-so son 

of so-and-so has invoked blessings on you." Indeed, it is very 
fortunate of the Believer who invokes blessings on the Prophet 
The angel recalls his name and his father's before the Prophet 0. 
His name and his father's are announced in the presence of the 
Prophet 0 

U ^3 JU> Jii ■ Jif ( > r o \ /r . a) 

(135iy308) It is reported by Sayyidina Abu Huraryrah that 
the Messenger of Allah gfc said, "Whenever anyone sends 
O. If the heart is linked, distnces are easily surmounted. 



Book of Azkar And Da 'wat 



319 



salutation to me, Allah returns my soul to me so that 1 may 
reciprocate the salutation." (Abu Dawood, Bayhaqi) 

Commentary: The words of the hadith Allah returns my soul to 
me might cause someone to doubt that his should stays away from 
his body and when anyone greets saying salam (Peace) Allah 
return it to the body so that he may reciprocate the salam. But, this 
is not correct. If we go by it then the Prophet's ill soul is put into 
his body hundreds of times ever yday and taken out, for millions of 
people convey blessings and peace to him every day. There is a 
retinue of people at the grave too presenting their salam. Besides, it 
is cofirmed that the Prophets f%-Ji pfel* are aiive in their graves, 
though the ulma's concept of their living is different, but they are 
all agreed that all the Prophets f^A-Ji p$J* are alive in their graves. 
This is known from Shari'ah. 

Therefore, the hadith cannot mean to say that his body is 
always without soul and when anyone sends salam, the soul is 
returned to it to enable him to respond. Most exponents of hadith 
have interpreted the words to mean that in the grave his soul is 
perpetually atentive towrads. Allah and the next world. When 
someone presents his salam and it reaches him through an angel 
attentive to him too with the permission of Allah, and he 
reciprocates the salam. This paying of attention is what the hadith 
means by ^jj *J*'& *'Ji\. 

This humble writer submits that only those people can 
understand it who have some concept of the life of barzakh ] and its 
conditions. May Allah enable us to gain insight into these facts. 

The message of the hadith is that when anyone sends saluations 
(salam) to the Prophet Wt he does not make a mechanical and 
superficial response only with the tongue, but returns the greeting 
with soul and heart fully attentive. 

The truth is that if anyone does not gain reward at all for his 
invocating blessings and peace but recives only the Prophet's 
response then he has indeed recieved every thing. 

Jtf^jii 1^-33 i£u# J0p f*Ui 

"Peace be on you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His 

favours'. 

O. barzakh is the intervening life between death and resurrection. 



320 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



J* ^J^> 

(OUi-Jllc-JtA^^^ieljj) 

(1352/309) Sayyidina Abu Huraryrah ^> has reported the 
Messenger of Allah ill as saying, "If anyone invokes blesings 
on me at my grave, I hear it, and if anyone invokes blessings 
from a distance then it is conveyed to me." (Bayhaqi) 

Commentary: This hadith explains to us that only that blessing 
and salam is conveyed to the Prophet through the angels which 
is invoked at a distance. However, those whom Allah enables to 
stand at his grave and they invoke blessings and peace then he 
hears them directly, and, as we have read, he reciprocates to 
everyone's salutation (and greetings). 

How very fortunate are the slaves of Allah who invoke 
blessings and peace on him hundred of times everyday and gets his 
response. The truth is that if anyone gets only one response from 
the Prophet $1 for their blessings of a lifetime and if they have in 
them speak of love for him then that single response is worth more 
than the wealth of this world and the next. 

4^*J (fcj JTjGj fJij ua^- Ji* 

(O Allah! Bless our cheif Muhammad, the unlettered Prophet 
and his family, and favour and give peace — as You love 
and please to such an extent as You love and please.) 

Expressions Of Durood 

We have seen in the previous pages that Allah has Commanded 
us to invoke blessings on His Messenger ra. He has given this 
Command in a very effective and lovable way. 

The Prophet H has described to us the merits and vitrues of 
this exercise on behalf of Allah. We have read them in the ahadiih 
narrated in earlier pages. 

Then, when his Companions $fe> asked him, the Prophet ill also 
taught them the expressions and phrases of the invocations. I have 



Book ofAzkar And Da'wat 



321 



done as best J could to collect the authentic ahadith on the subject 
from the Books of Ahadith and present them here. 

^ ciii' ^3 ^ip'ibi Jj, ^i^uj L;jLi 

ijljl Jli J^U ,£i J# Ul* alii SjS cdi J4i 5jUJi 

(1353/310) Sayyidina Abdur Rahman ibn Abu Layla, a 
prominent Taba'ee has related that he met Sayyidina Ka'b ibn 
Ujrah 4& (a Companion from among those of the Bayl 
Ar-Ridwan). The latter asked him if he would like him to 
present him with something he had heard from the Prophet S. 
He expressed his desire to hear it, so he said: We said to the 
Messenger of Allah & that Allah has taught us how to offer 
salutation to you (as we do in the tashahud while praying and 
say: 

"Peace be on you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His 
favours." Now, you teach us how we may invoke blessing on 
you. 

The Prophet $1 told us to say: 

kj&j 

XJJU. XyO- i_Sjl j^jbl J| 

O Allah! Bless Muhammad and the members of the 
household of Muhammad ^^Aii^ as You did bless Ibrahim 



322 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

g&B and the members of the household of Ibrahim You 
are, indeed, Praiseworthy, Glorious. 

O Allah! Confer favours on Muhammad ft and the members of 
the household of Muhammad as you did confer favours on 
Ibrahim and the members ^ y. 4« of household of Ibrahim 
S^S. You are, indeed, Praiseworthy, Glorious. (Bukhari and 
Muslim) 

Commentary: The manner in which Sayyidina Ka'b ibn Ujrah ^> 
narrated this hadith to Sayyidina Abdur Rahman ibn Abu Layla 
Up Jto j shows how highly he regarded this hadith and the 
durood it contains. The version of this hadith in Tabarani tells us 
that Sayyidina Ka'b ibn Ujrah related this hadith to Sayyidina 
Abdur Rahman ibn Abu Layla ^AiWj while performing tawaf'm 
the Bayt Allah'. This also reflects the esteem he had for the hadith 
and durood. 

The version of this hadith in Bayhaqi tell us that the question 
about the Salah (benediction) was put to the Messenger of Allah 
ft when the verse of sureh Al-Ahzab was revealed 2 . 

oxi i^iiij 4* i jU \pi * ^ > 6jU fifc£yAi & 

Surely Allah and His angels send blesings on the Prophet SB?. O 
you who belive! Send your blessings on him and salute him 
with a becoming salutation. (Al-Ahzab, 33:56) 

We have already discussed the command contained in this 
verse. 

The question was put to the Prophet ft how could the 
Companions (and the rest of ummah) abide by the Command of 
Allah that they send blessings on the Prophet ft. The words of the 
invocation taught to us in this hadith and many other ahadith 

besides it ( ju*m J-p ^) disclose that we must request and 

beg Allah to shower blessings and favours on the Prophet ft. This 
is because we are ourselves dependant and needy and worthless so 
we cannot offer anything ourselves to The Holy Prophet ft, the 
benefactor of the mankind ft. 

Thus, w e implore and beseech Allah to bless and favour him by 

O. Fath Al-Bari, Kitab Ad-Da'wat. 
©. Fath Al-Bari (Kitab Ad-Da'wat) 



Book of Azkar And Da'wat 



323 



raising and increasing his nobility, honour, bounties, mercy, 
nearness and the approved position. And, He may deal with the 
Prophet's 0 household members in the same manner. 

The Wisdom in Asking For 
Barakh After Asking for Salah 

We have spoken about the word as-salah in the preceding 
pages. It has a very wide connotation and means to honour and 
respect, laud and praise, elevate ranks, love, bless and show mercy, 
hold (someone) as beloved, show good intention and pray for 
betterment. 

For any slave of Allah to gain barakah from Him also means 
the same thing. He gets abundant favours, blessings with 
permanance and continued increase. In other words, barakah, does 
not include anything that as-salah does not embrace. If that is so 
then there is no need to ask Allah to favour (barakah for His 
Messenger S once we have begged Him to bless him (as-salah). 
However, the method of supplicating Allah is to use different 
words for the same request, again and again, to demonstrate the 
intensity of our need and sincere request. This is why in durood 
after requesting Allah for His salah (blessing), we request Him for 
His barakah (favours) for the Prophet S and members of his 
household. In fact, in some versions which we will see soon Allah 
is requested for tarahham ^jt after salah and barakah. 

THE WORDA4L (ji) 

The word aal occurs four times in this durood and we have 
translated it as members of his household. The all JT of anyone — 
in Arabic, particularly in the terminology of Qur'an and hadith — 
are those people who have a special link or attachment with him 
whether that link or attachment is: 

(i) of kinship, like with wife and children, or 

(ii) of friendship, belief and love, following and obedience as 

with companions, lovers and followers in his mission. 1 

O. Imam Raghib Isfahani has given the meaning of aal in Mufradat Al-Qur'an 
in these words: 



324 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Hence, the word aal can have both these meanings from the 
point of view of lexicon. However, the very next hadith that we 
will now read — as narrated by Abu Humayd As-Sa'idee presents 
expressions of the ditrood which indicate that aal means members 
of the household alone. This covers the Prophet's S wife, 
descendants and children. These people are honoured by a close 
kinship and attachment with the Prophet S and a special 
association with his life (which is not available to other people 
although they may be more meritorious than them). Accordingly, it 
is their special honour that blessings and peace are sent on them 
too in the durood when they are sent on the Prophet H. 

It does not follow at all that his wives, who are included in the 
word aal, are more excellent than everyone else in the ummah. In 
the sight of Allah, merit and excellence depnend on faith and deeds 
prompted by faith and the condition of faith all of which are 
classed under the head, taqwaji, (piety. God-fearing) 

The same definition applies to the worldly links. When a 
sincere devotee presents his beloved mentor a lovable gift and 
offering then that he includes the mentor and the members of his 
household because of their personal relationship with him. The 
sincere devotee wishes that the members of his household too use 
his gift. Indeed, this is the natural corollary of attachment and love 
with anyone. 

Durood, too is a gift and offering submitted to the Messengr or 
Allah %. Hence, it is the demand of one's love for him to include 
his wives and children (family) with him. It is natural, again, that 
this should please his heart very much. On this basis, it is not wise 
to enter into a discussion of excellence and merit. 

Nevertheless, it is my own humble sumbmiision that word aal 
in the durood means members of the Prophet's H household that 
is. his wives and descendants. In the same way the aal of Sayyidina 
Ibrahim means his household members. The Qur'an adresses 
the wife of Sayyidina Ibrahim Ml and says: 

( vr: \ \ a j.) oJl^ & v^Jl >' fifr te'&k ^5 

The mercy of Allah and His blessings be upon you, O people of 

(Ibrahim's) household! Surely He is Praiseworthy, Glorious. 



Book ofAzkar And Da'wat 



325 



Surely, the aal of Ibrahim ftftfy & are those whom this 
verse refers to as people of his household. 

The Comparison in the Durood 

The durood taught by the Prophet iH requests Allah to bless 
and favour him and his aal just as He had blessed and favoured 
Sayyidina Ibrahim and his aal rfs& y ib' w-j. This comparison 
raises a mis giving. The one compared is inferior to the one to 
whom he is comapred; the one to whom another is comapred is 
superior. For example, if cold water is compared to ice then no 
matter how cold it is, its coldness will always be lesser than ice 
which is more cold. On this principle, the foregoing comparison in 
the durood clearly indicates that the blessings and favours on 
Sayyidina Ibrahim and his aal (^stT y <&i are superior than 
the blessings and favours requested for Prophet Muhammad 
and his aal y *»i 

Exponents of ahadilh have answered this question in many 
ways. Their answers may be read in Fath al-Bari and other books. 
In my humble opinion the most convincing answer is that 
comparison is made sometimes only to determine the kind. For 
instance, someone takes cutting from an old garment and asks 
drapers for the same new cloth. The sample that he has with him is 
used as the one to which comparison is made but, as we have seen, 
it is an old and useless piece of cloth but the one that is compared 
to it is new and valuable and it is better than the sample. Thus, the 
comparison in the durood is of the same kind. The interpretation of 
the durood is clearly: 

"The particular kind of blessings and favours which Sayyidina 
Ibrahim and his aal were bestowed with, the same kind of 
blessings and favours may be bestowed upon Sayyidina 
Muhammad and his aal." 

Sayyidina Ibrahim has the distinction among all the 
Prophets ?"*-J' and in fact of all the creation that Allah chose 
him as His Khaleel (friend) 

(U°:i iL^\)%Xp- ^f>jl 4)1*Lhj1j 
"And Allah took Ibrahim for a friend". (An-Nisa,4: 125) 



326 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



And, Allah honoured him with leadership over men, 

Surely I am going to make you a leader for mankind. 1 
Allah made him the one who built the Bayt Allah (House of 
Allah). Also, starting with him series of Prophets f *-Ji and 
Messenger will remain with his progeny and descendants alone till 
the Last Hour. 

No one except Sayidina Ibrahim SSSA before the Holy Prophet 
S had recieved such favours and blessings from Allah and no one 
had attained the high station of adoration and acceptance. Thus the 
request in the durood is of this very nature that Allah may grant the 
same kind of favours and blessings to His beloved Prophet S and 
the members of his household, and the same kind of love and 
acceptance. 

In short, the comparison is merely to determine and explain the 
kind in which often the one compared is superior to the one with 
whom comparison is made as we have seen in the example of the 
sample of cloth taken to the drapers. 

The Beginning & Conclusion of The Durood 

The invocation of blessings begins with (O Allah) and 
concludes with two great names of Allah ^ ( tne 
Praiseworthy, the Gracious), some great Imams (leaders in the 
religious teachings) have told that the word Q^) Allahumma is a 
substitute for all the Beauitufl Names of Allah (or, it stands for 
them). Hence, to make a supplication through it is like making a 
supplication with all His Names. Shaykh Ibn Al-Qayyim <U* *i l^j 
has discussed this issue in detail in Jila Al-Afham from a very 
scholarly angle. Knowledgeable people must study that. He has 
contended that this meaning comes from the mushaddad meem (the 
doubling of the letter meen) and has explained it from the nuance 
of grammer. He has supported his contention with the conculsions 
of his predecessor Scholars 2 . As for the names Al-Hameed and 
Al-Majeed (Praiseworthy, Glorious), they reflected all His 
O. Al-Baqarah,2:l24. " 

©. His discussion of the subject spread over about ten pages in Jila Al-Afham 
(p.94). Then he concludes: (Continued on Next Page ) 



Book of Azkar And Da'wat 



327 



Attributes of Majesty and perfection. Al-Hameed is he 

Who encompases in His Being all the good and perfect 
characteristics which entitle Him to praise. Al-Majeed is He Who is 
perfect in majesty and power, omnipotence and greatness. Thus, 
the meaning be: 

O Allah! You are a power of all attributes of glory and 
perfection and majesty, so we request You alone to send blessings 
and peace on Sayyidina Muhammad 0 and on the members of the 
household of Sayyidina Muhammad j, &\ " 

In the Qur'an too when mention is made of the blessings and 
favours of Allah on Sayyidina Ibrahim and his household 
members y & the very same two names are placed at the 
conclusion of the expression because of their distinction which we 
have just mentioned. This expression is uttered by the angels. 

The mercy of Allah and His blessings be upon you, O people of 
(Ibrahim's) household! Surely He is Praiseworthy, Glorious. 

(Hud, 11:73) 

In short, there is a great, deeper meaning in the durood 
beginning with Allahummah and concluding with the attributes of 
Allah, Al-Hameed and Al-Majeed. The quality of the durood 
increases much by these two expressions. 

$ J^J ^ J T ^ j xl^i Js. Ju^ fy\ 

Comments On The Transmission of This Durood 

The words of the durood narrated by Sayyidina Ka'b ibn Ujrah 
recorded above are as transmitted by Bukhari in the Book of 
Prophets. Bukhari has narrated this hadith in at least two other 
places, in the commentary on surah Al-Ahzab and in the Book of 
Supplications. In both these places the words after US' and wf 



328 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



cSjb (as You did bless and as You did favour ane only Jl J* 
^ai^i (on the members of Ibrahim's household) instead of J* 
J*J (On Ibrahim and on the members of the household of 
Ibrahim). The words in sahih Muslim too are in this manner. 
However. Hafiz Ibn Hajar has concluded after studying this hadilh 
from Bukhari and Muslim and other Books that the complete words 
of the durood as narrated by Ka'b ibn Ujrah <&> include all words as 
mentioned by us. He has made his conclusion known in Falh 
Al-Bari. He has stated that the versions that have only the words 
pjtjA Js- or jr-Aty J1 J* {on Ibrahim, or on the members of the 
household of Ibrahim) have suffered from the (bad) memory of the 
narrators'. (Fath Al-Bari) 

Apart from Sayyidina Ka'b ibn Ujrah 4& many other 
companions & have narrated this hadilh in nearly the same words 
of the durood. Their versions are found in Books of hadilh and the 
narrations are being presented here. 

Jl2* ulS> 4* a* ( i/r u ) 

iUi J* J> pi -JWi'JL>>i J^3 *3J* 

3 ^ > JTjii 3 JT Jip c4bur 4*$ij «*»} # 
(^juji ^ jjg wgjj ^tjj jt > cjjij ur Aj>3 

O We have reffered to Ibn Qayyim's Jila Al-Ajham in the text preceding. It is 
his best work on durood and reflects on his excellent knowledge. However, he 
has erred in saying, that the words J T J*> H»V ^* ^ (fl¥ 

J/c/ /J/voi/r ftmAwi w/k/ »te members o///k? household of Ibrahim) are not found 
in any authentic hadilh. He goes on to say that the authentic versions have only 
the words ^* (r>« Ibrahim) or only J 1 ^ (on the aal oj Ibrahim). 

(Jila Al-Ajham). But the truth is that the complete words {including these) are 
(bund in Sahih Bukhari in the the Book of Prophets as narrated by Ka'b ibn 
Ujrah. (v.l . p.477) These words are also found in the narration of Sayyidina Abu 
Sa'eed Al-Khudri **■ * as found in Bukhari. (V2. P. 940). In regard to these 
words, nearly the same mistake has been committed by the teacher of Ibn 
Al-Qayyim. Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah. He has concluded that there was no 
transmission known to him for the words: ^y} J* ^> ^ if you 

did favour Ibrahim and the members of the household of Ibrahim) Fatawa Ibn 
Tamivyah, VI P 161). 

Such an oversight does take place at the hands of the greatest of authorities 
but it doen not reflect on their authority and knowledge only One Being is Free 
of blemish. He is: 1 i jtj S*i (My Lord errs not, nor forgets)(TaHa, 20:52) 



Book of Azkar And Da \vat 



329 



(1354/31 1) It is reported by Sayyidina Abu Humayd As-Sa'idee 
that some people asked the Prophet "Messenger of 
Allah! How may we invoke blessings on You?" So, he instructed 
them to say: 

jLs^i JL«ji- Jip c^j*j 3 ^ 

"O Allah shower blessings on Muhammad, his wives and his 
offspring as You did bless the members of the household of 
Ibrahim, and grant favours to Muhammad, his wives and his 
offspring as You did grant favours to the members of the 
household of Ibrahim. Indeed, You are Praisworthy, Glorious." 

(Bukhari) 

Commentary: The words of durood are slightly different from 
those of the first hadith narrated by Sayyidina Ka'b ibn Ujrah 
The words there begin: 

and JIpj xLnJ Jlp J-i» 

But in this hadith the words <Uj%* JT ^Js-j at both places are 
replaced with *ajij ^'jj'j (that is, and the members of the 
household of Muhammad are replaced with his wives and his 
offspring.) 

It was on the basis of this replacement that I had suggested that 
the opinion of those people is correct who say that JT refers to 
his wives and offspring. 

There is another subtle difference. In that hadith these words 
were there ^ y} JT Js- j y} Js- US' (as You did bless Ibrahim 
and (he members of (he Household of Ibrahim) and J* c^jb uf 
fe* 1 j$ j^j ^ j$ (as You did favour Ibrahim and the members of 
the household of Ibrahim). But, in the hadith both these sets of 
words are substituted by p-»y\ JT J* cJL» uSand JT c-Tjb uS* 

In the ahadilh by other Companions too (as we will see) the 
words are y} JT J* which, as we said, is only a difference in the 
meaning. In the idiom of the Arabic language if someone's name is 
called and his progeny is mentioned while he is not mentioned (as 



330 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

such) then he will be deemed to be included in that. For instance, 
the Qur'an says: 

(TT :r j** J') J* JT j j ^ ST jL*\'h\ l\ 

"Surely Allah chose Aadam and Nuh and the family of Ibrahim 
and the family of Imran above all the peoples of the world) 

(Aal Imran, 3:33) 

Obviously, the aal of Ibrahim too. In the same way, 
Fir'awn is also included it:j JT U and v'^' ^ ajf-j J T >^ 5l J 
(athough only aal of Fir'awn is mentioned in the both cases.) 

The two ahadith have only a slight difference of words. The 
ulama and the jurists have contended that either of them may be 
recited in prayers. In the same way the other durood that we will 
read shortly as narrated by other Companions may be recited in 
prayers although there is some variance in their words. 

(1355/312) It is reported on the authority of Sayyidina Abu 
Mas'ud Ansari that some of them were sitting with 
Sayyidina Sa'd ibn Ubadah. The Messenger of Allah isjjl came 
there. Bahsir ibn Sa'd submitted to him, "Allah has commanded 
us to bless you, Messenger of Allah! How should we bless you?" 
The narrator, Abu Sa'd Ansari, said, "The Messenger of Allah 
^ kept quiet for sometime (which caused us to worry that he 
did not like us to put that question to him) and we wished we 
had not asked the question. The Messenger of Allah ill then 
said that we must say: 

jt ^ c4Uur fUi jt >3 xLii J* p $\ 



Book of Azkar And Da'wat 



331 



. JL* J»">ClJl j . jJjnLfl Xujr- \ m £j\ jlaJUJl 

"O Allah! Bless Mhuammad and the members of the household 
of Muhammad as You did bless the members of the household 
of Ibrahim, and bestow favours on Muhammad and the 
members of the household of Muhammad as You did bestow 
favours on the members of the household of Ibrahim in the 
world. Indeed, You are Praiseworthy and Glorious, and 
salutation as you know." (Muslim) 

Commentary: The version of this hadith in Tabari is slightly 
different. When Bahsir ibn Sa'd asked the Prophet ft how they 
may bless him, (the narrator says) 

"So he remained silent until he received the revelation." 

Then he gave the foregoing advice. Thus, we learnt that he had 
been waiting to receive the wahy and that the wrods of the durood 
are taught by Allah. We also learn that the question about the 
nature of durood was first put to him in the meeting of Sayyidina 
Sa'd ibn Ubadah 4$>, to answer which the Holy Prophet ft had to 
wait for the revelation. 

As for the versions of the other Companions where a similar 
question is mentioned (Ka'b ibn Ujrah. Abu Humayd Sa'idee, for 
instance), either they refer to the same sitting as this hadith, or 
different people may have asked him at different times. The 
Prophet ft may have advised them the expressions of durood that 
are found in their narratives. The style and words of most of the 
ahadith support our contentin. But Allah knows best. 

The version of this very hadith in Ahmad, Ibn Khazimah and 
Hakim (and others) has this addition too: 

Bashir ibn Sa'd put the question to the Prophet ft in this way: 

"How should we invoke blessings on you in our prayers?" 

Thus, the question related to the durood that must be recited in 
regular prayers and the Prophet ft taught the Companions this 
durood (which is known as durood Ibrahimi). 



332 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



We have seen that in this hadiih narrated by Abu Mas'ud 
Ansari 4b like the narrative of Abu Humayd Sa'idee 4& the words 
after cJu> US' and ci> us~ are only J' J* (on the members of 
Ibrahim's household) and the concluding words j&a <-£*>\ 
(Indeed , You are Praiseworthy, Glorious) are preceeded by J 
j-Juli (in the world). 

(1356/313) Sayyidina AbuSa'eed Al-Khudri 4> has said that 
they (the Companions) submitted to the Messenger of Allah 
"We know how to convey salutations to you (as we say in the 
tashahhud (^y.) *W j ^* r*- 51 ) but do te I' us ll0W 

may wc invoke blessings on you? So, the Prophet H said to 

them that they may say: 

Jj> djUur ^y^j 3 J* & ffi 

"O Allah, bless Muhammad. Your slave and Your Messenger, 
as You did bless Ibrahim. And bestow favours on Muhammad 
and the members of the household of Muhammad as You did 
bestow favours on Ibrahim and the members of the household of 
Ibrahim." (Bukhari) 

^3 «Op %\ JU> > Jjij! Jll ^3 ^ ^ ( ^° v/r u) 

(1357/314) Sayyidina Tahah 4b said that someone asked (the 
Prophet "Messenger of Allah! How may we invoke 
blessigns on You? So, he said that they may say: 

"O Allah! Bless Muhammad as You did bless Ibrahim. Indeed, 
You are Praiseworthy, Glorious." (Nasa'i) 



Book ofAzkar And Da'wat 



333 



3& f%*Jt tla* li in jp>; ills jil U£ ( ^ r ° A/r \<>) 
Ji* Js^-33 j^i \$\ tji^l jis ? J^U s jLiii 

(1358/315) Sayyidina Buraydah 4& has reported that they asked 
the Messegner of Allah ill that while they knew how to present 
saluttation to him, they wished to know how they might 
invocate blessings on him. He said to them that they must say: 

JL*V> JL-^- jjl Jtf- 

"O Allah! Direct Your bessings and Your mercy on Muhammad 
and on the members of the household of Muhammad as You did 
drect them on Ibrahim. Indeed, You are Praiseworthy, 
Glorious." (Ahamd) 

iSi (JLj aJp^i Jjfik\ Jpj Jt5 Jii i^LL. jii ( ^ r o vr \ n) 

xu; jt jipj ^ xu; > fc> jyto f& > (Ats- 
^i ^ii > jr^j jt > 3 > ^JUtf 

(1359/316) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Mas'ud has reported that 
the Messenger of Allah & said that when they invoke blessings 
on him they should say: 

xU; j t >3 ^* ^Ji .uA; > jt J* 3 

^ JL^ 3ji j^ijj JT >3 ci^ 

"O Allah! Bless Muhammad, the unlettered Prophet S and the 
members of the household of Muhammad, as You did bless 
Ibrahim and the members of the household of Ibrahim. And, 
grant favours to Muhammad, the unlettered Prophet and the 
members of the household of Muhammad as You did grant 
favours to Ibrahim and the members of the household of 



334 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Ibrahim. Surely, You are Praisewhorthy, Glorious." 

(Ahmad, Ibn Hibban, Dara Qutni, Bayhaqi) 
Commentary: The Prophet H is reffered to in this durood as 

(the unlettered Prophet) which is hi distinguishing title. The 
Qur'an too has mentioned it: 

j ^jlp ^ <j& g« #\ 6>i #J» 

Those who follow this Messenger the (/mm; Prophet whom 
they find written down with them in the Torah and the Injil 

(Al-A'raf,7:157) 

This verse says that the Prophet $1 is mentioned in the Torah 
and Injil with this descripiton. Ummi means unlettered. He did not 
learn anything from a teacher or a book but he learnt everything he 
knew directly from Allah. As far as reading and writing are 
concerned, he is exactly as he was when he was born. In this 
descripition, his love is reflected and the brief words are strong 
evidence of his Prophethood. 

dp %\ JU k tiL JiS J> tf> 'J> ( ^ r v lr \ v) 

(1360/317) Sayyidina Zayd ibn Kharijah 4^> has said that he 
asked the Messenger of Allah iH how should the blessings on 
him be? So, he said, "Keep invoking blessings on me and be 
very attentive to the invocation and say: 

"O Allah! Shower blessings on Muhammad and on the members 
of the household of Muhammad and bestow favours on 
Muhammad and the members of the household of Muhammad 
as You did bestow favours on Ibrahim and on the members of 
the household. of Ibrahim. Indeed, You are Praiseworthy, 
Glorious. (Ahmad, Nasa'i) 



Book of Azkar And Da 'wat 335 

Commentary: The Messenger of Allah S not only taught Zayd 
ibn Kharijah 4& how he may invoke blessings but also said to him 
that besides invoking blessings on him he must make the 
invocation devotedly with full attention. He must not merely utter 
the words with his tongue. Indeed, the invocating of blessings is a 
supplication for the Prophet H. But, Allah knows best. 

> 3 ft'A 3 > 3 pffjt ^ ur ^ jt J*y 
<fc\-j\ jt ji* j ^>ijj c-^> ur ^ jt jip j xU; 

(^Ul grf jlftl is* >H »>JJ) ■ ^ ^-"&J f j* 

(1361/318) It is reported by Sayyidina Abu Huraryrah 4^e> that 
the Prophet said that if anyone invoked blessings on him in 
the following words then he would testify for him on the Day of 
Resurrection and would intercede for him. (The durood is:) 

>'^^i^^jt^3^>^>3^J t ^ 

"O Allah, bless Muhammad and the members of the household 
of Muhammad as You did bless Ibrahim and the members of the 
Household of Ibrahim. And bestow favours on Muhammad and 
the members of the household of Muhamad as You did favour 
Ibrahim and the members of the household of Ibrahim. And 
show mercy to Muhammad and the members of the household 
of Muhamad as You did show mercy to Ibrahim and the 
household of Ibrahim." (Tahzib Al-Aathar, Tabarani) 

Commentary: This durood invocates blessings, favours and 
mercies on the Prophet 0. 

We must remember, here, that the religious schoalrs and jurists 
have disallowed us to supplicate Allah to bestow mercy on the 
Prophet 0 because that supplicationg is made for the general body 
of Believers: However, if an invocation is made for the Prophet ill 



336 



Meaning and Message o f the Traditions Part V 



for mercy together with blessings and favour ((►*■ y or U*- j with « jJuo 
and tf^) then there is no harm. In the tashahhud in every prayer, 
we do say: 

(Peace be on you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His 
favours). 

It is the same thing in the durood taught vide this hadith, after 
invoking blessings and favours a request for mercy (p*v*) is made. 
That completes the blessings. 

Jj, ji^l c^i jjtf £k Jijtf ju£ £1 
^ >'j *5i>j d^j^ 1 ^'jj'j ^ i^r 1 ' ***** J* 

( J jli ^jI ftl j j) . JLj?w JLLt^- *—5jl (ia* 1 ^! <J^ C.^./»U^' 

(1362/319) Sayyidina Abu Huraryah said that the Messenger 
of Allah iH said, "Hde who cherishes that he recieves the 
mercies and favours of Allah in full measure by invocating 
blessings on me and my household members should make this 
supplication to Allah:" 

x^u> w-^ji (♦4 A, j^! cJU>US* 

"O Allah, shower blessings on Muhammad, the wm/w Prophet, 
and his wives, the mothers of the Believers, and his progeny, 
and the members of his house as You did shower blessings on 
Ibrahim. Surely, You are Praiseworthy, Glorious."(Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Some people interpret this hadith to conclude that 
this durood is the most excellent of all. They, base their conclusion 
on the remarks that anyone who desries a full measure of the mercy 
and favour of Allah should invoke blessings on the Prophet in 
these words. Some other authoirties have concluded that the 
durood to be recited in regular prayers outside of prayers, it is 
meritorious to recite this durood as contained in the hadith 
narrated by Abu Huraryrah Allah knows best. 



Book ofAzkar And Da'wat 

■ti* #4*5^ '^<fe> j*3 is* «a fa 

.ll^ii (Jxil j^Jfcl^l JT 

(1363/320) it is reported by Sayyidina Umar 4&» that the 
Messenger of Allah S said that Jibril taught him the 
words of the (following) rfwrtww/ by enumerating the fingers of 
the Prophet's hand and had informed him that they were 
revealed by the Mighty Lord in that manner. 

.^J^JfiJl^JT 



338 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 

"O Allah! Bless Muhammad and the members of the house of 
Muhammad as You did bless the house of Ibrahim. Surely, You 
are Praiseworthy, Gracious. 

O Allah! Grant favours to Muhammad and the members of the 
house of Muhammad as You did grant favours to Ibrahim and 
the members of the house of Ibrahim. Surely, You are 
Praiseworthy, Gracious. 

O Allah! Bestow mercy on Muhammad and on the members of 
the house of Muhammad as You did bestow mercy on Ibrahim 
and on the members of the house of Ibrahim. You are 
Praiseworthy, Gracious. 

O Allah! Show kindness to Muhammad and to the members of 
the house of Muhammad as You did show kindness to Ibrahim 
and the members of the house of Ibrahim. Surely, You are 
Praiseworthy, Gracious. 

O Allah! Shower peace on Muhammad and on the members of 
the house of Muhammad as You did shower peace on Ibrahim 
and the members of the house of Ibrahim. Surely, You ae 
Praiseworthy, Gracious. (Bayhaqi. Daylami) 

Commentary: Apart from invocating blessings, favours and mercy 
on the Messenger of Allah and his family members, this durood 
also supplicates Allah to shower peace and kindness on him. 
translated as kindness or compassion. j*- (salam) is peace and 
security from all evil and uncdesirables. 

We might say of this hadith that Kara Al-Ummal (Vol 1) has 
described it as weak in regard to its line of transmission. However, 
in its vol 2 another hadith has been narrated on the same subject 
and has the same durood but on the authority of Sayyidina Ah f> 
in reference to Ma'rifatu llm Al-Hadith by Abu Abdullah Hakim 
k u^j Nayshapuri; again the line of transmission is severely 
censured. Suyuti has also been cited as having reported this hadith. 
Again, Kanz al-Ummal has also narated a hadith of almost the 
same import from Sayyidina Anas 4&> with reference to Ibn Asakir 
The authorities on haidth hold that a weak hadith is worth 



Book of Azkar And Da 'wal 



339 



approval if it is transmitted by different sources; particularly if it 
exhorts one to good deeds. Mulla Ali Qari Up k\ Uff-j has severely 
censured the version of Sayyidina Ali as transmitted by Hakim 
and commented that the hadith is weak but the ulama are 
unanimously agreed that weak ahadith may be cited to promote 
Virtuous deeds. (Sharah Shifa, V3 p 473) 

This why we have presented the hadith here although its line of 
transmission is weak. 

The ahadith reproduced upto here and composed of durood are 
all marfoo' having been narrated by the Prophet H himself. The 
durood contained therein are all thaught by Allah. We have seen in 
the hadith narrated by Sayyidina Abu Mas'ud Ansari that when 
he was asked to teach durood the Prophet i$H> kept quiet and waited 
for sometime and when he received a revelation, he taught the 
words to his Companions. This shows that he recieved guidance on 
the expressions of durood from Allah and this applies only to those 
durood which he taught himself. 

Apart from these there are durood which have their source in 
the Companions fy> or our other worthy predecessors. They do not 
have the same distincition as the former kind of durood which are 
taught by the Prophet himself, although some of them are very 
excellent in terms of their words and implication. But there is no 
doubt about their approval. We reproduce here two of such durood 
before concluding our work on this topic. They have their origin in 
Abdullah ibn Mas'ud and Sayyidina Ali 

(1364/321) Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Mas'ud has said, "When 
you invoke blessings on the Prophet 0, do it in the best 
possible way. You do not know that your invocation is 
presented to the Prophet 0, Insha Allah" The other people 
asked him to teach them how they should invoke blessings on 
the Prophet He said that they should say: 



340 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



jIaJI JJtl j je^J' ^-^3^33 <— ^4** Jsr^ 1 3 Jsf! 8 *^ 

•Ojj^ a'jOj' ^ -"A b j***-* UUu44iul ^1 ^-3 J| Jx>J 

Jl* 3 Js. US' xUi JT JIp j xUi ^ 

j t j 1 * j y$ 'frfA $ 

"O Allah! Let Your blessings, Your mercy and Your favours be 
on the Chief of the Messengers, the Imam of the pious and 
God-fearing, and the Seal of Prophets, Muhammad, Your slave, 
and Your Messenger, Imam of the good, the leader of the good 
and the Messenger of mercy (whose coming is mercy for al! the 
world). O Allah! let him attain the praiseworthy station which is 
cherished by the first and the last (people). 

O Allah! Bless Muhammad and the members of the household 
of Muhammad as You did bless Ibrahim and the members of the 
house of Ibrahim. Indeed, You are Praiseworthy, Gracious. O 
Allah! Bestow favours on Muhammad and on the members of 
the household of Muhyammad as You did bestow favours on 
Ibrahim and on the members of the household of Ibrahim. 

(IbnMajah) 

Commentary: Sayidina Abdullah ibn Mas'ud 4&> had taught these 
words to his people. They are very auspicious and include exactly 
durood Ibrahimi which is the first durood in this chapter as 
narrated by Sayyidina Ka'b ibn Ujrah $b. 

4* 13b r£i £ifa$ u; ^ji J* 63U: l\ fa 

(o vrr oUILlj t}iL»3 

a&uJlj > 013L* J&ttj % j£3 

4*3^ & ^ & ^ o^^ s J tfli&j i^'i 



Book of Azkar And Da'wat 



341 



3^ji ^r^ji JsjSl 3£\ ^du*uJi 03 33^33 

(1365/322) It is reported about Sayyidina Ali that he 
invoked blessings on the Prophet fi& in this way. (He first 
recited the verse of Surah Al-Ahzab) 

\'j*L*j 1jLi> \ ^Js- *&£&y&\ £l 

Surely Allah and His angels send blessings on the Prophet. O 
you who believe, send your blessings on him and salute him 
with a becoming salute. (al-Ahzab, 33:56) 

After that, he said: 

^J\'J\ >l ofjU> JCAiij ^3 j^jjl 33 
4^>! *JA cyt tU* ja^^'j ^-^-^j (Sa-^'j (S^'j 

Jj^\ ^r^Ji J&Sy. ^piIji jii2\xii\h\ j^J'uii 4*3 j^.33 

"Here am 1 at your service, O Allah, my Lord, ready to obey 
You. 

May the blessings of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful, and of 
the angels who are near, and of the Prophets, of the Truthful 
people, of the Witnesses, of the Righteous and whoever 
glorifies You — O Lord of the World!- (may those blessings) be 
on Muhammad ibn Abdullah, the Seal of Prophets, and the chief 
of the Messengers, and the Leader of those who fear You, and 
the Messenger of the Lord of the universe, the witness, the giver 
of glad tidings, the inviter to Your path with Your permission, 
the birghtest light. And may peace be on him! (Shifa,Qadi Ayyaz) 

Commentary: This durood is soul-inspiring and very meaningful. 
However, it is not traced in any book of hadith but it is transmitted 
by Qadi Ayyaz in As-Shifa hi Hnqooq Al-Mustafa on the authority 
of Sayyidina Ali 1 



Q.SharahShifa, v3 p 481 . 



342 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part V 



Allamah Qastalani has stated in Mawahib Ladunniyah in 
reference to Tahqeeq An Nasrah fi Dar Al-Hijrah (by Shaykh Zayn 
Al-Aabideen ibn Al-Husayn) that Sayyidina Ali $b had recited this 
dttrood in the funeral prayers of the Prophet He then taught it 
to the people when they requested him to do so 1 . Anyway, it is a 
very inspiring durood. 

The two examples of durood composed by Sayyidina Abdullah 
Ibn Mas'ud and Sayyidina Ali 4& show us that we are not 
prohibited from invocating blessings on the Prophet in words 
other thatn those suggested by him. We can use other words 
composed by devotees provided the limits set by Shari'ah are 
observed. 

Accordingly many scholars of the ummah, the Taba'een and 
latter day itlama have composed words of invocation of blessings 
on the Prophet However, they are out of the purview of this 
Book. Ma'arif Al-Hudith. If Allah enables me, I will compose a 
separate book for that. 

By the Grace of Allah the fifth volume is completed. 
May He accept it and make it a means of mercy and 
forgiveness for the writter and readers. 



O. Sharah Muwahih Ladunniyah (Zarqani). 



KITAB UL-MU' AMLAT 
WAL MU'ASHRAT 

(BOOK OF MONETARY AND 
MUTUAL DEALINGS) 



IMPORTANCE 



The first thing in the Guidance brought to mankind by the Holy 
Prophet m was the call to Faith and Divine Unity. After it, he used 
to give instruction and advice concerning the moral and practical 
spheres of life to those who had accepted the Call. - 

Such of the teachings and exhortations of the Prophet % can, 
fundamentally, be divided into two parts. The first part is related to 
the Rights of Allah. It tells what the claim of Allah is upon the 
bondsmen and what are the duties of the bondsmen in that regard, 
and how is this claim to be discharged and obligations to be 
fulfilled. Some of the moral precepts of the sacred Prophet 0, too, 
belong to this section. 

The second part consists of the teachings appertaining to the 
rights of man on each other, and the duty they owe to all the 
created beings, in general. How is a man to fulfil his social 
responsibilities and act towards all individuals and groups or 
anyother creature with whom he may come into contact in the 
different walks of his life? Some of the moral teachings of the 
Prophet again, fall into this category. 

The question of the rights of man is more important in the 
sense that if we disregard them, i.e., infringe on the rights of 
anyone or do some other injustice to him, the Lord who, of course, 
is Most Gracious and Merciful has not kept the forgiving of it in 
His own Hands, but decreed that amends are made for it, in this 
very existence, by rendering back to the person we have sinned 
against what is his due or seeking his pardon, otherwise we will 



346 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



have to repay in the Hereafter which, indeed, is going to cost us 
very dear or suffer the dreadful chastisement of Hereafter. 

It is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari, on the authority of Sayyidina 
Abu Hurayrah 4b, that the Messenger of Allah Wt said: 

"Whoever may have done an ^ - j^ ^ ^ 

injustice to a brother or 

defamed him or transgressed ^* *J *h*t^& cr**^ 
against his rights in any other ^ tf , 

way should set right the affair ,JJ ' U ^" J 0 ^ 
with him on this very day, and jvlU* J** *J ^tS* 

in this very existence before the 
day of Final Reckoning, when 

he will have no dinars 1 and ^J^i qU» *J ^ 

dirhams 2 to settle the claim. If 

he will possess a stock of good C****"> ■* a ** 

deeds, the aggrieved will be , . ... .... .,,«,,. 

recompensed from it msuitable 

relation to the injustice done to him, and in case he is 
empty-handed in the matter of good deeds, the sins of the 
aggrieved will be thrust upon him. (and, thus, justice will be 
done on the Last Day). 3 " 

Besides, Bayhaqi has quoted, in Shab-ul-Iman, on the authroty 
of Sayyidah Ay shah Vjrf-fin^j that the Prophet said: 

"The Scrolls of Deeds (in iityi*, *i o'jp ^ JU S ^ 
which the sins of the s, ( *N| 

bondsmen are recorded) will d^^Jr dj**. . jr* 
be of three kinds. One which <o O j~i j**Ci *»' 0! 
will never be forgiven, (and) JLfe -fill & V 
it is polytheism. The Lord has ... " 

declared in the Qur'an, that, in & (•$- ia "i M 4 ** ^*** 

no case, shall He forgive the *j 4)1 Lu *J| tfyjj Je** 
sin of polytheism. Two. ^, ^ ^ 

which the Almighty will not " r " T , " ' 
pass over without doing **** * U *' ^ J' t - 5J,ai 
justice, (and) these are the .Ai* jjt**J *IA j 

mutual wrongs, injusries and '^Ujtfi v*-* i** t^ W 1 81 JJ) 
violation of rights, and the ( 1 r 0 ^ g^LaJi h'£iL» 

©. & ©. Meaning wealth 

©. Abwaab-ul-mazaalim wal Qasaas 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



347 



Lord will, sruely, have them repaid. Three, in which the sins 
will beset down which have little weight and importance in the 
sight of Allah, (and) these are the lapses that are, exclusively, 
between the bondsmen and the Creator; the decision concerning 
them is wholly in His Hands, and He will punish or forgive the 
sinners as He likes." 1 

The teachings of the Prophet S regarding the rights of man, 
again, are of two kinds. Belonging to one group are the sayings 
that deal with the rules and proprieties of social behaviour. As for 
instance, what should the attitude be of parents towards their 
children and of children towards their parents, and of husbnads 
towards their wives and of wives towards their husbands? What are 
the rights of relatives, both near and distant, and of neighbours and 
those who are elder or younger to us? How are we to behave 
towards our servants and subordinates, specially towards the poorer 
and weaker members of the society, and mankind on the whole? 
Again what forms and manners ought to be observed in social 
intercourse, in speech and association, eating and drinking, and 
bearing and deportment, and on occasions of joy and grief, and, so 
on? This department of Faith is known, broadly, as M'aashirat. 

The second part consists of injunctions and exhortations that 
have a bearing on monetary dealings and related matters, such as, 
business transactions, agriculture, debt, mortgage, gift, will, 
contract, labour and employment. Settlement of disputes, systems 
of government and courts of justice etc., also, are included in it. 
The comprehensive title of this branch of Faith is Muamilat, in the 
special terminology of Islam. 



O. Mishkaatul Masabih, P. 435 



ELEMENTARY OBLIGATIONS 
OF PARENTS 



Social commandments begin with the birth of the child, and, 
hence, we shall first present a discussion with the sayings that are 
related to birth and indicate the duties of parents to the new-born 
child. 

CallingofAzaninTheEarofANew-BornChild 

(1366/1) Abu Rati', the manumitted slave of the Messenger of 
Allah A said: "I saw the Messenger of Allah A calling azan 1 
in the ear of (his daughter), Fatimah." (Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 
Commentary: In it, only the chanting of azan in the ear of 
Sayyidina Hasan 4& is mentioned, but in another Tradition quoted 
in Musnad Abu Ya'ali Musuli, on the authority of Sayyidina Husain 
ibn Ali 4&, and reproduced in Kanzul Ummal, it is told that the 
Holy Prophet A prescribed the calling of azan in the right and 
Iqamat 2 in the left ear of (the new-born child), and, also, explained 
its propitiousness. He said that, on accout of it, the child remains 
safe from infantile epilepsy. 

As these Traditions go to show, the primary claim of a child on 
his family is that his ears, and through the ears, his head and heart 
are acquainted with the Name of Allah, and with His Oneness and 
the Call of Faith and prayer. The best way to it, evidently, is that 
azan and iqamat are called in its ears, as these impart the 
knowledge of the spirit and fundamental tenets of Islam in a most 
O. The Muslim call to prayer 

©. The second call to prayer which is uttered immediately before the beginning 
of congregational prayer. 



350 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



effective manner. 

The Holy Prophet iH has enjoined the calling of azan and 
iqamat in the ears of a Muslim child, at the time of its birth, and 
the offering of funeral prayer when a Muslim dies and his body has 
been bathed and covered with a shroud and made ready for the 
burial. He has, thus, stressed that the life of a Muslim begins with 
Azan and ends with prayer, and ought to be spent in the way it is 
done while waiting and preparing for prayer after the Azan has 
been given. Besides, the foremost claim of a Muslim is that Azan is 
called in his ears at the time of his brith and the last is that funeral 
prayer (Salah) is offered over him when he passes away. 

Tahnik 

One of the manifestations of the deep devotion the Companions 
had for the Prophet 0 was that when a child was born in their 
family, they brought it to him so that he might bless it, and apply, 
on its palate, the pulp of a date etc., he had chewed himself and 
drop the saliva in its mouth which woulcThave the effect of 
averting evil from the child and bringing it good fortune. It is 
called Tahnik in the Islamic parlance. 

(1367/2) Sayyidah Ayshah I** Al said , "People used to 
bring their (new-born) children to the Prophet S§^, and he would 
bless them and perform (the ceremony of) Thnik." (Muslim) 

itij £t\ j5 >u£ cJL^ \$\ p/J<^> iUJ-i 'J. ( \ r \ a/T) 

(1368/3) Asma ibnt Abu Bakr u+^iii^j related that she was an 
expecting mother at the time of Migration. When she migrated 
and came to Madinah, Abdullah ibn Zubayr 4|b was born to her. 
She related "I took the child to the Prophet and placed it on 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 3 5 1 

his lap. The Prophet 0 asked for a date, (and when it was 
brought), he chewed it and dropped the saliva in its mouth, and, 
then, applied the chewed date on its palate, and blessed the 
child. It was the first child to be born in Islam (in the home of 
an Emigrant, 1 after the Migration)". (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In another version of the same incident, quoted in 
Bukhari, it is added that the Muslims felt very happy at the birth of 
Abdullh ibn Zubayr, particularly because it had gone round that the 
Jews had cast a spell on the Muslims, and, now no children would 
be born to them. The birth of Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Zubayr gave 
a lie to it, and the enemies of Islam who had circulated the story 
were put to shame. 

Several instances of Tahnik are found in the standard 
collections of the Traditions. From these, we learn that when a 
child is born in a Muslim home it should be taken to a virtuous 
bondsman 6f the Lord to recieve his blessings and have the Tahnik 
done. It is one of the Sunnat 2 which have, now, sadly become 
extinct. 

Aqiqah 

In almost all the communities of the world, the birth of a child 
is considered a blessing and some ceremony is held to celebrate the 
event. 

Besides being natural, it, also, serves a special purpose, and 
makes it known, in a most suitable and dignified manner, that the 
father has accpeted the child as his own and there is no doubt or 
suspicion in his mind concerning it. It shuts the door to many a 
mischief that can arise in future. The custom of Aqiqah 2, was 
observed among the Arabs, even during the Age of Perversion, for 
that very reason. The hair on the child's head, with which it was 
born, was cut a few days after the birth, and an animal was 
sacrificed as a mark of rejoicing which is a characteristic feature of 
Millate Ibrahimi (the community of the Prophet Ibrahim 

O. Literally, a Muhajir. Here is signifies a Muslim of Makkah who had migrated 

to Madinah and taken up residence there. 
©. Meaning a confirmed practice of the Holy Prophet. 

©. The ceremony of shaving the head of a new-born oh the seventh day of its 
birth, a sacrifice is made, and a feast is held on that day. 



352 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



While preserving the practice, in principle, or, rather, exhorting his 
followers to observe it, the Holy Prophet 0 gave appropriate 
instructions, and himself set an example of how it was to be done. 

£i f& *! J & $ fo# 'J- ( > n i/t) 

iiij jkj j giUi f>: 3\i ilr f^cyi ^ titi t^jb ^w'j 

at jj) . j 

(1369/4) It is related, on the authority of Buraidah 4&>, "When, 
during the Age of Perversion, a child was born to the wife of 
anyone of us, we used to slaughter a goat and smear the head of 
the child with its blood. Later, after the dawn of Islam, our 
practice became, (on the advice of the Prophet ill), that we 
sacrifice a goat of Aqiqah, on the seventh day of the birth of a 
child, and shave the head of the infant, and apply saffron on it." 

(Abu Dawood) 

Note: In Razeen's version of the same Tradition, it is mentioned, 
further, "we, also, (give name to the child on the seventh day, along 
with Aqiqah." 

ijji jiii 4J3 Ji* u#i>j ^\ j*rj \yfe iSii Hki 

(1370/5) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah "During the 

Age of Perversion, the custom was that when people performed 
the Aqiqah of a new-born child, they dipped a piece of 
cotton-wool in the blood of the sacrificed animal, and when the 
head of the child was shaved, it was placed on its head. (Since it 
was an uncivilised custom), the Prophet Osfc remarked: 'Do not 
apply blood on the child's head. Apply Khalooq in its place." 

(Sahih Ibn Hibban) 

Commentary: In older days a preparation was used for scenting 
which included saffron, and it was called Khalooq. 

From the aforementioned narratives of Sayyiding Buraidah 
and Sayyidah Ayshah 1** it appears that Aqiqah, also, was 

common among the Arabs during the Age of Ignorance. Since, as 
we have just mentioned, it served a useful purpose, in many ways, 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



353 



and, intrinsically, was also in keeping with the spirit of Islam, and 
perhaps like the rituals of the Hajj\ it was among the remaining 
practices of Mil/ate Ibrahimi, the Holy Prophet A preserved the 
reality of Aqiqah but corrected the perverse practices that had got 
associated with it. 

We, moreover, learn from Bayhaqi that the Aqiqah ceremony 
was, also, observed among the Jews, but they sacrificed an animal 
only in case of a male child which, probably, was indicative of the 
lesser value that was. generally, placed on the girls in the 
pre-Islamic times. The Prophet S corrected it, too, and enjoined 
that the Aqiqah of the girls should, also, be performed like that of 
the boys. However, keeping in mind the natural difference between 
the two sexes which has been given a due regard in inheritance and 
law of evidence etc., as well, the Holy Prophet S laid down that 
while one goat was to be sacrificed in the Aqiqah of a female child, 
two should be sacrificed in the Aqiqah of a male child provided 
that one's financial condition allowed it. 

Syk (U-j ^'41 J^p & cJii j'J" £i 'j, ( \ rv un> 

(1371/6) Umm Kurz i^Ai^*, narrated that she heard the 
Messenger of Allah $H say about Aqiqah, "Two goats should be 
sacrificed on behalf of a male child, and one on behalf of a 
female child, and it did not matter whether the animal was male 
or female." (Tirmizi and Nasai) 

(1372/7) It is related by Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas that 
the Messenger of Allah H said: To whom so ever a child is 
born, and he wants to perfrom the sacrifice of Aqiqah on behalf 
of it, he should sacrifice two goats for a boy and one goat for a 
8 ir '- (Abu Dawood and Nasai) 



354 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



Commentary: As the above passage of this Tradition shows, 
Aqiqah is not obligatory, but it belongs to the cagetory of Istihbab, 
i.e., acts that are commendable in Islam, but not ibnding or 
compulsory. In the same way, it is not necessary to sacrifice two 
goats for a male child. It, of course, is better to sacrifice two goats 
provided that one can afford it, otherwise one is enough. 

In the next Tradition, it is explicitly stated that the Prophet 0 
had sacrificed only one goat in the Aqiqah ceremonies of Sayyidina 
Hasan and Sayyidina Husain U^* *»i ^ > 

(1373/8) It is related by Hasan Busri, on the authority of 
Samurah ibn Jundub 4^>, that the Messenger of Allah $1 said: 
"Every child is pledged in exchange for the animal of its 
Aqiqah. The animal should be sacrificed on the seventh day, the 
child's head should be shaved, and a name given to it." 

(Abu Dawood, Tirmizi and Nasai) 

Commentary: Commentators have explained the pledging of the 
child in exchange for the animal of Aqiqah in various ways. In our 
humble view, the most convincing explanation is that the birth of a 
child is a great boon and blessing of the Lord and the sacrifice of 
Aqiqah by the parents who can afford it is an act of gratefulness, 
or, as one would say, a ransom. Until the gratitude is expressed to 
Allah and the ransom is paid, the obligation will be left as yet to be 
fulfilled and the child will remain pledged in exchange for the 
animal. 

The command to perfrom the Aqiqah on the day of birth has 
not been given, perhaps, for the reason that, at that time, the family 
is occupied with the needs and comforts of the mother and the 
shaving of the.head so early can, also, be harmful to the child. 

In a week's time, a lying-in woman, generally, gets well and 
does not need special care or attention, and the baby, too, becomes 
strong enough to go through the shaving of the head. 

Apart from it, in this arid a few other Traditions it is told that 
the child should, also, be christened on the seventh day of its birth 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



355 



along with Aqiqah, but from some Traditions it appears that the 
Prophet 0 had named children even on the day they were born. 
There is, as such, no harm in giving a name to the child before the 
seventh day of its birth, but if it had not been done, the child 
should be named on the seventh day, together with Aqiqah. 

(1374/9) Salman ibn Aamir al-Zahbi 4& related that he heard 
the Messenger of Allah 0 say: "With the child is Aqiqah 
(Whoever is blessed with a child should have its Aqiqah 
performed). So, sacrifice an animal on behalf of the child and 
have its head shaved." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: The Aqiqah ceremony, as these narratives show, 
consists of two acts: the shaving of the head, and the sacrifice of 
the animal. There is a peculiar identity betwen the two acts, and 
these acts are among the religious practices of Millat Ibrahimi. In 
the Hajj, too, they go together and the pilgrims have their head 
shaved after the Qurbani ] . Thus, Aqiqah, also, is a practical 
demonstration of our association with Sayyidina Ibrahim S^sft as 
well as of the fact that the child, too, is a member of the Ibrahimi 
community. 

if 3* & S^j S' Ji\ cf O rv©/\ . ) 

(a jbjii or,,) . \k$ \k$ j 

(1375/10) Abdullah ibn Abbas 4&> narrated "The Prophet || did 
the Aqiqah of (his maternal grandsons), Hasan 4& and Husain 
and slaughtered a ram for each of them." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: The Holy Prophet @t offered only one ram as a 
sacrifice in the Aqiqah ceremonies of Sayyidina Hasan 4&> and 
Sayyidina Husain ^> probably because, at that time, he could 
afford only that much, and, thus, a precedent, also, was set for 
those who were of limited means. 

In some other accounts, two rams are mentioned instead of one, 



O. Sacrifical offering of animals. 



356 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



but according to the authorities, the above report, as quoted in 
Sunan Abi Dawood, is more reliable. 



Lis OjLi, lijj $l#3j kJj UttlU Jlij 5lL j^Jl 

(ifJL jJl al jj) •(•A^ fc/ a *!J , ^**J^ O 1 ^* 

(,1376/1 1) It is related, on the authority of Sayyidina Ali ibn Abi 
Talib 4&>, that the Messenger of Allah 0 sacrificed a goat in 
the Aqiqah of Hasan, and told (his daughter), Fatimah to shave 
his head and give away silver in charity of an equal weight to 
the hair, it was found to be of the heaviness of a dirham or even 
less." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The giving away in charity of silver equal in weight 
to the hair is, also, mentioned, in addition to the sacrifice of the 
animal, it, too, is a commendable observance, though not 
compulsory. 

Some commentators think that the Prophet had told 
Sayyidah Fatimah i^Ai^j to give away the silver in charity 
because, at the time of Sayyidina Hasan's birth, the financial 
condition of his parents, Sayyidina Ali and Sayyidah Fatimah, did 
not permit the sacrifice of an animal, and, therefore, the sacred 
Prophet Wi carried out the Qurbani himself and told Sayyidah 
Fatimah if* *in j to give away silver in charity equal to the 
weight of the child's hair so that an expression of gratitude to Allah 
was made from her side as well in that form. 

Tasmiyah (the giving of name) 

It, too, is a claim of the child that it is given a good name. 
Clear directions are found in this regard in the sayings of the Holy 
Prophet 

(1377/12) It is related by Abdullah ibn Abbas that the 
Messenger of Allah &k said: "It, also, is a claim of the child on 
his father that he gives him a good name and teach him good 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



357 



manners." (Bayhaqi) 
Jjt faj %\ JL> k\ 'S£') Jl5 Jl5 5^y> ( ^ rVA/ 1 r) 

(1378/13) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah ^ has said that the 
Messenger of Allah ^ said: "The first gift a man gives to his 
child is a name, so he must give him a good name." 

(Abu Ash-Shaykh.) 



(1379/14) It is related by Abu Darda ^ that the Messenger of 
Allah iH said: "On the Day or Resurrection, you will be called 
out by your name and the name of your father. (The call will be: 
so-and-so. son of so-and-so.) So, give good names." 

(Musnad Ahmad and Abu Dawood) 

(1380/15) It is related by Abdullah ibn Umar 4*> that the 
Messenger of Allah ^ said: "Among your names, the most 
liked to Allah are Abdullah and Abdul Rahman." (Muslim) 

Commentary: The reason is obvious. The names, Abdullah and 
Abdul Rahman, proclaim the servility and submission of the 
bondsman which is pleasing to the Almighty. In the same way, the 
names of the Prophets, too, are among the names that are regarded 
with special favour by the Lord. They signify a special association 
with the Divine Prophets. 

The Prophet ill himself had named his son Ibrahim. Besides, it 
is distinctly stated in a Tradition, quoted in Abu Dawood etc., that 
the Prophet $H said :"Give a name after the names of the 
Prophets." 

The Prophet HH, also, gave names to some children which 
conveyed a good meaning, but were not among the known names 
of the Prophets. For instance, he named his grandsons Hasan and 



358 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



Husain, and gave the name of Munzir to the son of an Ansar 
Companion. 

Be that as it may, we get guidance from the sayings and 
practices of the Holy Prophet i§j> that it is the responsibility of the 
parents to give good names to their children or have them named 
by a Holy person. 

Good Breeding And Religious Upbringing 

All the Prophets, and, lastly, the Prophet Muhammad % have 
stressed that the brief earthly sojourn of a man is a prelude to 
everlasting life of hereafter. It, therefore, follows that a greater 
attention is paid to the betterment of prospects in the life to come 
and attainment of felicity in the Hereafter than to the affair and 
interests of this life. 

The Holy Prophet thus, has enjoined upon the parents to 
take care of the religious instruction of their children from the very 
beginning, otherwise they will be called to account for negligence 
on the Day of Last Judgement. 

(1381/16) It is related by Ibn Abbas that the Messenger of 
Allah said: "Have your children utter the Kalimah." Laa 
ilaaha illallaah, first of all i.e., let these be the first words they 
speak, and exhort them to utter the same Kalimah Laailaaha 
illallaah at the time of death." (Baihaqi) 

Commentary: The child begins to precieve the impression of what 
it sees or hears from the time of its birth. The chanting of azan and 
iqamat in the ears of a newly born infant, also, gives a clear 
indication of it. 

This Tradition shows that when a child begins to speak, it 
should be taught to utter the Kalimah, Laa illaaha illallaah as a 
frist step towards its education. It, further, tells that when the dying 
moment is near, a person should, again, be exhorted to pronounce 
the same Kalimah. Blessed, indeed, is the man who when he utters 
the first words, on coming into this world, it is the Kalimah of Laa 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



359 



ilaaha illallaah, and the same Kalimah is on his lips when he 
departs. 

JU & &j J J J J ^\ ^ J&t'J. (\ rAY/ W) 

(1382/17) It is related by Sa'eed ibn al-Aas -4^> that the 
Messenger of Allah ill said: "No father gave a better gift to his 
children than good manners and good character." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: There cannot be a better gift for a child from his 
father than teaching him good manners and goo character. 

^Lj 42* % J^> k J^3 Jll Jtl Ji\ ^ TAT/U) 

(1383/18) It is related by Anas 4& that the Messenger of Allah 
^1 said: "Show respect to your children and adorn them with 
good manners." (IbnMajah) 

Commentary: What showing of respect to one's children denotes 
that they should be treated not as a burden, but a blessing and a 
trust of Allah, and brought up with care and affection. 

* * * s 

^fa 't\& fa 5 jUiJl* \}y j&j *Ae> %\ JL> 

(1384/19) It is related by Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas 4&> that 
the Messenger of Allah said: "When your children attain the 
age of seven, insist upon them to offer up prayer (regularly), and 
when they are ten years old, punish them if they do not, and 
have separate beds for them (to sleep on)." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Children, generally, develop the faculty of 
understanding at the age of seven, and it is time their feet were set 
on the path of the worship of Allah. They should, therefore, be told 
to offer prayer {salah) regularly when they attain that age. At ten, 
their powers of discretion and intelligence are fairly advanced and 
they begin to approach maturity. At that time, the observance of 



360 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



prayers ought be enjoined strictly upon them, and they should be 
taken to task, in an appropriate manner, if they fail to do so. They 
should, further, be required to sleep on separate beds and not 
together (which is permitted upto the age often). 

All these, in brief, are the rights of children, both boys and 
girls, on their parents and the parents will have to render a full 
account in respect of them on the Day of Reckoning. 

Importance of Showing Kindness to Daughters 

Even now daughters are considered an unwanted burden in 
some societies and instead of rejoicing, an atmosphere of grief and 
disappointment is produced in the family at their birth. This is the 
position, today, but, in the pre-Islamic times, the daughters were 
positively considered a shame and disgrace among the Arabs, so 
much so that even the right to live was denied to them. Many a 
hard-hearted parent used to strangle his daughter to death, with his 
own hands, when she was born, or bury her alive. Says the Qur'an: 

"When if one of them receiveth 

tidings of the birth of female, 

his face remaineth darkened, 

and he is worth inwardly. 

"He hideth himself from the 

folk because of the evil of that 

whereof he hath had tidings, 

(asking himself): Shall he keep 

it in contempt, or bury it 

beneath the dust." 

(At Nahl 16:58-59) 

Such was the attitude of the Arabs towards daughters among 
whom the sacred Prophet m was raised up. Against this 
background, let us now examine the following Traditions. 

yjms ^ i^fc pjj j 'js^j (ft *Si % 

(ei'jjLs-ji^^bJijju^uijj) .a^it^&iJtiUoi 

(1385/20) It is related by Abdullah ibn Abbas that the 
Messenger of Allah W* said: "Whoever becomes the father of a 



r?i ^ iy* est £ est ^/jh 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



361 



girl, he should neither hurt her nor treat her with contempt nor 
show preferene over her to his sons in kindness and affection. 
(Both boys and girls should be treated alike). Allah will grant 
him Paradise in return for kindly treatment towards the 
daughter." (Musnad Ahmad and Mustadarak Haakim) 

(1386/21) Sayyidah Ayshah i^ii^j related that she heard the 
Messenger of Allah m say: "The bondsman or bondswoman 
upon whom the responsibility of daughters was placed by Allah, 
(and he or she fulfilled the responsibility in a good manner), and 
treated them properly, for him or her the daughters shall be a 
means of protection from Hell." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In another version of the same Tradition, the 
incident is, also, mentioned which had led the Prophet Hi to make 
the above observation. It is narrated that a very poor woman, with 
two daughters, came to Sayyidah Ayshah's if* Jii place to beg. 
By chance, Sayyidah Ayshah if* <ii had only one date with her, 
at that time, which she gave to the woman. The woman broke the 
date into two parts and gave one part each to the girls. She did not 
eat anything of it herself. When, after sometime, the Holy Prophet 
0 came, Sayyidah Ayshah if* related it to him, what had 

happened and, he remarked, " The bondsman or bondswoman upon 
whom there is the responsibility of daughters and he or she 
discharges it well and treat them with affection, the daughters will 
become for him or her a means of deliverance from the Hereafter." 

In another of her narrative of the above Tradition, transmitted 
by Imam Muslim, it is stated that a poor woman came to her 
holding two little daughters in her arms, and asked for charity. 
Sayyidah Ayshah if* A\ ^ gave her three dates of which she gave 
one each to the two girls and was about to put the third in her own 
mouth that the girls asked for it as well. The woman, thereupon, 
did not eat it herself, but gave half of it to one girl and half to the 
other. Sayyidah Ayshah if* Jii was so strongly affected by it 
that she described the incident to the sacred Prophet 0. The 



362 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



Prophet &g&, said, "On account of this very act of the woman, Allah 
gave for her the decision of Paradise and freedom from Hell." 

The two events may have taken place at different times, and it 
can, also, be that it was the same incident and the variation was due 
to the difference in the statements of the narrators. 

JlP ^ j^Lj Jjp k\ J}J-3 Jtf JtS (\ TAV/Y Y) 

(jJL^alj^.iuL^l^j li^lftji j Ul Xa^I ilr J^tj^r 
(1387/22) It is related by Sayyidina Anas that the Messenger 
of Allah m> said: "The bondsman who bears the responsibility 
of two daughters and supports them till they attain puberty, he 
and 1 will be close to one another like this on the Day of 
Requital." The narrator, Sayyidina Anas added that the 
Prophet showed by joining the fingers of his hand (that as 
the fingers were close to one another in the same way will the 
bondsman be close to him on the Day of Final Reckoning). 

(Abu Dawood and Tirmizi) 

^ ,jL-3 dp 4JJi jUJlll J^3 JlS Jtf^fti^l jfi OrAA/YT) 

h*k oi$* cfii j' <&* s $ ^ 3* 9^ ^ & 

(1388/23) Abu Saeed Khudri 4& related that the Messenger of 
Allah iH said: "Whoever bears the responsibility of three 
daughters or sisters, or even of two daughters or sisters, and 
bears it well; and looks after their training and welfare properly, 
and, then, gets them married, Allah will reward him with 
Paradise." (Abu Dawood and Tirmizi) 

Commentary: In these Traditions, the Holy Prophet 0 has not 
only told that kindly treatment was the natural right or claim of the 
daughters, but, also, that the bondsmen who fulfilled the 
obligations towards them in a good and proper manner would be 
rewarded with Paradise in the Hereafter. He, further, gives the 
joyful tidings that such a person will be close to him, on the Day of 
Last Judgement, as the fingers of a hand are when joined together. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



363 



Equality of Children in Liberality And Beneficence 

The Holy Prophet ft, again, has emphasised that parents 
should be just and fair to the children, particularly in matters of 
liberality and beneficence, and it must not be that while one got 
more, the other got less or nothing. Besides being desirable in 
itself, it also, meets the demands of justice and equility which is 
pleasing to the Almighty. 

Apart from it, if discrimination is made among children and 
one is favoured more than the other, it will lead to ill-will and 
jealousy, and nothing but evil can come out of it. 

The child who is discriminated against will, again, bears a 
grudge against his father, the painful consequences of which are 
easy to imagine. 

ijii- dJia ft* iiW Jii iil j j ^ j iSi * jii Jl; j J iiji 

tlU j*. ^rJj >l, b: 3^ # 

(fL^j B)JJ) • j>r ifii J154M 

(1389/24) Narrated Nu'man ibn Bashir 4j£ "My father took me 
to the Prophet H ", according to some reports, "in his arms", 
and said: "1 have given a slave to this son of mine". (In other 
narratives^ a garden is mentioned in place of the slave). "The 
Prophet m enquired: 'Have you given the same to all of your 
sons?' 'No,' my father replied. "(I have given it only to him)'. He 
said: 'It is not correct. Take it back." 

In another version, it is stated that he asked : "Do you want all 
your chjldren to be eqully devoted to you?" "Yes, Messenger of 
Allah S ", replied Bashir. "Of course". The Prophet S 



364 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



observed: "Then do not act like that. (Let it not be that you gave 
some property to one child and excluded the others)." 

In yet another account, it is added that the Prophet &|l 
remarked, "I cannot be a witness to an act of injustice." 

(Bukhai i and Muslim) 

Commentary: In this Tradition, it is enjoined upon parents not to 
discriminate among their children when it comes to giving them 
something as a gift etc., [Such a course has been condemned by the 
Holy Prophet £§l as unjust and unfair. Some authorities have even 
gone to the extent of calling it HaruamK but a majoirty of them, 
including three of the founders of the four leading scholars of 
Islamic Jurisprudence Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Maalik and Imam 
Shafce hold, on various grounds, that though it is not Haraam, it is 
Makrooh 2 nevertheless, and highly undesirable. 

It needs, however, be emphasised that the command applies 
only to a situation where the preferential treatment is based on a 
consideration that is not legitimate or justifiable in the eye of the 
Shari'ah, otherwise no blame will attach to it. For example, if a 
child is physically handicapped and cannot earn his livelihood like 
his brothers, a special favour to him will only not be incorrect, but, 
to an extent, essential and worthy of Divine reward. Similarly, 
should anyone, among one's children, dedicate himself to the cause 
of Faith or public welfare and have no time to look after his 
economic needs, it would, also, be correct and deserving of 
recompense in the Hereafter to make a reasonable allowance .or 
him over and above the other children. 

These apart, there is no harm if perference is shown to one of 
the children with the concurrence of his brothers. 

(1390/25) It is related by Abdullah ibn Abbas ^ that the 
Messenger of Allah 0 said: "Treat all your children equally in 

O. Signifying an act or thing forbidden by the Shari'ah. 

©. An act or thing not absolutely forbidden by the Shari'ah, but from which it is 
advisable to abstain. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



365 



regard to free giving. Were 1 to show preference, in this matter. 

I would show it to women, i.e., daughters. (If equality was not 

necessary and ibnding. I would have decreed that more was 

given to daughters than to sons)." 

(Sunan Saeed Ibn Mansur and Tabaiani) 
Commentary: Some legists have concluded from it that though, 
after the death of the parents, the share of daughters to ancestral 
property is half of the sons, in their lifetime, the share of both, the 
sons and the daughters, is equal. Therefore, whatever, the parents 
give to the sons, in their lifetime, should, also, be given to the 
daughters. 

Responsibility of Marriage 

It is the duty of the parents to arrange for the marriage of their 
children when they come of age. The Prophet & has stressed that 
it should be taken seriously and with a full sense of responsibility. 

(oWV ^ j .ijj) . Jip JUii UJli Uii <JUlJ if- j jj 

(1391/26) Abu Saeed Khudri and Abdullah ibn Abbas 4* 
related to us, saying that the Messenger of Allah & said: 
"Whoever is blessed by the Lord with children should give them 
good names, and a good training, and teach them good manners, 
and arragne for their marriage when they arrive at puberty. (If he 
does not pay due heed to it), and fails to get them married, on 
reaching the marriageable age, (due to negligence), and they 
take to ways that are forbidden, the father will be held 
responsible for it." (Baihaqi) 

Commentary: The marriage of the children, too. on their attaining 
the marriageable age, has been made a responsibility of the father. 
But, alas, we are growing increasingly indifferent to it mainly 
because we have made marriage a most tedious and expensive 
affair by following the example of others and adopting their 
customs. 

If we take pattern by the good example of the Prophet S and 



366 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



begin to perfrom marriages as he had performed his own marriage 
or the marriages of his daughters, the whole thing will be as easy 
and simple as it is, so to speak, for a Muslim to celebrate the Friday 
prayers. Blesings will, then, follow of which we have deprived 
ourselves through thoughtless imitation of un-Islamic societies. 



RIGHTS OF PARENTS ON CHILDREN 



The Holy Prophet Ife has laid stress on the rights of Parents 
and duties of children, in that regard, in the same way as he has 
stressed the rights of children and duties of parents. In fact, he has 
given it the place of an Article of Faith in his teachings. 

In the Qur'an, the rendering of obedience to parents and 
showing kindness to them has been enjoined along with the 
Oneness and worship of Allah in such a way that it appears that 
among human deeds, to obey the parents and treat them with 
respect and kindnes is next only to Divine worship. To quote from 
Surah Bani Israel: 

The Lord has ordained that ye ^, ^ r $ jg, -j. 

worship none but Him; and to ' ' J {S ^ J 

show kindness to your parents. A liCji-l jJbj 

(Bani Isra'il 17:23) (Y r: >v .JJl^t^) 

While descriibng the rights of parents at another place in 
Qur'an, in Surah Luqman, it is even stated that: 

Should the parents of anyone 

be poiytheists and want him, JSyL? JflJUbUr fa 

also, to follow their faith he -/^ > , , , r 
ought to decline to obey them, ^ ^ <J^^ ^ 

but still continue to behave gjjl U^ilJ 
towards them with justice and ' " , 

consideration. (Luqman31:15) 0»'-T\ .jUiloj^-.) lij^ii 

What is told in the Traditions that follow is simply an 
elucidation of these Commandments. 

Parents Are The HeavenAndHellofThe Children 



368 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



(1392/27) It is related by Abu Umamah 4§k that (once) a person 
asked the Prophet : "How much is the claim of parents on 
their children?" "They are your Heaven and Hell," the Prophet 



Commentary: It shows that if a person obeys his parents and 
attends to their needs and comforts and keeps them happy, he will 
attain Paradise. On the other hand, whoever is rude and disobedient 
to his parents and offend them by ignoring their feelings or causing 
them grief in any other way is destined to make his home in Hell. 

The Good PleasureofThe Lord is Related 



father lies the good pleasure of Allah, an, in his displeasure, the 



Commentary: The purport of it is that anyone who seeks to please 
Allah should earn the good pleasure of his father. To keep the 
parents well pleased is essential to the earning of the countenance 
of the Lord while the anger and displeasure of the father leads to 
His anger and displeasure. 

The word Walid is used which means 'father', while the 
equivalent for 'mother' in Arabic is Wctlidah. Thus, mother is not 
specifically mentioned in this Tradition, but as it is distinctly stated 
in the Tradition we are now going to discuss, the position of 
mother is even higher than that of father, and, as such, her pleasure 
or displeasure will carry an equal significance. 

Claim of Mother is Greater 



(1394/29) Narrated Abu Hurayrah 4^ that (once) a person 




(Ibn Majah) 



To The Good Pleasure of The Parents 




displeasure of Allah. 



(Tirmizi) 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



369 



enquired from the Prophet "Who has the greatest claim on 
me with regard to service and kindly treatment?" The Prophet 
0 replied: "Your mother; and again, your mother; and once 
again, your mother. After her, there is the claim of your father, 
and, after it, of your near kinsmen, and, then, of the kinsmen 
who are next to them." * (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The name of the questioner is not given in 
Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah, but, in Tirmizi and Abu Dawood, it is 
related, on the authority of Bahez ibn Hakeem ibn Muawiya 
Qushairi, that his father, Muawiya ibn Haidah Qushairi, had asked 
the Prophet S: "ManAbarro? (Whom should I serve and take care 
of)? " The Prophet 0 replied, "Ummaka. (Of your mother)". He, 
then, asked, "Summa Marti (Who comes next?' The Prophet 0 
replied, "Ummaka". He, once again, asked, "Summa Man?" 
"Ummaka", the Holy Prophet 0 replied again. After it, he asked 
for the fourth time, "Summa Man?" "Abaka Summal Aqraba Fal 
Aqraba. (After your mother is the claim of you father, and, then, 
grade by grade, of your relatives to loving kindness and affection)", 
the Prophet 0 replied. 

The subject-matter of both the narratives and even the phrasing 
of the question and answers is almost identical. It is, therefore, 
highly probable that the questioner reffered to in Sayyidina Abu 
Hurayrah's narrative was Muawiya ibn Hardah Qushairi, on the 
authority of whose grandson, Bahez ibn Hakeem, the other report 
has been quoted in Tirmizi and Abu Dawood. 

Anyhow, the purport of both the Traditions, evidently, is that 
where care and kindly treatment are concerned, the claim of mother 
is greater than that of father. 

From the Qur'an, too, it appears to be the same for at many 
places, in it, the pain and suffering the mother has to bear during 
pregnancy and at chidbirth arid in fostering and bringing up the 
children has been mentioned, in particualr, along with the 
exhortation of showing kindness to parents. 



370 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



U nfortunate is He Who is Not Regardful of 
Needs And Comforts of His Aged Parents 

^3 j 4* %\ > Jp3 Ji5 JiS s>;> ( \ r i o/r . ) 
J^iji ^ijlp j Jf'jA £ Jll ?>i J^3 u ^ J3 i£i ^3 iM 

(1395/30) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4&> that the Messenger 
of Allah ft said: "May he be humiliated; may he be disgraced; 
may he be borught low." "Who?" the Companions i& enquired. 
"The unfortunate person whose parents or any one of them 
attain old age in his lifetime and he does not earn Paradise (by 
being kind-hearted and dutiful to them). " (Muslim) 

Commentary: We have, already, seen Sayyidina Abu Umama's 
narrative that "Parents are the Heaven and Hell of their children." 
It, too, is obvious that parents need most to be looked after 
carefully in old age and to serve them devotedly in that state is 
most pleasing to the Lord and an easy way to attain Paradise. 
Hence, anyone who gets an opportunity to serve his paretns in the 
declining years of their lives and does not make the best use of it, 
as a means to the attainment of Paradise, undoubtedly, is a most 
wretched person. 

Service ofThe Paretns is Preferable Even 
To Jihad In Certain Circumstances 

U^il jvl ^ Jii To»# 3S\ JU*t > j>i>: ^ fa 

(1396/31) Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas narrated that a 
person (once) came to the Prophet ft and said that he wanted to 
participate in Jihad. "Are your parents alive?" enquired the 
Prophet ft. "Yes", he replied. "They are alive/The Prophet ft 
observed: "Then strive in their service and bring aid and succour 
to them. (This is your Jihad)." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Perhaps, there was reason for the Holy Prophet ft 
to believe that the parents of the person concerned were in need of 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



371 



his help and attention and he had left them and come out for Jihad 
without taking their leave. That is why, he told him to go home and 
take care of them, for, in those circumstances, the service of the 
parents was more important. 

It must, however, not be supposed that anyone whose parents 
are alive should not take part in Jihad, and only those were to do so 
whose parents had died. In fact, the parents of a large number of 
the Companions who joined in Jihad along with the Messenger of 
Allah lH were living. 

(1397/32) Sayyidina Abu Sa'eed Al-Khudri has said that 
someone migrated from Yemen to the Messenger of Allah iH 
who asked him, "Have you anyone in Yemen?" He said, "Yes. I 
have my parents there." The Prophet 0 said to him, "Have they 
given you permission to migrate?" He said, "No!" So, he said, 
"Go back to them and seek their permission (to come here and 
work for religion). If they permit you then come here and join in 
Jihad but if they do not allow you then carry on serving them 
and dealing kindly with them." (Abu Dawood, Ahmad) 

Commentary: We can say of these ahadith on hijrah and Jihad 
that it depends on whether parents are old and in need of help and 
care for which there is no other alternative. 

Heaven Lies Under The Feet of The Mother 

(1398/33) Mu'awiya ibn Jahima related to us "My father, 
Jahima, went to the Prophet and said: '1 intended to go on 
Jihad and have come to seek your advice'. The prophet j£§£i asked 
him : "Is your mother alive? ' 'Yes', he replied. 'Then stay with 



372 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



her and look after her needs. Your Heavens lies under her feet 
the Prophet said." (Musnad Ahmad and Nasai) 

Commetnary: Apparently, the mother of Jahima needed attention, 
and, hence, the Prophet mt gave him the advice. 

(1399/34) It is reported by Sayyidah Ayshah if* Ai ^ that the 
Messenger of Allah 0 said: "1 was sleeping and in a dream 
found myself in Paradise. 1 heard someone reciting the Qur'an 
there and asked who he was that recited the Qur'an? I was told 
that he was Harith ibn Nu'man. This is how piety is! This is how 
piety is! Serving and obedience to parents is such!" (After 
relating his dream, the Prophet said,) Harith ibn Nu'man was 
very obedient and caring for his mother. (That is why he earned 
the reward.) 

Service ofThe Mother Can Atone For Major Sins 

i* Jiii *&%\ ^\ Jf\^j & &\ 0 i • ,/r °) 

(i slA jsh »i jj) . Jul ^ Jii ftte j» JgS Jij Jll V 

(1400/35) Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar <^&> that a person came 
to the Prophet and said: "Messenger of Allah ill 1 have 
committed a deadly sin. Can my repentance be accepted, (and 
my sin frogiven)?". "Is your mother living?" asked the Prophet. 
"No, She is dead," he replied, The Prophet enquired: "Is 
there a sister of your mother?" "Yes", replied the man. "A sister 
of hers is living." Then treat her kindly and well. (Allah will 
accept your repentance through its propitiousness and forgive 
you your sin)", the Prophet f& observed. (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Though all good deeds annul evil deeds, some are 
more efficacious. The above Tradition tells that the service of 
parents, maternal aunt and maternal grandmother are among the 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



373 



acts by whose propitiousness even the repentance of the worst of 
sinners and evil-doers is accepted and they are forgiven. 

Even An Infidel or Poly theist Mother Has 
A Claim To Kindly Feelings And Sympathy 

(1401/36) Sayyidina Asma ibnt Abu Bakr If* i>1 narrated 
to us that during the days of the Treaty (of Hudaibiyah) between 
the Prophet H and Quraysh of Makkah, my mother who still 
followed her paganish creed came to me (travelling all the way 
to Madinah). I then asked the Prophet 01 that my mother had 
come and she was in need; could I help her? He replied: 'Yes; 
help her, (and treat her as a daughter should treat her mother)'." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 
Commentary: Sayyidah Asma if^di^*, was the daughter of 
Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4b and an elder sister of Sayyidina Ayshah 
A1 from a different mother. Her mother's name is given in 
the narratives as Qutaila ibnt Abdul Uzza, and Sayyidina Abu Bakr 
had divorced her even during the Age of Perversion. Anyhow, 
she had ceased to be his wife before the dawn of Islam and had 
held fast to her polytheistic creed. When, after the Treaty of 
Hudaibiyah, it had become possible for the pagans of Makkah to 
go to Madinah and for the Muslims of Madinah to go to Makkah, 
she had come to Madinah to visit her daughter. It was, then, that 
Sayyidah Asma i+* &\ ^ enquired from the Prophet S how she 
was going to treat her; whether she should have nothing to do with 
her, as she was a pagan, or treat her like a daughter and show 
kindness. The Holy Prophet 0 told her to be kind and considerate 
and behave towards her as was a mother's due. 

Earlier, we have quoted the Qur'anic verse that if anyone's 
parents were polytheists, and they, also, wanted him to follow their 
faith, he should decline to do their bidding, but continue to be kind 
and respectful to them. 



374 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



Special Rights of Parents After Their Death 

The rights of parents do not come to an end with their death. 
Some of these rights, actaully, take effect after the parents have 
died, and it is a religious obligation of good and dutiful children to 
fulfil them. 

JU> ill Jlp "jkj JtS ^OjplIJi xjl\ 'J\ (\ i . T/TY) 

(1402/37) Abu Usaid Sa'idi «|e> said "Once we were sitting with 
the Prophet Wt when a person belonging to the tribe of Bani 
Salma came, and said to him: 'O Messenger of Allah &ljk\ Are 
there some rights of my parents on me which I have to fulfil 
even after they have died?' 'Yes', replied the Prophet lH.' (These 
are) to pray for mercy and forgiveness on their behalf, to fulfil 
the promises they may have made to anyone, to pay due regard 
to the bonds of relationship that are from their side, and to be 
respectful to their friends." (Abu Dawood adn Ibn Majah) 

jJL j <Op %\ JU h jts jii jJ> # >u£ & ( u . r/r a) 

(1403/38) It is related by Abdullah ibn Umar that the 
Prophet all said: "Whoever wishes to give comfort to his father 
in the grave should treat his (i.e., his father's) brothers kindly 
and well after his death." (Sahih Ibn Hibban) 

(1404/39) It is related by Abdullah ibn Umar 4e> that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi said: "An excellent way to serve one's 
father and show kindness to him, after his death, is that one 
should behave towards his friends with respect and politeness 
and discharge the claim of one's father's affection and 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



375 



friendship." (Muslim) 

Commetnary: In both of these Traditions only the friends or 
brothers of the father have been mentioned, but as already stated, 
the claim of the mother is even greater with regard to it. Besides, in 
Abu Usaid Sa'idi's narrative we have just quoted, it is clearly told 
that both father and mother have the claim on their children, after 
their death, that they treated their relatives and friends with 
attention and honour. 

u&^4j u# i^Ju ji>; 5uj U43 63 ji ioji j 

(1405/40) It is related by Sayyidina Anas 4& that the Messenger 
of Allah said: "It, also, happens, (sometimes), that the 
parents of a person or one of them dies and he has been 
disobedient to them, in their lifetime, and incurred their 
displeasure. But, after their death, he prays to Allah, (with a 
sincere heart), to have mercy on them and forgive them their 
sins, (and, thus, tries to make amends for his impudence), and 
the Lord, thereupon, declares the disobedient child obedient, 
(and, thus, he is saved from punishment for being rude to his 
parents)." (Baihaqi) 

Commentary: Just as to obey one's parents and treat them with 
respect and affection is a virtue of the highest order and becomes 
an atonement even for major sins, to beseech the Lord earnestly, 
after their death, to show mercy to them, also, is an act which, on 
the one hand, brings comfort to them in their graves, and, on the 
other, serves as an expiation for the wrongs the children may have 
committed in that respect, and they become worthy of Divine 
mercy and beneficence in the Hereafter. 

In the Qur'an, the Muslims have been exhorted, particularly, to 
pray for the salvation of their parents. It says: 

And say: My Lord! Have mercy 

on them both as they did care l^Sd) ^ ji J^J 
for me when I was little. ' 

(Bani Isra'il 17:24) ( un v 'JAr 1 '^) -'js** 



376 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



Worldly Advantages of Showing 
Kindness And Obedience to Parents 

The real reward of serving the parents with thougtful attention 
is Paradise and in the good pleasure of the Lord, but the Almighty 
bestows some special favour in this world, too, on bondsmen who 
are devoted to their parents and care for their wishes and comfort. 

i\ fa 3 4*%\ JU > 3 J* J* #}* & ( * i - v M > 

(1406/41) Sayyidina Jabir 4& related to us that the Messenger 
of Allah ft said: 'Allah prolongs the life of a person who obeys 

his parents and serves them devotedly." 

(Musnad Ibn Man'ee and Kamil Ibn Adee) 

Commentary: Traditions like it are not inconsistent with the 
doctrine of predestination. It was known to Allah from the 
beginning of time that such-and-such a man will be kind and 
obedient to his parents, and, therefore, the span of life alloted to 
him was greater than what it would have been were it otherwise. 

All the Traditions in which tidings of abundance in sustenance 
are given should, also, be seen in the same light though prosperity 
or porverty, too, is determined beforehand. 

W ^ fa 3 JU>> Ak3 J* J« s± O t • v/ 1 x) 

(1407/42) It is related by Abdullah ibn Umar 4^ that the 
Messenger of Allah ft said: "Obey your parents and treat them 
with kindness, your children will be kind and obedient to you; 
and live with purity, your wives will stay pure." (Tabarani) 
Commentary: Those children who are obedient to their parents 
will find that, their children will be obedient to them. And those 
men who lead a chaste life will find that their wives are chaste. 

Disobedience And Cruelty Towards 
Parents is A Most Grievous Sin 

In the same manner as the Holy Prophet ft has declared that to 
serve one's parents well and keep them happy and in contort is an 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



371 



act of exceptional virtue, he has condemned showing of 
disobedience to them or causing them pain and distress in any way 
as a most serious and detestable sin. 

(1408/43) Sayyidina Anas 4& related to us that (Once) the 
Prophet ill was asked about the major sins. He replied: " To 
associate anyone with Allah; to disobey the paretns and cause 
them pain or injury; to kill unlawfully; and to give a false 
evidence. (Bukhari) 

Commentary: In another report, appearing, also, in Bukhari the 
aforementioned acts have been condemned as Akbarul Kaba'ir the 
most deadly among the deadly sins. The order in which the Holy 
Prophet 0 has set them forth shows that the disregard and 
violation of the rights of paretns is next, in gravity, only 
polytheism, and even more serious than murder. 

(1409/44) It is related by Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas that 
the Messenger of Allah m said: "To abuse one's parents, also, 
is a major sin." "O Messenger of Allah life, it was asked. "Can 
anyone abuse his parents?" "Yes," the Prophet replied. "It is 
like this that a person abused any one's parents, and he, in 
retaliation, abused his parents. (It would mean that he himself 
had abused his parents)." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that to say or do anything to anyone as a 
result of which he may start abusing one's parents is, in effect, 
similar to abusing one's own parents and belongs to the category of 
major sins. 

We can imagine from it what an important place respect for 
parents occupies in the moral and social teachings of Islam and 
how careful should one be about it. 



378 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



Rights of Other Relatives 

Besides parents, a great emphasis is, also, laid on the rights of 
other relatives, and the special terms used for it, in Islamic ethics, 
is Silah Rahmi which denotes "lovignand treating one's relatives 
well." 

In the Qur'an, where it is enjoined upon the Believers to show 
kindness to parents, they are required to treat other relatives with 
love and sympathy and pay a due regard to their rights as well by 
including Wa zil qurba (meaning "and unto near kindred") in the 
commandment. 

A few pages ago, we had discussed the Tradition from Sahih 
Bukhari and Sahih Muslim which read: "The foremost claim to 
loving kindness and thoughtful attention on you is of your mother, 
and, then, of your father, and then, grade by grade, of the other 
relatives." 

We take up, now, some of the relevant Traditions. 
^Jl^j^'Al jU> J^3Jl5Jti5>:>^^ (tn ./to) 

(1410/45) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4|e> quoted the Messenger of 
Allah iH as saying that ties of relationship {rahima) is a word 
derived from the Compasionate One (Ar Rahman). And Allah 
said, "I shall keep connection with him who keeps you ited and 
sever connection with him who severs you." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: The mutual close relationship and kinship between 
people has much in common with the Name of Allah, Rahman and 
His Attribute Mercy. In fact, that is its source, and that is why it is 
called rahima. It is thus that Allah will keep ties with him who 
maintains ties with other people. But, as for those who sever ties, 
Allah will also sever ties with them. This shows how much 
emphasis the Holy Prophet $1 has laid on joining ties. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



379 



(141 1/46) Abdul Rahman ibn 'Awf ^ related that he heard the 
Messenger of Allah S say: "Allah, the Most High, says: 'I am 
Allah; I am Al-Rahman (the Merciful); I have created the bond 
of kinship and given it the name of Rahima which 1 have 
obtained from the root of My Name, Rahman. Thus, whoever 
will join it, I shall join him, whoever will break it, 1 shall break 
him." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: The Almghity. in His Infinite Wisdom, has 
designed the system of birth in such a way that whoever is born is 
tied to bonds of kinship, and these bonds carry certain rights and 
claims which the Lord has been pleased to classify under the title 
of Rahima. It is derived from His own Name of Rahman. Thus, 
whoever will fulfil these claims, i.e., show kindness to his relatives 
and treat them well the promise for him is that Allah will join him, 
i.e., make him His own and bestow His favour and relationship that 
one break, Allah will break him, i.e., have nothing to do with him. 

The unhappy circumstances in which we find ourselves today 
and the spectacle of the denial of Divine Benevolance we present 
is, of course, due to our negligence and want of principle in the 
different spheres of life, but in the light of these Traditions, it can 
be confidently said that apathy and indifference as regards the 
rights of relatives is, to a large extent, responisble for our 
misfortune. There is, in fact, little to choose between our conduct 
and the conduct of non-Muslims where the rights of kinship are 
concerned. 

Other Blessings 

((^— j -^3 • h 'J, ft ^.3 $hj>& ^4. 

(1412/47) It is related by Sayyidina Anas that the Messenger 
of Allah ms said: "Whoever wants an increase in his sustenance 
and that the marks of his feet remain for a long time in the 
world, (i.e., he lives long) should be kind and helpful to his 
relatives." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: As it has been stated repeatedly in the Qur'an and 



380 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



the Traditions, Allah bestows His favour on some good actions in 
this world as well. In the above report, it is told that to fulfil the 
rights of relatives and treat them with kindness is such a virtuous 
deed that, in return for it, Allah mulitplies a person's wealth and 
prolongs his life. 

There can, on the whole, be two ways of being good, kind and 
considerate to one's relatives. One is by giving them monetary help, 
and the other by devoting a part of one's time and energy to their 
service. An increase in one's life-span and sustenance, in 
recompense for it, is not only understandable, but, also, 
corresponds wholly with the Infinite Wisdom and Benevolence of 
the Lord. 

From the point of view of the ordinary operation of cause and 
effect, too, there is nothing improbable in it. Family quarrels which 
generally, arise from the violation and disregard of the rights of 
relatives tell upon a man's health and make it difficult for him to 
concentrate on his work while those who treat their relatives well 
and are sympathetic and helpful to them are, comparatively, free 
from tensions of this kind, and their circumstances, on the whole, 
are happier and more peaceful. 

Serving Ties is An Impediment to Salvation 

(1413/48) It is related by Jubayr ibn Mut'im 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah ill said: "Whoever violates the rights of 
kinship shall not go to Heaven." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: This one Tradition, should be enough to make us 
realise the importance of joining ties in the Islamic scheme of 
things. It shows that violation of the rights of relatives is so greatly 
abhorrent to Allah that, with its filthiness, no one will be able to 
enter Heaven. It is only when a person has been cleansed through 
punishment or forgiven owing to some reason that the Gate of 
Paradise will be opened for him. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



381 



Showing Kindness Even to Those 
Who Sever The Ties of Kinship 

In the family we, often, have an experience of people who care 
little for the bonds of kinship and are rude and unjust to us. The 
Holy Prophet j& has enjoined upon us to continue to treat them 
well and fulfil our obligations irrespective of what they do and how 
they behave. 

(1414/49) Abdullah ibn Uamr 4b quoted the Prophet S as 
saying, "The one to join ties is not truely the one who 
reciprocates a kind act of relatives but the one to join ties is he 
who joins ties even when others sever them." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: When violation of the rights of relatives is returned 
in the like manner, the evil will, naturally, spread in the society, 
while if those who are ill-disposed are treated with kindness and 
affection, it may lead to their correction and be conducive to the 
promotion of Silah Rahmi in the life of the community. 



MUTUAL RIGHTS AND DUTIES 
OF HUSBAND AND WIFE 



The special significance of matrimony in the economy of 
human relationships and the distinctive aims and advantages that 
are associated with it are self-evident. Peace of mind and a happy 
and contented life are, to a great extent, dependent on how 
satisfying one's married life is and on the state of mutual love and 
trust that obtains between husband and wife. Besides, the main 
ends and objects of marriage, obviously, are that both the parties 
enjoy the pleasures of life with purity, which is possible on through 
the wedlock, and the continuity of the human race is maintained 
with dignity which is the Will and Pleasure of the Almighty 
Creator. These objects, also, can be realised suitably when relations 
between man and wife are happy and there is love, sympathy and 
good understanding between them. 

The chief purpose of the guidance furnished by the Holy 
Prophet iH concerning the rights and duties of matrimony, simply, 
is that the wedlock proved a source of joy and satisfaction to both 
man and wife, their hearts remained united, and the aims for which 
the institution of marriage had been founded were attained in the 
best possible manner. 

The substance of the Prophet's teachings is that the wife should 
regard her husband over and above everyone else, as far as she was 
concerned, and remained faithful to him. She should leave nothing 
to be desired by way of devotion and earnestness, and believe that 
for her the felicity and welfare of both the worlds lay in his good 
pleasure. 

The husband, on his part, ought to consider his wife a blessing 
of Allah, and give her, ungrudgingly, of his love, and hold her in 
high esteem. If the wife makes a mistake, the husband should 
overlook it, and try to correct her with tact and patience, and look 



384 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



after her needs and comforts to the best of his ability. 

In order to appreciate the true worth of these precepts, we 
should remember the social, cultural and moral climate of the 
world, and, particualrly, of Arabia, 1400 years ago, in which 
women were treated like catties and enjoyed no rights in society. 

The Foremost Claim on Wife is of Her Husband 

(1415/50) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah if* At that the 
Messenger of Allah £H said: "The greatest claim on a woman is 
of her husband, and the greatest claim on a man is of his 
mother." (Mustadrak Haakim) 

If Prostration Was Allowed Before 
Anyone Besides Allah A Wife Would 
Have Protrated Before Her Husband 

(Jbj .Op 'fa fa dj^j Jti JlS VJlj* ^ If (UH/M) 
(^X.jsJlaljj) 

(1416/51) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah reported the Messenger 
of Allah Wi as saying: "If I were to order anyone to prostrate 
himself before another, I would order a woman to prostrate 
herself before her husband." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: There can be no other way to impress on anyone 
the rights of another than these words. The hadith says that a 
husband enjoys the most rights over his wife after Allah. She must 
obey him and leave no stone unturned in pleasing him. 

(1417/52) Sayyidina Anas 4^> is cited by Imam Ahmad as 
reporting the same hadith in these words: 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



385 



"It is not allowed to anyone to prostrate before another. But, if it 
was proper then I would have ordered woman to prostrate 
herself before her husband because he has a very great right 
over her." 

(1418/53) Again, Abdullah ibn Abu Awfa has quoted an 
incident of Mu'az ibn Jabal *^&>. Ibn Majah has transmitted it: 

"The well-known Companion, Mu'az ibn Jabal 4^> had been to 
Syria. When he returned, he prostrated himself before the 
Messenger of Allah sH, who asked in amazement, ( 'it^ i* ii*u 
"What is this, Mu'az?" 

He explained that he had been to Syria where he saw its people 
prostrate themselves before their religious leaders, priests and 
chiefs. So he was inclined to show the same reverence to the 
Prophet j£&. The Prophet $1 said, "Do not do that ", He added, 

"If 1 were to ask anyone to prostrate himself before another 
besides Allah, I would have asked women to prostrate 
themsleves before their husbands." 

(1419/54) We find a similar case ofQays ibn Sa'd 
transmitted by Abu Dawood. He has said. "I went to al-Hira and 
saw its people prostrating themselves before their rulers. So, I 
thought the Messenger of Allah is more deserving of a 
prostration made before him. When 1 came to him I told that I 
had gone to al-Hira and seen its people prostrate themselves 
before their ruler, and 1 added that: 

He had more right to have people prostrate before him. He 
asked me if I would prostrate myself before his grave when I 
passed before it 1 and 1 said that I would not. He then said: 

'None of you must do it. If I were to command anyone to make 
O. He wanted to show Qavs -up <ui ^jpj thai he was a mortal while it is the right 
of an immortal that others prostrate themselves before him. 



386 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



prostration before another. I would command women to 
prostrate themselves before their husbands because of the 
special right over them given to the husbands by Allah. 

(1420/55) Masnad Ahmad has another incident narrated by 
Sayyidah Ayshah i** &\ A camel came and prostrated itself 
before the Messenger of Allah H. Seeing this, his Companions 
4s> said to him, "Messenger of Allah! Beasts and trees prostrate 
themselves before you (that is, bow down before you and the 
camel did) but it is more rightful that for us to do so." He siad, 

0>V ^% JJ^4 'J>\ c2% fitt \y f\j fi(> I jJlpJ 

"Worship your Lord alone, and honour you brother (that is, 
myself). If 1 were to order any one of you to prostrate himself 
before another, I would order a woman to prostrate herself 
before her husband 11 (to the end). 

The different ahadith tell us that the Prophet had declared 
on different occasions the rights a husband enjoys over his wife 
and the question of prostrating herself before him. 

Prostration is Only For Allah 

It is very clear from these ahadith that prostration is made only 
before Allah. It is not allowed before anyone else, not even the best 
of Allah's creation, Sayyidina Muhammad 0. It is also clear that 
Sayyidina Mu'az 4&> or Sayyidina Qays ibn Sa'd 4& or any other 
Companion had referred only to a prostration of respect, we cannot 
even imagine that these people had in mind worship or devotion. 
Anyone who believes and accepts the Prophet's $1 call to the 
monotheism cannot have the temptation too to prostrate himself 
before one besides Allah. These people had in mind the prostration 
of respect or greeting and the schoalrs, therefore, declare that even 
the prostration of greetings or respect before any creature is 
forbidden. Hence, those people, who prostrate before their murshid 
(mentors) or their graves, violate the Islamic Shari'ah, and they are 
in rebelion with Islam and their behaviour is polytheistic. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



387 



(These lines on the question of prostration before any besides 
Allah were in explanation of the foregoing ahadith. We now 
resume the original topic.) 

Obedience And Loyalty to Husband 

In matrimonial arrangement, it was necessary that the husband 
enjoyed a position of leadership, and his duties and obligations, 
too, were determined accordingly. Man, consequently, has been 
declared the head of the family in the Islamic Shari'ah and great 
responsibilities have been assigned to him. Says the Qur'an: 

Men are in charge of women. (Al Nisaa4:34). 

For the women the Commandment is that they obeyed the 
husbands as their lord and head of the household, and fulfilled the 
peculiar domestic responsibilites and devolved on them in that 
capacity. Hence, about them, it has been stated in the Qur'an that: 

(Tt:i tUJt) v4*^ C^id cJtLtfJl^ 

Good women are obedient, and guard the honour and every trust 
of the husband (even in their) absence. (Al Nisaa4:34) 

If the wife fails to submit to her husband, and instead of 
serving him devotedly and complying with his wishes, adopt an 
attitude of defiance and insubordination, it will, naturally, lead to 
discord in the family which will be ruinous for both and they will 
be loser in this world as well as the next. The Holy Prophet has, 
therefore, stressed upon he wives to be loyal and faithful to thier 
husbands and seek their pleasure and gratification, and, also, 
promised a vast reward on it in the Hereafter. 

jJLij .dp %\ JU> ill J^i»3 Jl5 JlS j£\ jP (UT Wo*t) 

(1421/56) It is related by Anas 4sk> that the Messenger of Allah 
said: "If a woman offers the five daily prayers, and keeps the 
fasts of Ramadhan, and guards her honour, and obeys her 
husband then she can enter Heaven, (as of right), by whatever 



388 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



Gate she likes." (Hilyah Abu Na'eem) 

Commentary: In this Tradition, loyalty and obedience to husband 
has been metnioned along with prayer, fasting and guarding 
oneself against adultery. It denotes that, in the Shari'ah, 
submission to the husband and compliance with his wishes is as 
important as the principal tenets and duties of the Faith. 

(1422/57) Sayyidah Umm Salmah i^ii^ related to us tha the 
Messenger of Allah 0 said: "A woman who dies in the state 
that her husband is pleased with her shall go to Heaven. "(Tirmizi) 

Commentary: As we have stressed repeatedly, when the tidings of 
Paradise are given on a particualr deed it shows that the deed is 
most pleasing to the Lord and the recompense on it, in the 
Hereafter, is Heaven. 

If, however, the person concerned is guilty of a sin which 
necessarily is punishable with Hell, its consequences, also, will 
have to be borne by fum, in accordance with the Divine Law. The 
meaning of the aforementioned narrative of Sayyidah Umm Salmah 

&\ should be seen in this light. 

Another thing worth mentioning, here, is that should a husband 
be displeased with his wife without any fault of hers, she will be 
innocent in the sight of Allah and the responsibility for annoyance 
shall rest with the husband. 

These represented the ahadith concerning rights of husbands. 
We will now see the ahadith about the rights of wives. 



Rights of Wives And Respecting Them 

j frL-Jl 411 y£[ (A3 j* fji AlJi*- ^ JUjj Ajlp 411 { Ju^> Attl 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



389 



(1423/58) Sayyidina Jabir has narrated (in a lengthy hadith 
about the Hajjatul Wada' that the Messenger of Allah $m said in 
his sermon: 

"O People! Fear Allah concerning your wives. You have taken 
them on the security of Allah as your wives and they have 
become lawful to you on His very words and Commands. It is 
your right that you do not wish that someone come and sit on 
your beds. If they commit that mistake, you may punish them 
(in warning) but not severely. And, it is your responsibility to 
arrange for their food and clothing (and necessities) in a 
reasonable manner." (Muslim) 

Commentary: This hadith emphasises that men must not misuse 
their authority bestowed on them by Allah over their wives. They 
must fear Allah in this regard. They have taken their wives on the 
basis of rules of marriage prescribed by Shair'ah. Their wives have 
the protection of Allah when they are under their authroity. If 
husbands are cruel to them they would be guilty of violating the 
protection of Allah. This indeed is a great honour for women. 

The hadith also tells us that a woman must not let any man or 
woman enter her house whom her husband does not like to come 
and converse with her 1 . 

The hadith then tells us that if the women disobey, their 
husbands may punish them in a reasonable manner but never 
severely. 

The hadith concludes with mentioning the rights of wives that 
husbands are bound to provide for their basic necessities. 

Advice Concerning Kindly Treatment To Wives 

\'jj>y^A JjJ ^ Sct'jJ b'jSS liXl c4»i $ 

O. The background is that it was a common practice among Arabs to visit their 
relatives and acquaintences and speak to women although many a husband did 
not like many of them to visit her in his absence. 



390 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



(1424/59) It is related by Abu Hurayrah ^ that the Messenger 
of Allah Hi said: "O people! Follow my advice concerning the 
kindly treatment to wives. (I charge you to treat your wives with 
kindness and love). Woman has been created from the rib (and 
the rib is curved by nature), and the greatest curve is in the 
upper part of it. If you try to straighten the curved rib by force, it 
will break, and if you leave it alone (and make no effort to 
correct it), it will remain curved forever. So, follow my advice, 
and treat your wives kindly and well." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: What has been said about women, in it, that they 
have been created from the rib — is, apparently, allegorical, and, 
according to Shah Waliulla's explanation, the purport of the 
Tradition is that there is some natural curvedness in the nature of a 
woman as there is in the rib. It, further tells, that the greatest curve 
is in the upper part of the rib which, perhaps, denotes that the 
curvedness in the nature of a woman, mostly, lies in the upper part 
of the body, that is, the head and the tongue. 

It, again, is told that if an attempt is made to straighten the 
curved rib by force, it will break, while if it is left alone, it will 
remain curved permanently. Thus, whoever will try to remove the 
curvedness of a woman's nature by force will not only not succeed, 
but it may, also, end up in separation. At the same time, if nothing 
is done by way of correction and reform, the curvedness will stay 
as it is, and the happiness and tranquillity which is the chief 
prupose of matrimonial alliance will not be gained. Thus, men 
should better overlook the minor faults and weaknesses of their 
wives and behave towards them in a loving and kindly manner. It 
may, ultimately, lead to an improvement in their disposition as 
well. 

(1425/60) Abu Hurayrah <$k> related that the Prophet 0 said: 
"No believing man hates his believing wife. If there is a bad 
quality in her, there will, also, be a good quality.' (Muslim) 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



391 



Commentary: It tells that if a man disliked his wife for some 
reason, he should not adopt an attitude of hatred or indifference 
towards her and start thinking in terms of divorce, but look for the 
good quantities in her and learn to admire her because of them. 
This is the claim of Faith on a beliving husband and the privilege 
of a believing wife. As the Qur'an says: 

'But consort with them in ^ ^y-J b U)>Ip3 
kindness, for if ye hate them it ' ' ; , 
may happen that ye hath a thing >j* ^ J* y>-*J> 

wherein Allah hate placed 



much good. (Al Nisaa4:19) 



Good And Kindly Treatment To Wives 
is A Condition of Perfection in Faith 

j» 5i Aiif-'iii JU &\ J 1 * *^ ^j 1 * o * y v*n ) 

(t5 JL» yi\ 6\ j j) . <dib ^gflWI Ij LSJ^- UUjJ \ Jii*t 

(1426/61) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah if* that the 

Messenger of Allah $H said: "Among Muslims his Faith is more 
perfect whose behaviour toward (everyone) is good. and. 
(particularly), towards his wife is oflove and kindness. "(Tiimizi) 

(1427/62) Abu Hurayrah 4^ related to us that the Messenger of 
Allah W* said:"Among Muslims they are more perfect in Faith 
who are perfect in morals, and, (in fact), the best of you are 
those who are best to their wives." (Tirmizi) 

Behaviour of Holy Prophet Towards His Wives 

(JL j <d*'&\ JU in Jj-i^ JtS cJlS liul* j* 0 t ^ A/IT) 

(1428/63) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah if* M that the 
Messenger of Allah said: "Good among you are those who 
are good to their wives; and I, (on my part), am very good to my 
wives." (Tiimizi) 



392 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



Commentary: It shows that a special mark of goodness is that a 
man treated his wife lovingly and well. To make the advice more 
effective for the Muslims, the Prophet Hfe added that, by the grace 
of Allah, he was most kind and considerate to his wives himself. 



(1429/64) It is narrated by Sayyidah Ayshah t** ^ that she 
used to play with dolls (even after her marriage to the Prophet 
and arrival at his house). Some of her friends played with 
her. When the Prophet m> came to the house, they would (quit 
playing out of respect for him) and hide in an inner portion of 
the house but he would send them back to her (and let them 
play). So they would resume play with her. (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: She was nine years old when she came to the 
Prophet's house as his wife 1 . She played with dolls and not only 
did the Prophet not stop her from playing but he also 
encouraged her to play on. 

The Question of Doll And Pictu res 

The question could arise in some minds that while Islam 
disallowed pictures of animate beings, how did the Prophet 0 
allow her to play with dolls? Some authorities have suggested that 
the ban on pictures was imposed much later in Madinah while she 
had married the Prophet H and played with dolls in the initial days 
of his migration to Madinah. However, I personally feel that her 
dolls did not fall under the purview of the ban on pictures. Today 
when we have progressed much in the act of stitching , young girls 
conitnue to play with crude dolls with imperfect outline and 
appearance which cannot be called pictures in any way. 
O. The wives of the Prophet <~lu whom he married besides her were either old 
women or widows. She alone was a young girl. There are several reasons for 
that but the chief is that she could become a teacher and guide for the 
Muslims on the Prophet's life. 




Jj> ^jijup oilib 4jJi cJr cJii LLn* ^ (uyvm) 




Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



393 



Competition in A Race 

(1430/65) Sayyidah Ayshah i** 4i ^ related to us: "(Once) I 
was accompanying the Messenger of Allah % on a journey and 
we ran a race, and I won. Afterwards, when I had grown fat, we, 
(again), competed (with each-other) in a race, and, this time, he 
won. Upon it, the Prophet S remarked: 'Now, we quit." 

(Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Indeed this is a pointer to those who have no place 
for such a thing in their lives. 

Showing a Sport to Sayyidah Ayshah 

J*>&\ fey 3 ^UJi j yi^Jg j#L; il^6v 3 v g jj> 

(1341/66) Sayyidah Ayshah if* Ai^*, related to us, "By Allah, I 
have been a witness to the spectacle that, (one day), the 
Abyssinians were having a sport of lancing in the Mosque. To 
show it to me, the Messenger of Allah Hi stood at the door of 
my apartment (which opened in the Mosque), using his mantle 
as a screen for me, and 1 watched the game through (the space) 
between his shoulder and ear. The Messenger of Allah Hi kept 
standing for my sake till (I felt I had seen enough of it, and) 
retired. (She added) "You can imagine, (from it), what was the 
place of a young and funloving girl." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The incident narrated above is enough to show how 
considerate the sacred Prophet A was to his wives, and what pains 
did he take to make them happy. There is a great lesson, in it, for 

the Ummah 1 . 

O. Meaning the Muslim community as a whole. 



394 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



Allowance for Entertainment in 'Eid 

It should be noted that the afore-mentioned incident had taken 
place on the day of Eid 2 , as is distinctly stated in Sahih Bukhari 
and Sahih Muslim. Allowance has been made, within prescribed 
limits, for enntertainment on the festival of Eid as popular fun and 
relaxation, too, fulfils an important human need. 

It is, further, related, again on the authority of Sayyidah Ayshah 
I** Jii ^ > in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim and other standdard 
compilations of the Traditions that once, on the day of Eid, the 
Prophet S was lying, covered with a sheet, that two little girls 
came and began to sing, on the tambourine, about the- battle of 
Buas. In the meantime, Sayyidina Abu Bakr 4&> came and told the 
girls to get out. The Prophet 0 uncovered his face and said: "Abu 
Bakr, leave the girls alone! (Let them do what they are doing. This 
is the day of Eid)." (meaning allowance had been made, to some 
extent, for recreation on that day). 

The Sport Was in The Nature of 
A Drill, And That Was Why The 
Prophet Had Watched it Himself 

Another thing is that the game of lancing the Abyssinians were 
playing was a kind of drill and a form of militaiy training, and it 
was, probably, for that reason that the Holy Prophet 0 had taken 
an interest in it. In some versions of the same Tradition appearing, 
also, in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, it is mentioned that the 
Prophet il used to encourage manly sports. In addtion, it is stated 
that Sayyidina Umar 4&> wanted to drive away the Abyssinians, but 
the sacred Prophet S 1 told him to let them play, and to the Africans 
he said: "Go on with your game." 

The Question of Hijab 

Now, for the question of Hijab 2 . It is evident that the 
Abyssinians were Ghair Mahram 3 and strangers for Sayyidah 
O. A Muslim festival observed on the first of Shawwal. 

©. Meaning privacy, modesty and concealment as prescribed in the Shari'ah for 
women. 

©. Literally, a stranger. In Islamic usage, it denotes one who is not permitted to 
enter women's apartments, and is not (as regards marriage) within the 
forbidden degrees. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 395 

A y shah ^^^> and such being the case, why did the Holy 
Prophet m let her watch them at play? 

Some commentators have ottered the explanation that it had 
taken place in the early days when the Commandment of Hi jab had 
not been revealed. But it does not hold good in the light of the 
narratives. It is stated by Hafiz Ion Hajar, in Fath-al-Bari, on the 
basis of Ibn Hibba'ns account of the above Tradition, that the 
incident occurred in 7 A.M.. and the commandment of Hijab had, 
definitely, been revealed before it. 

Besides, Sayyidah Ayshah ^ herself has said that while 
she was watching the game, the Holy Prophet S had provided the 
screen for her with his mantle which would have been unncessary 
had the injunction concerning Hijab not been sent down till then. 

Some authorities, moreover, have argued that since there was, 
definitely, no question of an evil thought arising in Sayyidah Aysha 
l** &\ ^ mind on watching the Abyssinians at play, it was lawful 
on her part to do so. It is not forbidden for a woman to see a 
stranger in circumstances in which she is safe from temptation and 
protected against being led into evil. Imam Bukhari has refered to 
the same explanation in Kilab-un-Nikah (The Book of Marriage) of 
Sahih Bukhara and it doubtlessly, is more convincing. 



RIGHTS OF NEIGHBOURS 



Apart from a man's parents, children and near relatives, there, 
also, exists a permanent associaton between him and his 
neighbours. The state of this association, whether it is good or 
otherwise, exercises a deep influence on his life and morals. The 
Holy Prophet S has attached a great importance to it and exhorted 
his followers to pay a due regard to the rights of neighbours, to the 
extent that he has declared good neighbourliness to be a part of 
Faith, and essential requisite to salvation, and a measure of one's 
love for Allah and His Messenger. 

Continuous Exhortation of Jibrail (Gabriel) 
With Regard to The Rights of Neighbours 

(1432/67) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah if*'ii ^ and Ibn 
Umar ^j, that the Prophet 0 said: "Jibrail counselled me 
so persistently about the rights of the neighbour that I felt he 
was going to declare him a heir." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that Jibrail brought emmandments from 
Allah concerning the rights of the neighbour so frequently, and 
stressed the need to be kind and courteous to him with such force 
and regularity that the Holy Prophet S thought that the neibhbour, 
also, will be made a heir, i.e.. it will be enjoined that just as 
parents, children and other near relatives of a person inherit the 
property left by him on death, the neighbour, too, will be given a 
share in it. The purpose of this Tradition, obviously, is not merely 
to state a fact, but it, also, is a most effective way to bring home the 
importance of the neighbours to the Muslims. 



398 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



Love of Allah and His Prophet Depends On 

JU jia jjijj tjitf ji* ^L*\& 

( s s . ' r * * . + + 9 * *t * * 'n*i ''M'i S*'!' * ^ ** 

J* fyr Crr^J o^i b ! toW 

(1433/68) Abdul Rahman ibn Abu Qurad £h said that the 
Prophet iH> performed wudhu (ablution) one day and his 
Companions began to wipe themselves with the water he had 
used. The Prophet 0 asked them what induced them to do that 
and they said that the love of Allah and His Messenger had 
prompted them to do that. He said, "If anyone is pleased to love 
Allah and His Messenger, or rather to have Allah and His 
Messenger love him, he should speak the truth when he tells 
anything, fulfil his trust when he is put in a position of trust, and 
be a good neighbour." (Bayhaqi) 

Good And Kindly Treatment Towards The 
Neighbours is An Essential Condition of Faith 

e j# 3 >t< & & ^3 ^ 
/H\ Aw 6^ ii 3 *3* 
((jL-ij^jbgi .c-iJ4# ji^ yrtff fj^'O^V ifj4 

(1434/69) Abu Shurayh AI-'Adawi 4& related "I heard the 
Prophet Wi say with my own ears and my eyes were seeing him 
when he spoke these words 'Whoever believes in Allah and in 
the Day of Final Judgement, it is essential for him to be kind 
and gentle to his neighbours, and whoever believes in Allah and 
in the Day of Final Judgement, it is essential for him to entertain 
his guest with kindness and generosity, and whoever believes in 
Allah and in the Day of Final Judgement, it is essential for him 
to speak what is good or keep quiet." (Bukhari and Muslim) 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



399 



(An almost similar narrative, has, also, been quoted in Sahih 
Bukhari and Sahih Muslim on the authority of Sayyidina Abu 
Hurayrah 4^) 



He is Not A True Believer and Will 
Not Go to Heaven Whose Neighbours 
Do Not Feel Secure on His Account 

(^j^jUJtpljj) 

( 1435/70 )'t is related- by Abu Hurayrah 4& that he Messenger 
of Allah S said: "By Allah, he is not a true Believer; by Allah 
there is not Faith in him; by Allah, he is not a believing man 
"Who?" he was asked. "From whose mischief his neighbours dr. 
not feel secure", the Prophet S replied. (Bukhari and Muslim) 
Commentary: From its construction, it is evident how agitated the 
Holy Prophet S must have felt when he spoke these words. 
Anyhow, the substance of it is that a Muslim should be so kind and 
friendly to his neighbours that they had nothing to fear from him. If 
the neighbour of a Muslim does not feel safe on his account, he, 
according to this Tradition, will not deserve to be called a faithful 
Believer. 

J^j J15 JlS J\ ^ 0 trvv\) 

( 1 436/7 1 ) It is related by Sayyidina Anas that the Messenger 
of Allah m said: He shall not go to Heaven from whose 
mischief his neighbours do not feel secure." (Muslim) 
Commentary: It shows that a man whose character is such that his 
neighbours expect nothing but evil from him and live in the fear of 
being hurt or harmed by him will not be allowed to enter Heaven 
without undergoing the punishment for it. 

From both of these Traditions we can obtain an idea of the 
value placed on the rights of neighbours by the sacred Prophet H. 
It was the style of the Prophet's way of speaking that is laid on 



400 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



a deed, his customary way of putting it is to say that whoever 
neglects it is not a true Believer and shall not be admitted to 
Heaven. We have, already, discussed it at length in Volume l. 1 

He is Not a Muslim Who Eats His Fill 
While His Neighbour Goes Hungry 

(1437/72) It is related by Sayyidina Anas 4& that the Messenger 
of Aljah % said: "He has not affirmed faith in me, i.e., he is not 
my follower who eats to his satisfaction and sleeps comfortably 
in the night while his neighbour goes hungry, and he is aware of 
j t H ~ (Tabarani) 

(A report conveying the same subject-idea, and in almost the 
same words, has been quoted by Imam Bukhari in 
Al-Adab-al-Mufrad, and Baihaqi in Sha'ab-al-Iman, on the 
authority of Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Abbas & and by Haakim, in 
Mustadrak, on the authority of Sayyidah Ayshah i^Ai^j, in 
addition to that of Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Abbas 

Note: Alas! Such a wide gap has occurred between the actual 
conduct of the Muslims, as a whole, and these sayings of the 
Divine Prophet S that it is hard for an unknowing person to 
believe that such, really, were the teachings of the Holy Prophet 

Through these Traditions the Prophet 0, nevertheless, has 
made it clear that whoever remains indifferent to the needs and 
difficulties of his neighbours and cares nothing for them is not a 
follower of his, and he will have nothing to do with him. 

It is significant that no distinction has been made, in these 
Traditions, between a Muslim and a non-Muslim neighbour. 

Some Specific Rights of Neighbours 



O. P. 119. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



401 



J&L, £i «Sf j XL*> -,13 i& # & frj^'^S 

. ^ JTjAi ^ tfiji V'3 gjl 1 4* l^J 4iU( J }J 

(1438/73) Mu'awiya ibn Haidah 4$e> related to us that the 
Prophet W> said: "The rights of the neighbour upon you are that 
if he falls ill, you visit him, and if he dies, you attend his funeral 
(and take part in the arrangements of burial), and if he asks for a 
loan (in his need), you lend it to him (provided that you can 
affort it) and if he commits an evil deed, you prevent it from 
being known i.e., do not give publicity to it, and if he is 
favoured by luck, you felicitate him, and if a calamity befalls 
him, you grieve in sympathy with him. and, (further), that you 
desist from erecting your building higher than his in a way that 
fresh air cannot ha\c a free passage to his house, and (when a 
delicious food is prepared in your house, you take care that ) the 
aroma of your pot does not cause sorrow to him (and his 
children) except that you send some of it to him (as a gift)." 

(Tabarani) 

Commentary: Among the rights of neighbours indicated above, 
the last two deserve a special attention. These require us, firstly, to 
be careful while building a house etc., that its walls are not so high 
as to cause discomfort to the neighbours by obstructing the free 
passage of air into their house, and, secondly, to make sure that the 
flavour of the pot does not reach the neighbour's household when 
we cook a tasty meal because it will excite in them the desire to eat 
it and make them sad that they cannot afford. Hence, we should 
either make it a point to send some of the food to the neighbour or 
do not allow its appetising smell to travel to his house which, of 
course, is not easy. 

These exhortations denote how sensitive the Holy Prophet S 
was concerning the rights of neighbours. 

An identical report has been quoted by Ibn 'Adi in Kamil, and 
Khara'iti in Makkarimul-Ikhlaq, on the authority of Sayyidina 
Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'Aas with the addition 
"If you buy fruit, send some of a q ^ 
it to your neighbour (as a gift), ' ~' " J , 

and if it may not be possible, jr^Vj^l^kilJ J^j^ 



402 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



bring it in secretly (so that the .oAJj tfo.t tjf-^j * \\ 

neighbour does not know about iujiyS\ : 
it, and, also, be careful that) 

none of your children takes the fruit out of the house (and eats 
in there presence) lest the neighbour's children feel envious on 
seeine it." (Kanzul'Ummal) 

(1439/74) Sayyidina Jabir 4&> related that the Messenger of 
Allah said: "When curry is cooked in the house of anyone of 
you, he should increase the broth (by adding water to it), and, 
then, send some of it to his neighbour." (Tabarani) 
This guidance of the Prophet % is transmitted by Tirmizi and 
others from Abu Zarr Ghifari 4& in similar words. 

Three Categories of Neighbours: Non-Muslim 
Neighbours, Too, Have Their Rights 

vr& iitej ^ j*h j^j pCitf > ^ >?* * if* 

•r> to ^ to f&y * r ^ ^ ^ ^ 

(1440/75) It is related by Sayyidina Jabir 4& that the Messenger 
of Allah 0 said: "Neghbours are of three kinds and three 
grades. One, the neighbour who enjoys only one right (and so 
far as the rights are concerned), he is the neighbour of the 
lowest grade; two, the neighbour who enjoys two rights; and 
three, the neighbour who enjoys three rights. The neighbour 
with only one right is the polytheist, i.e., non-Muslim neighbour 
with whom there are, also, no family ties, (and as such, he is 
entitled only to the right of a neighbour), and the neighbour 
with two rights is the neighbour who is, also, a Muslim (and, as 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



403 



such, he has a claim as a neighbour and another as a 
co-religionist), and the neighbour with three rights is the 
(neighbour who, in addition to being a neighbour), is, also, a 
Muslim and a relative, (and, as such), he will have one claim as 
a neighbour, another as a co-religionist, and yet another as a 
relative." (Musnad Bazaar and Hilya Abu Na'eem) 

Commentary: It, candidly, tells, that the obligation to live in 
peace and goodwill with the neighbours, as demanded by the 
Qur'an and the Traditions, also, includes the non-Muslim 
neighbours, and they, too, have a claim to our kindness and 
sympathy. The Holy Companions have drawn the same inference 
from the teachings of the sacred Prophet 0 and arrived at the same 
conclusion. 

It is stated, in Tirmizi etc., about Sayyidina Abdullah ibn 'Amr 
ibn al-'Aas 4$> that once a goat was slaughtered in his house, and 
when he came home, he said to his family; 

"Did you send the meat to our 

Jewish neighbour? Did you 

send the meat to our Jewish 

neighbour? I have heard the 

Messenger of Allah £fjl say that 

Jibrail used to bring commands 

(from the Lord) concerning the 

showing of kindness to the 

neighbours and treating him 

well with such positiveness and frequency that the Prophet 
began to feel he, too, was going to be declared a heir." 

Caring For The Instruction of The Neighbours 

The foregoing Traditions dealt, mainly, with the material 
welfare of the neighbours and paying regard to their needs and 
feelings. We shall now take up a saying which tells that if such a 
people may be living in one's neighbourhood who are backward in 
religious knowledge and whose social and moral behaviour leaves 
much to be desired, it is the duty of those living around them to 
arrange for their moral and religious education and uplift. 



404 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



2 ^:»>r of f J» cr^J ^ MjJ-^u 

(1441/76) Alqamah ibn Abdul Rahman related to us, that his 
father, Abdul Rahman 4& had told him, on the authority of his 
father, Abza Khuza'ee, that, one day, the Messenger of Allah SB 
said (in a special sermon): "What has happened to those (whom 
Allah has favoured with an exceptional knowledge and 
understanding of Faith and the Shari'ah and, in their 
neighbourhood, there live people who are sadly wanting in it), 
and they do nothing by way of teaching Faith to their 
neighbours and promoting an awareness of it in them? They 
neither give good counsel to them nor discharge the duty of 
sanctioning what is lawful and forbidding what is prohibited. 
And what has happened to the (uniformed and backward 
people) that they make no effort to learn about the Faith from 
their neighbours? By Allah! It is the duty of those (possessing 
the knowledge and understanding of Faith) to try to teach the 
Faith to their (ignorant and backward neighbours) and produce 
an awareness of it in them and (to reform them), through 
preaching and good counsel, and exhort them to do what is 
good and legitimate and abstain from what is wrong and 
forbidden. In the same way, the ignorant and backward people 
should acquire the knowledge and understanding of Faith from 
their neighbours, like seekers of knowledge, and take advice 
from them. Otherwise, (if none of the two classes of men will 
do their duty), I will have severe punishment sent down upon 
them in this very existence." (Musnad lshaq ibn Raahwaih, Kitab-ul- 
Wuhdaan-liI-Bukhari,Musannifi-ibn-us-Sakain,andMusnad-lbn-Mandah). 

Commentary: This narrative is mentioned, as it is here, in the 
Fifth Volume of Kanzul Vmmal, under the title of the Rights of 
Neighbours, but at another place, in the same book, it has been 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 405 

reproduced with the addition that the Prophet &k had addressed 
these words to the people of Abu Moosa Ash'ari and Abu 
Maalik Ash'ari known popularly as Ash'arieen. They were, 
generally, well-versed in Faith and the Shari'ah, but close to them 
lived a community which was very backward. The members of this 
community had neither been given religious education nor were 
they interested in acquiring it. Both the groups were, to this extent, 
at fault, and the Holy Prophet H had reprimanded them for 
negligence without taking their names, as was his custom. It is, 
further, stated that when Ash'arieen came to know that it were they 
for whom the reproach was meant, they sent a delegation to the 
Prophet assuring him that they would teach the necessary tenets 
and principles of the Faith and the Shari'ah to their neighbours 
within a year. 

We, thus, learn from the above that the sacred Prophet 0 has 
enjoined upon the people of all localities and regions who possess 
the knowldge of Faith to impart it to those living near them and to 
work for their moral and spiritual instruction and improvement 
through preaching and gentle persuasion. Similarly, he has charged 
those who are ignorant to maintain a regualr contact with men of 
Faith and learning of their neighbourhood so that they can profit 
from their company. If this guidance was followed by the Ummah, 
no section of it would be wanting in religious knowledge and 
earnest attachment to Allah and Prophet fflt, as the case, 
unfortunately, was with a vast majority of Muslims today. 



RIGHTS OF WEAKER 
AND POORER SECTIONS 



The rights we have discussed so far were with regard to the 
classes or categories of men with whom we have a special 
connection or relationship, whether of blood, marriage and 
neighbourhood, or of business transactions and social affairs. In 
addition to these, the importance of respect for the rights of the 
weaker and poorer sections of the society, and of every kind of a 
needy person, the orphan, the widow, the sick, the destitute and the 
downtrodden, has, also, been stressed in the teachings of the Holy 
Prophet A. To care for their needs and to look after their 
well-being has been described by him as a virtue of the highest 
order, and he has given the tidings of a vast reward on it. 

Caring For The Indigent, 
The Widow And The Orphan 

fLj %\ J^> in jis jis ^\ 'j. ( u t y/yy) 

(1442/77) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4fe that the Messenger 
of Allah said: "Whoever strives to relieve the widow, the 
distressed and the needy is as one. in Divine reward, who does 
Jihad in the path of Allah." Abu Hurayrah 4& added that as far 
as he remembered, the Prophet $1, also, said "He is as one who 
fasts permanently during the day and spends the nights in 
Payers." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: As everyone knows. Jihad is a deed of utmost merit 
in Islam. In the same way, it is a most enviable state for a 
bondsman that his days are spent in fasting and nights in prayer. 



408 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



But, as the Holy Prophet S has stated in this Tradition, the same 
is the worth and value of a person, in the judgement of the 
Almighty, who takes pains to help and assist a weak and needy 
fellow-man or a helpless widow and spends of his wealth on them 
or tries sincerely to draw the attention of others to their problems 
and difficulties. 

wfa£&\J+)*fe'j$&&#&& (Utr/vA) 
0 j jtijfij jiiij ?W» 2 & <^< 'jfii 

(1443/78) It is related by Sahl ibn Sa'ad that the Messenger 
of Allah 0 said: "Whoever supports an orphan belonging to his 
own or any other family will be as close to me in Heaven as 
these fingers are to each-other." Sahl relates that the Prophet m 
made a motion of his index and middle fingers (while he said 
it), and there was only a little space separating the two (at that 
time)." (Bukhari) 
Commentary: It tells that the Holy Prophet ft, raised his index 
and middle fingers in such a way that only a little space was left 
between them, and, showing the two fingers to the Companions, 
observed that there would be only that much of distance or 
difference between his station in Heaven, and that of the bondsman 
who accepts the responsibility of supporting an orphan whether 
coming from his own family, like nephew or a grandson, or any 
other family with which he has no paritcular ties of blood. 

as a, jji o» j j> • 'j&H 0* J** u d'A 

(1444/79) it is related by Abdullah ibn Abbas 4& that the 
Prophet S said: "The bondsman who took an orphan from 
among the Muslims and shared his food and drink with him, 
Allah will allow him to enter Heaven provided that he is not 
guilty of an unpardonable sin." (Tirmizi) 
Commentary: The above Tradition makes it clear that the promise 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



409 



of salvation and entry into Paradise is subject to the condition that 
the bondsman has not been guilty of a misdeed, such as apostasy, 
polytheism or murder, which is not pardonable. 

Though this provision may not be included, in so many words, 
in a Tradition of persuasion or exhortation, it should be understood 
to form a part of it, as a matter of course. 

& {L>s aOp %\ JU &\ j)^ jil jti iiiii ^^(uto/A.) 

(Sri 6^ 3 J. J*J W ok* ^ajt jl Jr^-l^j 

(1445/80) Sayyidina Abu Umamah said that the Messenger 
of Allah Wi said: "If anyone strokes an orphan's head, doing so 
only for the sake of Allah, he will have blessings for every hair 
over which his hand passes, and if anyone treats well an orphan 
girl or boy tinder his care, he and I shall be like these two in 
Paradise," he put two of his fingers together. (Ahmad, Tirmizi) 

Commentary: This hadilh very clearly defines the reward for 
metting out good treatment to the orphans. There is only one 
provision that it should be solely for the sake of Allah. 

'Jj- faj JU ill J)ij Jt5 JlS i'JSjk 'Jy'J. (UH/A\) 

§ >, , > i > j{ . ■ #, i ' , *>» > , ill, f . j * j , t i . 

(1446/81) Abu Hurayrah related to us, that the Messenger of 
Allah il& said: "The best of Muslim homes is the home in which 
an orphan lives and is treated in a loving and affectionate 
manner, and the worst of Muslim homes is the home in which 
an orphan lives and is treated badly or curelly." (Ibn Majah) 

fc>jA&%\ JU ^Jt J\ l£i l'J>'Jk ^ 'J, (\ t i Y/AY) 

(1447/82) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah <4^> said that a man 
complained to the Prophet life of his hard-hearted nature. The 



410 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 

Prophet iH asked him to stroke the head of the orphan and feed 
the poor. (Ahmad) 

Commentary: These things are prompted by softness in a man's 
nature but if anyone is hard-hearted he may practice these things 
sincerely and he will become mild-hearted. 

Attending To The Needs of The Poor, 
The Sick And The Distressed 

(1448/83) It is narrated by Ibn Umar <4|& that the Messenger of 
Allah $0k said: "A Muslim is a Muslim's brother, he does not 
wrong him or abandon him. If anyone cares for his brother's 
need Allah will care for his need; if anyone removes his 
brother's anxiety Allah will remove from him one of the 
anxieties of the Day of Resurrection. And if anyone conceals a 
Muslim's secrets Allah will conceal his secrets on the Day of 
Resurrection." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

'J* '&\ JU> Jk\ J_^>3 J 1 * J 15 'jij* is? 0* C \ i t *\/A 0 

^JJ j$ ^ X> £ AiP Jbb\ ^Jlj lliJlJl <j* 

<LrT^'3 i^? ^IIp j-r** 3"**"* ir*J f *-- > 5-^ 

ti'jc- J> Ju»Jl ^iT ^ d3* J^'^O ?>T^3 ii? *3=~' 

(1449/84) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah «s$k> said that the Messenger 
of Allah ^ said: "If anyone removes a Muslim's anxiety of the 
anxieties of the world, Allah will remove his anxiety on the Day 
of Resurrection. If any creditor allows respite to a hard-pressed 
debtor, Allah will make it easy for him in this world and the 
hereafter. If anyone keeps a Muslim's secrets then Allah will 
conceal his secrets in this world and the Hereafter. And as long 
as anyone goes on helping his borther. Allah will go on helping 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



4! 1 



mm - (Abu Dawood, Tirmizi) 

UZ\'^4*%\J^&\ ip3Jl3Jl3^^t^ (uo./ao) 

ULU (*LLi uii) i!siJ(jUj J^^i iUti ^)sf- ^ l ^n » 

(1450/85) Abu Sa'eed all-Khudri 4^> has quoted the Messenger 
of Allah s|| as saying: "He who clothes a naked Muslim Allah 
will clothe him with green garments in Paradise. As for the 
Muslim who feeds a Muslim who is hungry, Allah will feed him 
the fruit of Paradise. Then, as for a Muslim who will give water 
(or any other drink) to a Muslim who is thristy Allah will give 
him to drink the extremely pure drink (of Paradise) on which is 
an unseen seal." 

fa 4* %\ > jii jis ^ ^ ^ ( s io WM ) 

(1451/86) It is related by Abu Moosa Ash'ari ^ that the 
Messenger of Allah s|l said: "Feed the hungry, visit the sick and 
free the captives." (BukhaH) 

Commentary: Besides feeding the hungry, it, also, contains the 
exhortation to visit the sick and obtain the freedom of those who 
are held prisoner. As for visiting the sick, it needs to be 
remembered that, in common parlance, it simply denotes enquiring 
after the health of a sick person, but, in Arabic, it is used in a wider 
sense and includes looking after him as well. Thus, the command 
of visiting the sick, given in this Tradition, does not stop merely at 
paying a visit to a person who is ill or enquiring about his 
condition, but, also, requires us to care for him, and arrange for his 
treatment etc., as far as possible. Similarly, the commandment, of 
freeing the captives, obviously, denotes those who are held in 
captivity unlawfully, or. at least it is hoped that good will follow as 
a consequence of their release, and there is no danger of a harm or 
evil ensuing from it. To secure the freedom of such prisoners is, of 
course, commendable. 



412 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



%\ l\ fa 4*%S jU> J^3 J** 3>:> $ > ( U o Y/A V) 

4*3 s Jtf jtf ^> ^ # s v& pS 

c~u* j\5 £JUi 4^3 c^'j y3 S J* 

(1452/87) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger 
of Allah S said: "On the Day of Judgement, Allah will say to 
His bondsman: 'O Son of Adam! I fell ill, and you did not visit 
me.' The bondsman will reply: Thou art the Lord of the Worlds. 
How could 1 visit Thee?' Allah will, thereupon, say: 'Did you not 
know that such- and-such a bondsman of Mine was ill, but you 
cared not to visit him? Had you done it, you would have found 
Me with him.' Allah will, say again: 'O Son of Adam! I asked 
you for food, and you did not give it to Me.' The bondsman will 
reply : 'Thou art the Lord of the Worlds. How could 1 give Thee 
food?' Allah will, then, say: 'Are you not aware that 
such-and-such a bondsman of Mine begged you for food, but 
you did not give it to him? Had you done that, you would have 
found it with Me.' Allah, again will say: 'O Son of Adam! 1 
asked you for water, and you did not give it to Me.' The 
bondsman will reply: 'Thou art the Lord of the Worlds. How 
could I give thee Water?' Allah will, then, say: 'Such-and-such a 
bondsman of Mine had asked you for water, but you did not 
give it to him. Listen! Had you given him the water, you would 
have found it with Me." (Muslim) 
Commentary: The extra-odinary way of emphasising the 
importance of being kind and helpful to the weak and the indigent 
adopted in this Tradition is enough to show what place do 
compassion and kindheartedness occupy in the teachings of the 
sacred Prophet % and how enviable is the lot of those who feel for 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



413 



the less fortunate brethren and are ready to help them in whatever 
way they can. What it denotes, in sum, is that whoever will help 
and bring solace to a sick and needy person will find Allah with 
him, and attain the goal of Allah-realisation. 

Slaves and Servants 

The institution of slavery was common in Arabia and almost all 
over the world at the time of the raising up of the Prophet 
Muhammad 0. The victorious nations considered the people they 
had captured in battle as a 'commodity' and not as human beings, 
and used them mercilessly for their own advantage. 

The sacred Prophet ft, on the one hand, declared the freeing of 
slaves an act of highest virtue and an atonement for sins, and 
exhorted the people to it in various ways while, on the other hand, 
he enjoined that the slaves should be treated fairly, instead of being 
driven like cattle, and their basic needs, like food and clothing, 
taken care of in a manner to which they were entitled as human 
beings. In fact, the Prophet H stressed that the slaves should be 
given the same food to eat and dress to wear as the master's family 
did. He warned his followers that they will be called to account in 
the Hereafter if they failed in their duty to be just and benevolent to 
the slaves. 

History tells that the entire course of life of the slaves was 
transformed as a result of these teachings and commandments and 
their humanity was restored to them. Thousands of them rose to be 
religious and spiritual leaders of the Ummah and held the highest 
offices of the State. Some of them even founded kingdoms. 
Eventually, the whole world was influenced by this guidance, and 
slavery became a thing of the past. 

Basic Rights of Slaves 

(1453/88) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4&e> that the Messenger 
of Allah lH said: "Food and dress is the right of the slave, and, 
also, that he is not assigned a task which may be beyond his 



414 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



endurance." (Muslim) 

Commentary: In the above Tradition, only this much is told that it 
is the duty of the master to feed and clothe his slave properly, but 
in the other narratives we are now going to quote, it is stated, 
further, that the same food and clothes should be given to the slave 
which the master himself ate and wore. 

It, again, tells that such a task must not be set for a slave which 
may be too much for him. 

These, so to speak, constitute the fundamental rights of the 
slaves. 

Brotherly treatment 

jS'Vj Um> AtihJi 4jjJ o^j olrl 4jji Jj^r j^i (ixJjJl c***-* ^ -*4^*** 
iialfc ilUjU iilT jl Qju U J^ill AiKj "j! j JJL ll» i-l-Llj 

(1454/89) It is related by Abu Zarr Ghifari «g& that the Prophet 
£ll said: "(Your slaves) are your brothers. Allah has placed them 
under your authority. So, he who has a brother under him 
should feed him and clothe him as he does himself and avoid 
taking from him work that is beyond his power, and if he does 
tell him to do such things then he should, also, join in it." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In it, the slave has been declared to be the brother 
of the master under whose control Allah has placed him, are both 
of them not the children of Adam, after all? There could, surely, 
not be a more powerful appeal for the good and fair treatment of 
the slaves. It is, further, told that when the slaves and the masters 
were borhters, they should, also, be treated like brothers and no 
discrimination made between them in the basic needs of life, like 
food and dress. 

The Slave or Servant Must Be Given The Food 
To Eat Which He Cooks For The Master 

131 ^L>j %\ JU ill J)ij Jll Jll Vjt'Jt ^1 ( \ t 0 oM • ) 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



415 




(1455/90) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger 
of Allah iH said: " When your slave or servant prepares food for 
you and lays it before you. and he has suffered the 
inconvenience of heat and smoke in cooking it, you should ask 
him to sit down and share the meal. If the food is in a small 
quantity, (and cannot suffice for two), the master should, at 
least, give a morsel or two of it to him." (Muslim) 

Commentary: In the Prophet's & time, duties of a cook were 
taken, from the slaves. The Holy Prophet A, therefore, enjoined 
that the meal prepared by the slave should be shared with him by 
the master. 

In our time, the same command will apply to the servants who 
are employed as cooks. 



(1456/91) Abdullah ibn Umar related to us that (once) a 
person came to the Prophet i$i and said: 'O Messenger of Allah 
To what extent should we forgive the mistakes of our slave 



the enquiry, and the Prophet again, remained silent. When 
he asked for the third time, the Prophet observed: 'Seventy 
times each day'." 



Commentary: The Holy Prophet kept quiet when he was asked 
for the first two times, perhaps, for the reason that he wanted the 
questioner to realise the redundancy of his enquiry. To forgive the 
mistakes of one's slave or servant is an act of virtue which makes a 
man deserving of Divine mercy, and. hence, one should be ready to 
excuse their faults as much as possible. When, however, the 



Slaves Should Be Forgiven 



If They Commit A Mistake 





416 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



question was put to him for the third time, the Messenger of Allah 
0 remarked that they should be forgiven even if they committed a 
mistake as many as seventy times each day. Evidently, the figure of 
seventy, here, does not denote the exact number, but that a slave or 
servant should not be chastised even if he made a mistake often. 

In our view, 'forgiving', in this Tradition, means that 
punishment should not be inflicted on a slave or servant in a spirit 
of vengeance or vindictiveness. In case, however, it seemed 
advisable from the point of view of their correction that they were 
taken to task, there was no harm in it, and it would not be inimical 
to the spirit of the exhortation contained in the above saying. It 
would, in fact, be in their own good. 

(1457/92)* It is related by Ka'b ibn Ujrah 4§b that the Messenger 
of Allah m> said: "Do not punish the slave-girls for breaking the 
vessels for the age of the vessels, too, is determined beforehand 
like your own age." (Dailami) 

Commentary: Sometimes, procelain or glass ware get borken 
owing to the carelessness of the slaves or domestic servants upon 
which they are punished. The Holy Prophet ft, in it, tells that just 
as men lived upto a certain age, and, then, died at the appointed 
hour, the vessels, too, broke when the span of life alloted to them 
came to an end. It would; therefore, be unfair to punish the poor 
slaves or servants for it. Nevertheless, as alrealdy stated, they could 
be castigated as a measure of correction. 

Revenge Will Be Taken From The Oppressors 
of Slaves On The Day of Resurrection 

(1458/93) Abu Hurayrah said that he heard the Messenger of 
Allah £H say: "Whoever beats the slave unjustly revenge will be 
taken from him on the Day of Resurrection." (Baihaqi) 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



417 



Atonement of Cruelty to Slaves 

djL^aij^.iiau ij^ur jii Juki 31 <uu ^' tA^ # i**^ vS-^ Syk 

(1459/94) Sayyidina Ibn Umar 4^> said that he heard the 
Messenger of Allah ^ say: "If anyone punishes his slave for a 
crime he has not committed or slaps him then he can make an 
atonement by emancipating him. (If he does not do it then he 
will be punished by Allah). (Muslim) 

*jLp l_£jL* jJil aJU jiii-i U^Jj cju-Is 

j> ji i»i Sy*$i «-^* aIIp^ ^jU?^ 3* cJsiu 

((Jl-u. »i jj) . jl_J» Jollity jUl Jjuj ^ )J Ul J IS in 

(1460/95) Abu Mas'ud Ansari 4fe> said that (once) he was 
beating a slave when he heard a voice from behind. (Someone 
was saying): 'Oh Abu Mas'ud! Remember that Allah has a 
greater power and authority over you than you have over the 
poor slave.' He turned round and saw that it was the Prophet 0 
upon which he said : "O Messenger of Allah Osj&l (I am setting 
him free). Now, he is free (from my side), for the sake of Allah." 
The Prophet Wt observed: "You should know that had you not 
done so, i.e., set him free, the Fire of Hell would have consumed 
you." (Muslim) 



Last Testament of The Prophet 
Concerning Slaves 

(5 jb jA 8l jj) , . UjI diili Uli*i)t jfl5l J « ^LtfJ 1 ! 0 ^LtfJl 

(1461/96) It is related by Sayyidina Ali that the last words 
(spoken by the Prophet Wi before his death), were: "Observe 
Prayer (Salah)! Observe Prayer (Salah)! And fear Allah as 
regards your slaves and servants." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It shows what importance did the Holy Prophet £H 
attach to respect for the rights of the slaves. He bracketted it with 



418 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



the observance of prayer, and took pains to stress its significance 
upon his followers even at the time of his departure from the world. 

According to Sayyidah Ayshah's &\ narrative quoted in 
Sahih Bukhari, the last words of the Prophet Wb were: 
"Allauhumma-er-Rafiqal A'ala, (To my friend, the Highest of 
High). Commentators have tried to produce conformity between 
the two reports by explaining that the last words of the Holy 
Prophet that were addressed to the Ummah were those 
contained in Sayyidina Ali's report while the last words he had 
addressed to Allah were what are contained in Sayyidah Ayshah's 

4»i narrative. 

Loyalty of Slaves to Their Masters 

Together with enjoining upon the masters to be fair and 
generous in their treatment of the slaves and servants, the Holy 
Prophet iH, also, has emphasised that it was the duty of the slaves 
and the servants to remain faithful to their masters. 

The Messenger of Allah 0 has said that fortunate and 
successful was the slave who was the devotee of Allah and faithful 
to his master. 

\Xj6 % jL> ,.u»i J>i 3 Jii Jil l'J m yt ^ 'J, ( \t n y/* v) 

(1462/97) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger 
of Allah H$ said: "It is a matter of great success and good 
fortune for a slave that Allah raises him from the world in the 
state that he is a worshipper of his Lord and loyal to his master." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

l\ Jll^j^'^t jU'ill Sj^]ti'jU^&\XS-^ Oil TV* A) 

(1463/98) It is related by Abdullah ibn Umar «&> that the 
Prophet ^ said: "When a slave is faithful to his master, and, 
also, worships Allah, he is deserving of a double reward (in the 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



419 



Hereafter)." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: A principal feature of the teachings of the sacred 
Prophet 0 is that he exhorts every class or individual to fulfil the 
rights of others with a full sense of responsibility and consider it a 
source of good fortune in both the worlds. He thus, enjoins upon 
the masters to fear Allah in respect of their slaves and servants and 
be good and fair in their dealings with them, and treat as their 
brothers and family members, and upon the slaves to be loyal and 
sincere to their masters. 

The root cause of all the trouble and mischief in the world is 
that everyone wants to secure his rights without fulfilling the 
duties. There can be no real peace and happiness in the society 
until we attach an equal importance to the claims of others upon us 
and our own claims on them. 

Behaviour of The Old And The 
Young Towards Each Other 

In every society there are some who are senior in age and others 
who are juniour to them. The Holy Prophet ill has, also, taught 
how they should behave towards each other. We shall now take up 
a few Traditions appertaining to this aspect of social conduct 
which may appear insignificant to some people, but plays an 
important part in prompting a happy and peaceful life, both at the 
family and the community levels. 

(1464/99) Amr ibn Shu'ayb 4& related to us, "My father, 
Shu'ayb told me, on the authority of his grandfather, Abdullah 
ibn Amr ibn al-Aas 4^>, that the Messenger of Allah iS> said: 
'He is not of us who is not affectionate to those who are younger 
to him in age and respectful to those who are olders." 

(Tirmizi and Abu Davvood) 



JU^Jt J^ig^ftr Jti^i^ 



420 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Pari VI 



'^■'ji (J J* J«4^ (*^J 0* Xttf (jLis JliS IS \ j«^>j-i f jUl frUajlS 

(1465/100) Sayyidina Anas related, "(Once) an elderly 
person came who wanted to go up to the Messenger of Allah 
(and meet him), but the people (who were present) took some 
time to make way for him, i.e., they did not move quickly 
enough as deference for his age would have required. The 
Messenger of Allah Wi observed: 'Whoever does not show 
affection to the young and respect to the old is not of us." 

(Tirmizi) 

Commentary: It shows that anyone who wants to be deeply 
attached to the Holy Prophet !$l and his Faith should treat those 
who are younger to him with affection, and those who are older, 
with respect. 

(1466/101) It is related by Sayyidina Anas ^ that the 
Messenger of Allah said: "For the young man who will 
honour an old man because of his years, Allah will appoint men 
who will honour him in his old age." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: It tells that while the real reward on showing good 
manners to one's elders and behaving towards them with respect 
will be in the Hereafter, the Almighty bestows His favours in this 
world, too, upon those who do so. 



RIGHTS OF ISLAMIC FRATERNITY 



The Holy Prophet W>, like all the earlier Prophets, was raised 
up in the world with Divine Faith and Heavenly Guidance. Those 
who responded to his Call and accepted the Faith he had brought, 
naturally, went to form a separate community which came to be 
known as Ummah aI-Muslima ] or Islamic Fraternity. 

As long as the Prophet remained in the world, the Islamic 
fraternity or Ummah served as his right hand in the preaching and 
propagation of Faith and taking the Guidance to mankind, and, 
after his passing away, it had to fulfil the sacred mission till the end 
of time as his 'deputy', or successor'. For discharging the grave 
responsibility, it was essential that, along with possessing the 
qualities of firmness of belief and unflinching devotion to Allah, 
piety and righteousness, and missionary zeal and enthusiasm, the 
hearts of its members, i.e., of the followers of the Holy Prophet 
as a whole, remained united, and they acted like a single body. If, 
on the other hand, the Muslims were divided among themselves, 
and instead of unity and solidarity, there was discord and 
dissension in their ranks, they could not be .excepted to prove 
themselves worthy of the task. 

For that very reason, the Prophet 0, also, declared adherence 
to Islam and a sacred and different classes of the Islamic 
brotherhood the need to behave towards each other as brothers, 
helping one another and fulfilling the claim stemming from the 
common bond of Islam. 

The exhortation was all the more necessary because the 
Ummah included men drawn from various countries, races and 
social ranks, with their own ethnic, cultural, linguistic and 
temperamental peculiarities, and this diversity was to grow further 

with the passage of time. 

O. Signifying the Community of the Faithful. 



422 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



A Strong Building 

(1467/102) It is related by Abu Moosa Ash'ari that the 
Prophet iH said: "The connection between one Muslim and 
another is like that of a strong building, one part of which 
strengthen the other." The Prophet A, then, showed, by 
interlocking the fingers of one hand with those of the other (that 
the Muslims should comibne and coalesce with one another like 
it), (Bukhaii and Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that just as the bricks of a building 
become a strong fortress by uniting with one another, the Ummah, 
too, is a fortress of which every Muslim is a brick and there should 
be the same closeness and coherence among the Muslims as was 
found in the bricks of a building. The Holy Prophet S, further, 
demonstrated by interlocking the fingers of both hands that the 
Muslims ought to stick together and blend into a single body like 
that. 

(1468/103) It is related by Nu'man ibn Bashir that the 
Messenger of Allah 0 said: "All Muslims are like (the limbs 
of) a man. If the eye hurts, the whole body feels the pain, and, in 
the same way, if anyone has a headache, the whole body joins in 
the suffering." (Muslim) 
Commentary: What it seeks to emphasise is the organic unity of 
the Muslim Millat. All for one. and one for all" should be the motto 
of the Mulims. They should be ready to share the sorrow and 
suffering of each other. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



423 




(1469/104) It is related by Abdullah ibn Ulnar that the 
Messenger of Allah said: "Every Muslim is a Muslim's 
brother. He should neither harm him himself nor leave him 
alone when others treat him unjustly, (but try to help him). 
Whoever will fulfil the need of a brother, Allah will fulfil his 
need, and whoever will remove the distress of a Muslim, he will 
find a distress of his removed on the Day of Requital, and 
whoever will hide the secrets of a Muslim, his sins will be 
hidden from others view by Allah on the Last Day." (Muslim) 



(1470/105) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4<k> that the Prophet 
said: "Every Muslim is a Muslim's brother. He should 
neither harm him himself nor leave him alone to be a victim of 
the cruelty and injustice of others." (Abu Hurayrah adds that, 
after it, the Prophet pointed towards his bosom thrice, and 
said: 'This is the place of piety. For anyone this fault is enough 
(to make him unworthy) that he considers a brother Muslim 
worthless, and puts him to shame. Everything belonging to a 
Muslim is sacred to the other Muslim, his life, his property and 
his honour." (Muslim) 

Commentary: It tells that after enjoining that no Muslim should 
consider a Muslim base or lowly and treat him with contempt, the 
Holy Prophet ^ pointed at his bosom thrice and remarked that it 
was the place of piety. It is worth recalling that, in the judgement 
of the Lord, piety is the sole criterion of superiority. Says the 
Qur' an: 



Verily, the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah, is he 





who is the most righteous of you. 



(Al Hujral 49:13) 



424 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



Piety, in fact, is another name for the fear of Allah and earnest 
anxiety for the Hereafter. It, obviously, is an inner feeling and no 
one can know by looking at a person whether there is piety in him 
or not. Thus, no believing person has a right to consider a believing 
person base and worthless and behave towards him in a disdainful 
manner. Who knows that a man who appears to him to be inferior 
may be possessing the quality of righteousness and be honourable 
in the sight of Allah. It is, therefore, not permissible to a Believer 
to hold any other believing man in contempt and behave 
disrespectfully towards him. 

The Prophet 0, warns, further, that for a man to be a sinner it 
is enough that he thinks contemptuously of a believing bondsman 
of the Lord and puts him to disgrace. 

4* %\ ju> > J >y cJoU Jtf >J4* MS-Ao* < > t V \ / \ • 1) 

(pi- 3 tfjWJ' rtjj) piii qJaJtj ? /j 3 ' f ^ (fe 

(1471/106) Jarir'ibn Abdullah related to us, saying that "I 
had taken the pledge at the hand of the Messenger of Allah 0 
to observe prayer (salah), and to pay zakah, and to be a sincere 
well-wisher of every Muslim." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that when Sayyidina Jarir took the 
pledge of Faith at the hand of the Holy Prophet 0; the latter had 
made him promise that he will offer paryer (salah) regularly, pay 
Zakah and be sincere to all Muslims. 

We can learn from it how careful the sacred Prophet $=1 was 
about the mutual relations of Muslims. He took the pledge of 
brotherly-feeling and well-wishing towards all Muslims along with 
that of the observance of fundamental duties like prayer (salah) and 
Zakah, 

■dj-OJ aJJ l**?U ^ 0*3 & & d r * ^ j*t 

(Ju fi\ J ^>>3l •! jj) <3^~^ ^3 

(1472/107) It is related by Huzaifah that the Messenger of 
Allah 0 said: "Whoever does not take an interest in the affairs 
and problems of Muslims is not of them, and whoever's state is 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



425 



such that, each morning and evening, he is not loyal and earnest 
towards Allah, towards His Messenger, towards His Book, 
towards His Imam, i.e., the Caliph of the day, and towards the 
Muslims, as a whole, is not of them." (Tabarani) 

Commentary: It tells that it, too, is an essential condition for 
being a faithful Believer that one is not indifferent to the 
difficulties and problems of the Muslims, in general, but takes a 
genuine interest in them. Similarly, it is. also, necessary that he is 
habitually loyal and devoted to Allah, the Prophet the Qur'an, 
the Islamic Government and the general body of Muslims. 

Js^ii j <*Lj %\ JU» j ji! Ji5 ^'J- ( \t vr/ \ • A) 

(1473/108) It is related by Sayyidina Anas ^ that the 
Messenger of Allah Hi said: "By the Holy Being in whose 
power is my life, none of you can be a true Believer unless he 
desires for his brother what he desires for himself." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that to feel earnestly for a brother Muslim 
to the extent of preferring for him what one prefers for oneself is a 
prerequisite of Faith, and anyone who claims to be a Muslim, but is 
lacking in it is, in fact, unblessed with the reality of Islam. 

Some Special Claims 

j£ (^U) Alii- iii -oi* J3~»3 Jt5 Jli Sjjy* ^ j* (MYi/w\) 

(1474/109) It is related by Abu Hurayrah <4$& that the Messenger 

of Allah m> said: "There are five claims of a Muslim upon a 

Muslim: to return his greetings; to visit him when he is ill; to 

attend his funeral; to accept his invitation to a feast; and to 

make the prayer of mercy for him by saying yu-ruhmukullaah 

(May the mercy of Allah be on you) when he sneezes." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The five things mentioned in it are acts which, in 
everday life, give expression to as well as are likely to promote 



426 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



brotherly feelings .between Muslims, and, therefore, a special 
attention should be paid to them. In another report, to salute is 
mentioned in place of returning the salutation and some other acts, 
too, are specified. It shows that the claims described in the above 
Tradition are by way of an example and not conclusive. 

Defence of The Honour of a Muslim 

^ ^ ^ uj ^ g 4^: ^> •* J** 1 ^ * ^> 

(1475/110) It is related by Sayyidina Jabit • 4jb that the 
Messenger of Allah 0 said: "The (unfortunate) Muslim who 
forsakes a Muslim (and does not come to his aid) at a time when 
his honour is being outraged, Allah, too, will deny him His help 
when he is in the greatest need of it while the (blessed Muslim) 
who stands by a Muslim at a time when his honour is 
imperilled, Allah, too. will favour him with His help when he 
will be needing it most." (Abu Dawood) 

(1476/1 I I) Sayyidina Mu'az ibn Anas 4#b said that the 
Messenger of Allah 0 said: "If anyone guards believer from a 
hypocrite. Allah will send an angel who will guard his flesh on 
the Day of Resurrection from the fire of Hell. But if anyone 
attacks a Muslim saying something by which he wishes to 
disgrace him, he will be restrained by Allah on the bridge over 
Hell till he is acquitted of what he said." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It is a very serious and grave sin to accuse and 
disgrace and speak against a Muslim. Even if the accuser is a 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



427 



Muslim, he will be detained over a part of Hell (its bridge) until he 
is purified of the filth his sin by burning to ashes just as gold is 
placed on fire until it is purified of its impurities. The words of the 
hadiih imply that this sin is unpardonable in the sight of Allah, yet 
today it is a common pursuit with Muslim, even the front-rank 
ones. 

O Allah! Preserve us. And wc seek refuge with Allah from the 
mischief of our base self and from the evil of our deeds. 

& S>: d i > ik 6tr jj 4^1 ^> ^ i>: ^ ^ u j^L; 

(1477/1 12) Abu Darda $k> said that he heard the Messenger of 
Allah 0 say, "No Muslim will defend his brother's honour 
without it being due from Allah to defend him from the tire of 
Hell on the Day of Resurrection." He then recited: 

(To help believers is incumbent upon us) (Ar-Room, 30:47) 

(Sharah as Sunnah) 

4*'& J+jk\ j^j ja cia x>y„ cJj frUJ-i ^ 0 tYA/ur) 
. j& ja 0 i> J* tk 5ir ^Ji< j# ^ # ^ £.3 

(1478/113) Sayyidah Asma ibnt Yazid if* it quoted the 
Messenger of Allah Wf as saying: "If anyone defends his brother 
who is slandered when absent, it will be due from Allah to set 
him free from Hell." (Baihaqi) 

d u 33^13 cfti ^1 s>Ii 0^ ju ^; >3 j^iifi S3* 
j tflu j Jlp jai; 3A3 ^ jj 



428 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 

(1479/1 14) It is related by Anas 4& that the Prophet % said: 
"Anyone before whom a Muslim brother is being defamed and 
his reputation is being injured, and he can speak for him and 
defend his good name. and. (also), does it, Allah will help him 
in this world as well as the next, and if he does not defend or 
support him although he is in a position to do so, Allah will take 
him to task (for it) both in this world and the next." 

(Sharah-us-Sunna lman at-Baghwi) 

Commentary: The live previous reports go to show how precious 
the honour of a Muslim is in the sight of Allah and what a grave 
sin it is for us to be found wanting in our duty to defend and 
protect it. 

A Muslim is Muslim's Mirror 

(1480/1 15) Abu Hurayrah 4& relates that the Messenger of 
Allah 0 said: "A Believer is a Believer's mirror, and a Believer 
is Believers's brother: he removes his defect (or deficiency), and 
guards him from behind. (Abu Dawood and Tirmizi) 

Commentary: A mirror reflects every blemish on the lace of a 
person, and shows it only to him and not to anyone else. That every 
Muslim is a Muslim's mirror would, thus, mean that a Muslim 
should inform his brother of any fault or weakness he may observe 
in him, with a sincere heart, and refrain from spreading it abroad. 
The report, further, tells that every Believer is a Believer's brother. 
It will, therefore, be his duty to protect him, to the best of his 
ability, from an evil or danger. 

Attitude Towards Mankind, In 
General, And All Created Beings 

In the forementioned Traditions, we have seen instructions 
governing the behaviour of Muslims to one another. We shall, 
now. examine the sayings of the Holy Prophet & relating to our 
conduct in respect of all mankind and the other creatures of the 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



429 



Lord. 

^3 JJfi ^Jl J^- Ji ilii J^. ( UA \l\ n) 

$ S3&3 JslJj 4-*^ ^uii 4^" 6' 3 J 1 * t^' J3^>. & ^3 

(JUj-IsIjj) .^Jv...fl:l a^Jlj 

(1481/1 16) It is related by Mu'az ibn Jabal "I enquired from 
the Holy Prophet tsSfe about superior Faith, i.e.. what was the 
highest grade of Faith and how could it be reached. The Prophet 
^ replied: 'It is that you love whom you love solely for the sake 
of Allah, and hate whom you hate solely for the sake of Allah 
(Friendship and enmity should be wholly for His sake). And. 
secondly, that you keep your tongue engaged in the 
remembrance of Allah'. 'What else?' I asked further. ' That you 
desire for others what you desire for yourself, and do not desire 
for others what you do not desire for yourself, the Prophet 
replied." (Musnad Ahmad) 

Commentary: It shows that in the teachings of the sacred Prophet 
sincerity and well-wishing for men, in general, to the extent of 
desiring for them what one desires for oneself is among the highest 
attributes of Faith. 

-dp % JU ill J3-^3 cH S-J* 'J- (uay/uv) 

((►L^j^jUJuijj) ^'jii ^y>%\ fry**} pL*>'j 

(1482/117) Jarir ibn Abdullah 4k> related that the Prophet & 
said: "He will not gain the mercy of Allah in whose heart 
there is no mercy for men." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It imparts a stern warning to those who do not treat 
fellow-men with kindness and compassion and remain indifferent 
to their needs and difficluties. Such men, we are told, will have no 
share in the mercy of The All-merciful. 

It must be understood, however that it does not mean that 
criminals must not be punished. The Qur'an tells us: 

( \ y<\ : y SjiJi) .orftfi jj 1 3 JJ- jp\^&\ 'Ji ^'3 
And there is life for you in retaliation. (al-Baqarah2:l79) 



430 



Meuning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



j y ^i* j y »i^a ^ 

(1483/1 18) It is related by Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas that 
the Messenger of Allah S said: "Allah will have mercy on 
them who are merciful. Show compassion to the dwellers of the 
earth, He who dwells in the heavens will show compassion to 
y 0U * (Abu Dawood and Tirmizi) 

Commentary: It contains a most forceful exhortation for showing 
kindness to all the creatures of Allah on earth with whom one 
comes into contact. It. first, tells that there will be the special mercy 
of Allah on those who are merciful, and, then gives the assurance 
that the Lord will show compassion to those who are 
compassionate to His creatures. 

In this Tradition, the phrase Mann fi-e-s-Sama'i has been used 
for Allah which, literally, means, "He who is in the heavens". 
(Evidently, the connection between the Almighty and the heavens 
is not the same as obtains between an occupant and the place he 
occupies). 

Like the earth and all the other living and non-living things, the 
sky, too, has been created by Allah. He is the Lord of the heavens 
and the earth, and both of these are equally related to His functions 
and attirbutes of Divinity, Creation and Preservation. 

( A t : t r J > jJ) j Jj ti» P J iilijAj 

And He it is Who in the heaven is Allah, and in the earth Allah. 

(AlZukhruf 43:84) 

But since the heaven enjoys superiority over the earth, Allah 
has a special assciation with it, the true significance of which, 
however, is known only to him. It is owing to it that Mann 
fi-es-Sama'i »u-Ji J o* has been used in the above narrative for 
Allah as against Mann fi-el-Arz.je^Jo* 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



431 



(1484/119) Sayyidina Anas 4» and Abdullah ibn Mas'ud 4& 
related to us, that the Prophet iH said: " All the creatures are the 
Ayaal (family) of Allah. The more beloved of Allah, among His 
creatures, therefore, is the man who is good to His family, i.e.. 



Commentary: Those who are dependent on a person of the 
necessities of life, like food and clothing, are called his Ayaal. In 
this way, all the created beings are the Ayaal of Allah. He is their 
Cherisher and Sustainer. The above Tradition, consequently, tells 
that whoever shows kindness to the creatures of Allah will be 
deserving of His love. 

Kindness to Animals 

The Holy Prophet ft, like the earlier Prophets, has permitted 
that the animals that have been created for riding or carrying loads 
or any other purpose are used for it. Again, the flesh of the animals 
which have been declared clean can be used for food, considering 
it to be a blessing of the Lord, and in accordance with His 
Command. But, at the same time, the Holy Prophet ft has 
enjoined that the animals must not be treated crurelly, and one 
should fear Allah in respect of the dumb creatures as well. 



(1485/120) Suhail ibn Hanzaliyyah 4^s£> narrated that once the 
Prophet W$ came upon a camel whose belly was touching its 
back (owing to starvation). On seeing it, he said: "O people, fear 
Allah with regard to the dumb animals. (Do not starve them like 
that). Ride on them in the condition that they are well, i.e., 
properly fed, and when you leave them, leave in the condition 
that they are well', i.e., after you have fed them properly." 



creatures. 



' i 



(Baihaqi) 




(Abu Davvood) 



432 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



(1486/121) Sayyidina Jabir narrated that (once) the Prophet 
saw a donkey whose face had been branded. Upon it, he 
remarked: He is removed from the mercy of Allah who has 
committed this (cruel) act." (Musnad Ahmad) 

Commentary: In the olden days, it was customary to brand 
animals, like horses and donkeys, with red-hot iron, as a mark of 
recognition, and it is done, even now, at some places. But to burn 
the mark on an animal's face, which is the most sensitive part of the 
body, is most cruel, indeed. The Holy Prophet & felt deeply hurt 
on seeing the donkey whose face had been branded and observed 
that cursed was the man who had done that. It, surely, was an 
expression of severe resentment against the person who had been 
cruel to the poor animal. 

,JL*j Jufi&\ jis jtl s>;> ijy 'j- (uay/uy) 
jtfcw d^L; g> ^ij J* uL o> u# 

i)\ jj> . J&JJb \$ j& ^UJ» & cJ-yi UjUj^j A^iijU cJ-}& 

( 1487/1 22) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger 
of Allah iH said: "A woman of bad character was granted 
remission (of her sins) on the act that she saw a dog that was 
(moving round) a well in such a state that its tongue was 
hanging out, and it was panting, and (it appeared that) it would 
die of thrist. (The woman took pity on the dog, but there was no 
rope or vessel to draw water from the well.) So, she took off her 
leather stocking, and, somehow tied it to her,and drew water 
(from the well) by means of it, (and gave it to the dog to drink). 
She was forgiven (by Allah) of her sins upon this act (of 
mercy)". A Companion, thereupon, enquired: "O Messenger of 
Allah 0! Is there a reward even on giving food and drink to the 
animals?" "Of course", the Prophet H replied. "There is a 
reward on giving food and drink to every living creature." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The aim of the Holy Prophet obviously, was 
not merely to narrate the story, but to stress the importance of being 
kind and compassionate to all the creatures of Allah, even to a dog. 
A similar report has been quoted in the preceding pages from 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



433 



the same source-books, Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. In it, 
however, the giving of water to the dying dog is attributed to a 
male traveller and not a woman of easy virtue. We have discussed 
it, in detail, over there and explained how a simple act like it could 
lead to salvation, and what was the real significance of it. 

citf *» i^'j SuJi & jrii ^3 ^jgj c> ^ 

(1488/123) It is rejated by Sayyidina Anas 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah S said: "A Muslim bondsman who plants a 
tree or grows a crop, and, then, a man, bird or animal eats of it, 
it will be charity on his part." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The moral of it, again, is that to give food and 
drink not only to human beings, but to all the creatures of the Lord, 
including a bird or an animal, is an act of virtue on which there is a 
reward in the Hereafter. 

On the other hand, to treat an animal cruelly and inflict pain on 
it unncessarily is a great sin, as the following Tradition will tell. 

4**1 JjiJ Jil *5M5 5ji> ^ J| ^ ( w A „ u 0 

(1489/124) Abdullah ibn Umar and Abu Hurayrah & related 
that the Messenger of Allah said: "A hard-hearted woman 
will make her way to Hell simply for killing a cat (in a most 
callous manner). She held it in captivity and neither gave it 
anything to eat herself nor set it free so that it could feed on the 
rodents (till it died of starvation)." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: These few Traditions are enough to give an idea of 
the teachings of the Holy Prophet S concerning the treatment of 
animals. It in no way, conflicts with the command of the Prophet 
m about the killing of poisonous animals, such as, snakes and 
scorpions, which is an act of service to men as well as to the other 
creatures of Allah. 



RULES AND PROPRIETIES OF MEETING 



In all civilised societies, there have always been some particular 
forms of greeting, as an expression of respect, affection or formal 
recognition, upon meeting a person. In our own courntry, the 
Hindus say Namaste on meeting or arrival, and, also, Ram, Ram. 
Among the Christians, it is customary to salute with the words like 
'Good morning', or 'Good evening'. 

Among the Arabs, too, before the advent of Islam, similar 
forms of salutation were in vogue. It is stated in Sunnah Abi 
Dawood, on the authority of the Companion, Imran ibn Husain, 
"Before the advent of Islam we used to say An'maallaahu hika a'in 
(May Allah grant coolness to your eyes), and An'im sabaah (May 
your morning be happy) while greeting one another. When from 
the darkness of perversion we emerged into the light of Islam, 
these formulas of salutation were forbidden, and in their place, we 
were taught to say, As'Salaam-u-Alaikum (Peace be with you)." 

As a little reflection will show, no better form of salutation is 
possible as an expression of love and regard on goodwill. It makes 
an excellent and most comprehensive prayer for the occasion, 
denoting: May Allah bestow peace and security on you. For those 
who are younger to us in age, it is an expression of kindness and 
affection, and for the elders, of regard and attention. Moreover, 
Salaam is one of the Excellent Names of Allah. In the Qur'an, the 
phrase, As-salaam-u-Alaikum, has been used on behalf of Allah, as 
a mark of favour and esteem of Divine Prophets. Thus, we read:' 

'6 j>j ir*}- ?£» 'i&A J* faCi <£JUi j £jj J* 

Peace be unto Nuh among the people. (Al Saffat, 37:79); Peace be 



436 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



unto Ibrhaim, (Al Saffat, 37:109); Peace be unto Musa and 
Harum, (Al Saffat, 37.120); Peace be unto llyas, (Al Saffat, 37:130); 
Peace be unto those sent (to warn), (Al Saffat, 37:181); and, 
Peace be on His slaves whom He hath chosen, (Al Saffat, 37:59). 
The Beleivers, too, are commanded to make salutation to the 
Holy Prophet % in these words: 

As-salaam-o-Alaiha Aiyyuhan-Nabi (Peace be with thee, O 
Prophet), 

And, the Prophet is told that when those who believed in the 
Divine Revelatioms came to him, he should say to them: 

Peace be unto you! Your Lord has prescribed for Himself 
mercy. (Al Anam 6:54) 

Similarly in the Hereafter at the time of entry into Heaven, 

Believers will be recieved with these words: 

>* ' '* 

(tV\° ff*&) & J^ 3 * 

Enter them in Peace, (Al Hijr 15:46); and 

Peace be unto you because ye preserved. Ah, passing sweet will 
be the sequel of the (heavenly ) home. (Al Ra'd, 1 3:24) 

Anyway, there can be no better greeting than As-salaam-u- 
Alaikum. If the two Muslims who meet are already acquainted with 
each other and there exists a bond of friendship, relationship or 
affection between them, this form of salutation fully signifies the 
connection, and, on the basis of it, gives an eloquent expression to 
the sentiments of joy, regard, love and well-wishing. On the other 
hand, if they are strangers, it becomes a means of introduction and 
a declaration of trust and sincerity; or, in other words, one assures 
the other, through it, that he is a well-wisher and there obtains a 
spiritual tie between them. 

Be that as it may, the teaching of As-Salam-u-Alaikum and 
Wa'alaiku-mus-salaam as the forms of greeting among th| 
Muslims is a most propitious instruction of the sacred Prophet m 
and a distinctive practice of Islam. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



437 



Importance of Salaam 

&ii i^ti lyiij 'fU&Ji ijj^i ^3 

(1490/125) It is related by Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas that 
the Messenger of Allah $H said: "O people! Worship Allah, the 
Beneficient, feed His bondsmen, and spread Salaam much, and 
you will reach Heaven in safety." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: In it, the Holy Prophet S has taught three things 
and given the tidings of Paradise to those who observe them. 
Firstly, paying of divine honours to Allah, the Beneficent, which is 
the exclusive claim of the Lord, and the high aim and purpose of 
creation; secondly, the giving of food to the poor and needy 
persons, as an act of charity, and to friends and relatives and 
virtuous slaves of Allah, as a token of love and sincerity, which is 
an excellent way of uniting the hearts and promoting mutual 
affection, and, also, a cure for the deadly ailment of stinginess; and, 
thridly, to make common the salutation of As-salaam-u-Alaikum 
and Wa'alaikum-us-Salaam among the Muslims, on the widest 
scale, which is a distinguishing practice of Islam and a formula of 
prayer taught by the Almighty Himself. Upon these three things, 
the Prophet ill has given the assurance that whoever will observe 
them will safely attain the goal of Paradise. 

(pl^j cSjbUl el j j) . 3 j& ^ j 

(1491/126) Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar <g&> that once it was 
asked of the Prophet 0 a better and more superior act in Islam 
(or a more superior practice among the practices of Islam). 
"One, you feed the bondsmen of Allah; and, two, you make 
salutation (salaam) to those you know as well as to those you do 
not," the Prophet m replied." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In it, the Holy Prophet % has described the giving 



438 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



of food and spreading of Salaam as more meritorious deeds in 
Islam. In some other Traditions, reproduced earlier, acts like 
Allah-remembrance and Jihad and kindly treatment of and 
obedience to parents, too, have been mentioned as the "best" and 
"most superior" of acts. But as we have repeatedly emphasised, 
there is no inconsistency in them. The variation is due, simply, to 
the divergence in the needs and circumstances of the questioners, 
and, in various ways, all these deeds command an exceptional 
siginficance in the Islamic design of life. 

( 1 492/1 27) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah ^ said that the Messenger 
of Allah Wi said: "You will not enter Paradise till you believe 
and you will not believe till you love one another. Let me guide 
you to something by doing which you will love one another. 
. Salute all and sundry among you." (Muslim) 

Commentary: This hadith says that faith on which admittance to 
Paradise depends is not merely reciting the Kalimah. Rather, it 
encompasses the mutual love of believers which can be increased 
by greeting one another with salam. 

The main result of a deed is felt only when the deed is done 
sincerely. It applies to prayer (sa\ah), fasting, Hajj and zikr too. It is 
again the same with Salam and hand-shaking if a sincere spirit 
prompts it, the results would be obvious. 

Divine Reward 

4*%\ JU jui jM- {out jiii 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 439 

(1493/128) Imran ibn Husain relates that once a person came to 
the Prophet ft and. said: "As-salaam-u-AlaikumV The Prophet 
m returned the greeting, and when the man sat down, he said: 
"Ten, i.e., ten good deeds have been written in his name owing 
to this Salaam." After it, another person came and said: 
"As-salaam-u-Alaikum wa Rahmatullah ] ! :" The Prophet H 
returned the greeting, and when that man sat down, he said: 
Twenty i.e. twenty good deeds have been written in his name." 
Then, another man came and said: "As-salaam-u-Alaikum- 
wa-Ramhatullaah-wa-Barakatuh 2 " . The Prophet & returned 
his greeting, and when this man sat down, said: "Thirty i.e., 
thirty good deeds have been written in his name." 

(Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 
Commentary: In his Infinite Benevolence, the Almighty has 
prescribed for the Believers the reward often good deeds on every 
good deed performed by them. It is stated, also, in the Qur'an: 
( \ n . n P UW) 'Jj, ill 
Whoso bringeth a good deed will recieve tenfold the like 
thereof (AlAn'am 6:161) 

It was for this reason that the Holy Prophet % remarked about 
the person who had said As-salaam-u-Ataikum, alone, that he was 
going to get the reward of ten good deeds, and about the person 
who had added the words, Wa Rahmatullah, to it that he was going 
to get the reward of twenty good deeds, and about the third person 
who had added Wa Barakatuh to the greeting that he was going to 
get the reward of thirty good deeds. He who replied to the greeting 
will be entitled to the reward in the same order. 

Imam Maalik has quoted the reprot from Tufail, son of Ubayy 
ibn Ka'b 4fc>, saying "I used to visit Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar 
^> (often). His habit was that he took me, with him, to the market 
and offered salaam to every shop-keeper, junk dealer, and poor 
person he met in the way (and, then, returned home without buying 
anything). One day, as I went to him, he as usual wanted me to 
accompany him to the market. I said, What will you do there? You 
neither stop at a shop nor buy anything nor even enquire about its 
price nor sit wit h anyone. (What is the use of goi ng to the market)? 

O. Peace be with you, and the mercy of Allah. ' 

© Peace be with you, and the mercy of Allah, and His blessings. 



4 4o Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 

Let us sit here and talk. It will be more profitable to me'. 
Abdullah ibn Umar replied: 'I go to the market solely for the 
prupose of making salutation to whosoever I see'." 

(1494/129) It related by Abu Umama 4*> that the Messenger of 
Allah S said: "He is more deserving of the mercy and 
propinquity of Allah among the people who is the first to offer 
salaam ." (Musnad Ahmad, Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 

(1495/130) Abdullah ibn Mas'ud 4*> related that he heard the 
Prophet m say: "He who is the first greets is free from pride." 
v (Baihaqi) 

Commentary: It shows that to take precedence in making the 
salutation is a sign of freedom from vanity. It can, also, mean that it 
is a cure for pride which is a great sin. 

Salaam on Meeting Anyone 

(1496/131) Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger 
of Allah H said: "A Muslim has six rights over another 
Muslim". He was asked, "What are they, Messenger of Allah?" 
He said, "O When they meet, he should greet him with salaam, 
O when he invites, he should accept the invitation, © when he 
seeks guidance or advice, he must advice him, © when he 
sneezes and says Alhamdulillah, he must say yarhamak Allah 
(May Allarwfeave mercy on you), © when he is ill, he must visit 
him and © when he dies, he must go with the funeral." 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



441 



Commentary: Of the six rights, one is to greet another Muslim 
with f'SLJi on meting. We have seen a similar hadith a few 
pages earlier and have commented on it. The same comments apply 
here. 

$ til Jli jJLj JU ^1 J> iySjk *J\ ( \ 1 <\ V/ \ r Y) 

p jt^'j jl&r cJ^- 6^ (*^-4W *W (i^^ 

(1497/132) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4& that the Messenger 
of Allah mf said: "When anyone of you meets a Muslim brother, 
he should offer salaam, and if, after it, a tree, wall or rock comes 
between them, (and they cannot see each other for some time), 
and, then, they come face to face again, he should offer him 
salaam once more." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It tells that if two Muslims meet and are separated, 
after the salutation, even for a brief moment, and, then, they meet 
again, they should exchange the greeting a second time. One can 
learn from it how important it is to offer salaam in the teachings of 
the Prophet H and the Shari'ah. 

Salaam On Coming Into or Going Out 
of One's Own House or Any other Place 

^ Jii ^Lj 4* J** M Sy*> & ^ o* ( ^ h a/ ^ rr) 

(1498/133) It is related by Sayyidina Anas ^> that the Prophet 
i$| said: "Son, make salutation when you go to your family. It 
will be a source of blessing to you as well as to the members of 
the family." (Tinnizi) 

1 j« y- 'itj 4*' 

(1499/134) It is related, on the authority of Qatadah 



442 Meaning and Message of (he Traditions Pari VI 

(Tabaee 1 - by way of a Mursal 2 ), that the Messenger of Allah % 
said: "When you go to anyone's house, make the salutation to 
the inmates, and when you leave, leave by making the salutation 
of farewell." (Baihaqi) 

(1500/135) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4e> that the Prophet 
said: When anyone of you arrives at a gathering (or 
assembly), he should, (first of all), greet those who are present, 
and, then, sit down if he wants. Afterwards, he should salute, 
again, on leaving, and the first salutation is not superior to the 
second salutation i.e., the salutation of farewell is of the same 
value or grade as the salutation of arrival, and not inferior to it 
in any way." (Tirmizi) 

Some Other Rules And Regulations 

(1501/136) Abu Hurayrah 4& related that the Messenger of 
Allah 0 said: "The younger person should salute the elder 
person; he who is passing on (the road) should salute those who 
are sitting; and (men of) smaller group should salute (men of) 
the larger group." (Bukhari) 
(In another narrative of Abu Hurayrah 4^>, it is said "The 
traveller on horseback (or another carriage) should salute him 
who is going on foot." 

Commentary: It tells that when two persons meet, the one who i s 
O. The term is applied pre-eminently to Muslim doctors who followed the 

immediate Ashab or Companions of the Holy Prophet @, and whose reports 

and narratives regarding the Prophet form a part of the Sunnah. 
©. Sometimes a Taba'ee relates a Tradition, but does not mention the name of 

the Sahabi, i.e., the Holy Companion through whom it had reached him. Such 

a Tradition is called Mursal in the special usage of Islam. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



443 



younger in age should take the lead in making the salutation. In the 
same way, if a person who is going somewhere happens to pass by 
someone who is sitting, he should salute him first, and when two 
groups of men come across each other, men of the smaller group 
should be the first to greet men of the larger group, and in case a 
person is riding, he should, first, wish the person who is going on 
foot. The wisdom of the last instruction is self-evident. The man 
who is travelling on horseback or in a car etc., apparently, enjoys 
superiority over him who is walking on foot, and, therefore, he 
should show humility by wishing the pedestrain first. 

(3502/13 (2 Sayyidina Ali ibn Abi Talib ^ related to us that the 

Prophet m said: "If anyone belonging to a group that is passing 
by salutes, it will suffice for the whole group, and if anyone 
belonging to the group that is sitting acknowledges, it will 
suffice for the whole group". (Baihaqi) 

When Not To Salute? 

6*1^1 ijj, fr% JU i> 4J* S>; ^ & >j 

(1503/138) Abdullah ibn Umar narrated (once) a person 
made the salutation to the Prophet 0 when he had sat down to 
urinate, and he did not reply. (Tirmizi) 
Commnetary: It shows that salutation should not be made in a 
situation like the above, and if a person did so, out of ignorance, it 
should not be acknowledged. 

(1504/139) Miqdad ibn al-Aswad 4i&> related in the course of a 
long narrative, that when the Messenger of Allah 0 came to 



444 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



Ahl-us-Suffa x in the night, he used to wish them in such a low 
voice that those who were asleep did not wake up, and those 
who were awake heard the salutation. (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: It shows that a person who makes the salutation 
should take care not to disturb anyone in his sleep or cause 
discomfort to anybody in another way. 

Shaking Hands 

Besides salaam, to shake hands, also, is a form of giving 
expression to sentiments of joy, affection and esteem upon meeting 
a person. Generally, it is done simultaneously with salutation or 
immediately after it, and, so to speak, marks the fulfilment of the 
aim and object of salaam, as some Traditions clearly tell. 

(1505/140) It is related by Abdullah ibn Mas'ud that the 
Prophet m said: "Shaking hands denotes the completion of 
salutation." (Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 



Propitiousness And Reward 

\i\ ji-j 4*%\ JU y i Jla JU ^> & cf ( \ ° • V \ i \ ) 

(1506/141) It is related by Bara' ibn 'Aazib 4& that the Prophet 
iH said: "When two Muslims meet, and shake hands with each 
other, and, (along with it), glorify the Lord, and beg forgiveness 
for themselves, they will, after all, be forgiven." (Abu Dawood) 

Jll 4*%\ jl>> d\ ^Ut>Ji ^ ( \ » • V/ \ i Y) 

(1507/142) Ata Khorasani (a Taba'ee) related to us, saying that 
O. There was a raised flooring in a corner of the Prophet's mosque in Madinah 
on which a group of Muslims used to live for religious reasons. They led a life 
of austerity and devoted themselves wholly to the learning of Faith and 
worship, and were known as Ahl-us-Sujfa or Ashaab-usSujfa (People of the 
terrace or platform). 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 445 

Messenger of Allah H said: "Shake hands with one another; it 
removes ill-will; and give presents to one another: it will 
promote love and affection among you and enmity will 
disappear from the hearts." (Muwatta) 

Commentary: It should, however, be noted that the efficacy and 
propitiousness of an act is bound by the condition that it is 
performed with warmth and sincerity and not as a mere formality. 
A lifeless seed does not germinate. 

Embracing, Kissing And Standing 

Embracing and kissing are the ultimate forms of the 
manifestation of love and attachment, but these acts are permissible 
only when they are not opposed to the letter and spirit of the 
Shari'ah, and there is no danger of their leading to harmful 
consequences. 

It is quoted in Tirmizi, on the authority of Sayyidina Anas ^Sfe, 
that once a person enquired from the Holy Prophet ill: "Is it 
permitted that upon meeting a brother or dear friend we clasped 
him in the arms or kissed him?" "No", the Prophet 0 replied. The 
quenstioner, then, asked: "Is it allowed to shake hands with him?" 
"Yes! It is allowed," said the Prophet S. 

The authorities have explained the forbidding of embracing and 
kissing in this Tradition by saying that it appertains to situations in 
which such an act can be the cause of an evil or mischief, 
otherwise several incidents of embracing and kissing by the sacred 
Prophet 0 himself are reported in the authentic collections of the 
Traditions, as the following narratives will show. 

U JlS a^ijlaJ li) jii^jUu j £6 %\ JL> -till J_^3 J*j^ 

d% & # f >: iiS Jr *u8 ij ii i$ 

. S jfij yyri 3h CJ\& 'J* $6 fj* J* ji j dt'jfS 

(1508/143) Ayub ibn Bushair related on the authority of a 
member of the tribe of Banu Anzah, that he asked Abu Zarr 
Ghifari whether the Messenger of Allah Hi shook hands 



446 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Pari VI 



with people upon meeting them. Abu Zarr replied "Whenever I 
went to him or met him, he always shook hands with me. Once, 
(it so happened), that he sent for me, but 1 was not at home at 
that time. When, on returning, I was told that he wanted to see 
me, I went to him. At that time, he was sitting on his Sareer 1 . 
He got up and embraced me, and threw his arms around my 
neck, and this embrace was very, very good, i.e., most blessed 
and pleasing." (Abu Dawood) 

^ # ^ J&faj JU ^Jl # lf&&cf ( \ o-VUO 

(1509/144) It is related by Imam Sha'abi, by way of a Mursal, 
that when the Prophet iH received J afar ibn Abi Talib, (on 
his return from Abyssinia), he embraced him and kissed him 
between the eyes i.e., on the forehead. (Abu Dawood and Baihaqi) 

Ciij fcLiJ- Alii jiS^ ijl^i cJfjU cJtS ( > o \ ,/\ i o) 
\$\ f IS aIU eJUi lit CJlS" lit li ^Lt) 4lip 'ibi JL> *»! J ji^j 
aIJi cJl5 Jj#-5 tit atfj <i? U^JU-'j \A>Li 

(1510/145) Sayyidah Ayshah i^-ii^j related "I have not seen 
anyone more similar to the Messenger of Allah ® in shape and 
appearance of face, and in habits disposition, and manner of 
walking then (his daughter) Fatimah Zuhra i^-it^j. (She 
resembled him most in all these things). When she came, the 
Prophet would get up, (out of love and joy), and advance 
towards her, and take her hands in his hands, and make her sit at 
his place. In the same way, when he went to her house, she, too, 
used to stand up, take his hands in her hands, and kiss them, and 
make him sit at her place." • (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: The above reports distinctly show that embracing 
and kissing the hand or forehead etc., are permitted in the Shari'ah 
and establsihed by the practice of the Holy Prophet himself. 
The narrative of Sayyidina Anas ^ in which embracing and 
kissing are forbidden, will, thus, be deemed to be applicable to 
O. Meaning a cot or low seat made of the branches of the date-palm. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



447 



circumstances in which these are likely to lead to a sin or possess 
even a semblance of it. 

Moreover, in Sayyidah Ayshah's if* J»\ ^ narrative, it is stated 
that the Holy Prophet % used to stand up at the coming of 
Sayyidah Fatimah if* k\ and she used to do the same at the 
coming of the sacred Prophet 0 which shows that to stand up, out 
of love, joy, esteem or good-mannerliness, for a relative, a friend, 
an elder or any other dearly loved or venerable person, too, is 
correct and in keeping with what is lawful in the Shari'ah. But from 
the other Traditions, some of which we shall take up later, it 
appears that the Holy Prophet % did not like the Companions to 
stand up at his coming and expressed his displeasure at it. It was, 
probably, due to his natural humility and freedom from pride. 

Taking Permission Before Entering A House 

The Holy Prophet m further, has taught that when a person 
wants to meet anyone or go into his house or join his comapny, he 
should, first, take the permission and never go in without it, for 
who can tell what he is doing at that time and whether he is in a 
position to have a visitor or not. 

Ji'-krj *^ *?» J> tijte 5' cH l & 0 • U/Ul) 

J*l 0% J± $j p> &%\ J± £s J\ ^ 

(151 1/146) It is related by Kaldah ibn Hanbal that once his 
step-brother 1 , Sufwan ibn Umaiyya, sent him to the Messenger 
of Allah ^ with some milk, a young deer and a few cucumbers. 
It was at a time when the Prophet Hi lived in the upper part of 
the valley of Makkah. Kaldah narrates "I went, with these 
articles, where the Prophet 0 was, without making the 
salutation, or obtaining the permission. The Prophet 
thereupon, told me to go back, and ask for permission by 
saying: "As-salaam-u-alaikum\ May 1 come in?" 

(Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Sufwan ibn Umaiyy a was the son of Umaiyya ibn 

O. His mother's side. 



448 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



Khalf, a well-known enemy of Islam and the Holy Prophet. He had 
embraced Islam after the Victory of Makkah, and the incident 
mentioned above, probably, had taken place during the journey to 
it. The Holy Prophet H was, then, staying at the elevated part of 
the Valley of Makkah, called Mu'alla. 

Kaldah ibn Hanbal did not know that if he wanted to visit 
anyone he should make the salutation and obtain permission before 
entering the house. He, therefore, went straight to the sacred 
Prophet % without observing the proprieties. The Prophet iH, 
thereupon, told him to go out and take the permission by saying: 
"As-salaam-u-alaikum\ May I come in?" He, thus, not only told 
him what was the right thing to do on such an occasion, but, also, 
made him act on it. A lesson imparted in that way, obviously, is 
more effective. 

J & & J*> Jlii fa 

& » ti&i fa fei 
uijj -,1 <L*x '\#* jiLi fa jfe'fa JU> jia 

(1189/147) It is narrated, on the authority of Ata ibn Yasaar, 
that once a person asked the Messenger of Allah "Should I, 
first, take the permission even when going to my mother?" 
"Yes; you should", the Prophet 0 replied. Ata ibn Yasaar, then 
asked: "I live in the same house with my mother. Is it necessary 
for me, even then, to take her permission before entering?" 
"Yes", the Prophet % said. "First take the permission". The 
man said again: "I am her sole attendent, (and do all the things 
for her. I have, therefore, to go to her frequently)." "(In any case, 

Ein only after obtaining the permission", replied the Prophet 
. [He added]: "Would you like to see her naked?" "Never", 
the man replied. "Then go in after taking the permission", the 
Prophet 0 observed. " (Muwatta Malik) 

Commentary: It shows that even if a person went into his 
mother's apartment, he should, first, obtain the permission for it 
was quite possible that she had taken off her clothes, for some 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 449 
reason, at the time he went in. 

(1513/148) ft is related by Jabir 4& that the Prophet S said: 
"Do not give permission to one who does not convey the salaam 
before asking permission." (Baihaqi) 

Commentary: The Islamic method of seeking permission is to say 
"pSLl* f%J'", May I come in?' (etc.). If anyone forgets it, he must be 
reminded of the Islamic fraternal greeting. 

$ J* J*"3 Jtf^>^^*jj*(^<>u/uO 

(1514/149) Rabee' ibn Hiraash (Tabaee) relates that once a 
person asked the Prophet for permission to come in. He said: 
"May 1 come in?" The Prophet, thereupon, told his attendant to 
go and tell him that the correct way to taking the permission 
was to say: " As-salaam-u-alaikum\ May I come in?" The man 
heard the Prophet (Before the attendant could reach him, and 
corrected himself), by saying: "As-salaam-u-alaikum\ May I 
come in?" The Prophet 0 gave the permission, and he came in. 

(Abu Dawood) 

(£•3 J>-J "j'j J 1 * J*- J>. Cf 0 0 ^ °H o • ) 

oiG v» ciii 'te \ij *J\ \V) '> 1^-33 ^ faCitf jia uJjIi ^ 
juft f^CJt £fc js£ # Jlii ? ^3 ^U^i JU > J)ijJ 
jii pi t!^- 63 1L- S3* ">i i^-33 ^3 d*'in JU 

jus JUL, £.3 jtf w ii i^.33 puS\ " fa JU 

jJi JUL* 4^3 fa dp 'in JU ^ 1 & ^3^14 ^"jCji 



450 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



^3 <l i? J^aAli O 1 ^^ if-jlsfli ajUJL* 4J jU jJj 

vui ^ 'jjl. ji J* ^£^.33 ji^i j^iii" j)L; >j 

AS ^ JUL. ^r^ty'iSty iXii ^ ^3 <a*'i>i JU 

^3 4*%\ JU> 4^1 JUL ^ jiil ii^i ttj 

(1515/150) It is related by Qays ibn Sa'd 4e> (one day), the 
Messenger of Allah £H came to our hosue, and, (according to 
the recognised custom, said from the other side of the door: 
'As-salaam-u~alaikum wa rahmatullaahl" (Instead of replying to 
the greeting with a loud voice and begging the Prophet to 
come in), my father, (Sa'd ibn Ibadah), acknowledged the 
salutation in a very soft voice (which the Prophet could not 
hear). I enquired (from my father); 'Why do you not ask the 
Prophet II to come in?' 'Keep quiet', replied my father. 'Let it be 
like that so that he sends the Salaam to us again and again (and 
we get its blessedness)'. The Prophet 0 said again: 
'As-salaam-u-alaikum wa rahmatullaahV (When he, again did 
not hear a reply from my father, the Holy Prophet ill said, 
'As-salaam-n-alaikum wa rahtnatullaah' for the third time, and 
on still receiving no reply from my father, turned back. My 
father, thereupon, came out and catching up with the Prophet 
said to him: 'Messenger of Allah Hi I was hearing your 
greeting, and, deliberately, replying to it with a low voice in 
order that you may send the Salaam to us over and over again, 
(and we get its blessings)'. The Prophet then, returned with 
my father, and my father told the inmates of the house to get 
things ready for the Prophet's bath. The Holy Prophet then, 
took the bath, and my father gave him a sheet dyed in saffron or 
vars 1 , which he tied around his wasit, and, then, raised his 
hands, made the supplication: "Alia hummaj'al salawatika wa 
rahmatika'ala a'al~i-Sa'd. (Oh Allah! Bestow Thy choicest 
favours and blessings upon the family of Sa'd).' The Holy 
Prophet iS\ after it, ate something, and when he decided to go, 
my father offered him his donkey for riding, on the waist of 
An odorous substance. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



451 



which was placed a cushion made by folding a broad piece of 
cloth, and told me to accompany him (as an escort). So, I went 
along with the Prophet 0. The Prophet & told me to sit on the 
donkey with him. but I, respectfully, declined, upon which he 
said: 'Either sit with me or go back. (It is intolerable that you 
walk on foot while I ride)." The narrator. Qays ibn Sa'd. adds 
that, thereupon, he returned home. (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It shows that when a person goes to see anyone, he 
should, first, seek his permission to come in by saying, 
As-salaam-u-alaikum, and in case he recieves no reply, he should 
do so thrice, and if, still, there is no reply, he should return. 

The way Sa'd ibn Ibadah behaved for the sake of being the 
recipient of the sacred Prophet's salaam and its blessings over and 
over again, and owing to which the Prophet S had to make the 
salutation thrice, and, then, decide to return, apparently, was 
improper, but since the intention behind it was good and noble, and 
Sa'd had been encouraged to act like that because he knew that the 
Prophet A would not be angry, there was no harm in it. It, also, 
turned out that way, and the Prophet SH, instead of showing 
displeasure, appreciated the sentiment of Sa'd ibn Ibadah, as is 
evident from the supplication he made for him and his family. 

It furhter tells that, after the bath, the Holy Prophet 0 wore a 
broad piece of cloth dyed in saffron or vars (which, too, like 
saffron, is a coloured and odorous substance obtained from a kind 
of corcus), though, in some Traditions it is strictly forbidden to 
men to wear such clothes. We can either conclude that the 
afore-mentioned event had taken place before the revelation of the 
commandment prohibiting the use of clothes dyed in saffron etc., 
by men or that the sheet had been dyed earlier and washed 
throughly later on in which case its use was permissible to men as 
well. 

OfferingofASeatToVisitorsNexttoOneself 

4*% Ai xrf j ft fa 3 

4± % J+$\jmix atfdi j is u: fcty fa } 



452 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



(jU 4 , Sllv* A u i tf 5 <« JU, JJ) 

(1516/151) Wasila ibn al-Khattab 4&> narrated that (once) the 
Messenger of Allah iH was sitting in the mosque that a person 
came. The Prophet 0 moved from his place (to make room for 
him), upon which he said: "Be seated, Messenger of Allah 0 
There is enough space for me." The Prophet m replied: "It is 
the claim of a Muslim that when a brother saw him (coming), he 
should move a little from his place (and make him sit next to 
himself)." (Bayhaqi) 
Commentary: It denotes that due honour should be shown to a 
visitor even if the host is a man of the highest position. It contains 
a lesson, particularly, for the Holy men who bear a relationship of 
propinquity or succession to the Holy Prophet 

No One Should be Told To 
Vacate His Seat For Oneself 

(1517/152) It is related by Abdullah ibn Umar that the 
Prophet m said: "No one should tell anyone to get up (for 
himself) and take his seat. On the contrary, people should make 
room for those who come (and offer them their seats)" 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: While it is forbidden to occupy anyone's seat by 
telling him to vacate it, if a person voluntarily gets up and offers his 
seat to anyone, he will be deserving of the Divine reward in 
accordance with the intention. 

(fju- »>jj) j^' 3# 4\ & fi & 

(1518/153) It is related by Abu Hurayrah <$b that the Prophet 
H said: "Whoever leaves his seat (for some reason), and, then, 
comes back has a greater claim to it." (Muslim) 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



453 



No One Should sit Between Two 
Persons Without Their Permission 

(jjbjjiotjj) .U^ib^l^l^J4 i ^J^ 1^3**^ 4111 

(1519/154) Amr ibn Shu'ayb related to us, on the authority of 
his father, Shu'ayb, who had heard it from his grandfather, 
Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas, that the Messenger of Allah HI 
said: "Do not sit between two persons without their 
permission." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: The same Tradition has been quoted, again, in 
Sunan Abi Dawood, and in Jam'a Tirmizi, on the authority of 
Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas, with a slight variation of 
words. It says: "It is not allowed for anyone to sit between two 
persons sitting side by side, without their permission, and (thus), to 
separate them from each other." 

Whoever Likes People to Stand Up For 
Him, Out of Respect, is Doomed to Hell 

(1520/155) Mu'awiya ibn Abu Sufyan related that the 
Prophet said: "Whoever feels happy at people standing up, 
out of respect to him, should better make his abode in Hell." 

(Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The above warning, evidently, is with regard to the 
person who wishes people to stand up in his honour and feels 
happy on it. It is a sign of vanity and the ultimate destination of the 
vain, the proud, and the haughty is Hell. But it is a different matter 
if people stood up out of love and respect for anyone whithout his 
wanting it, though the Holy Prophet H did not even like it for 
himself. 

The Messenger of Allah $1 Did Not 
Like People To Stand Up In His Honour 



454 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



L}.ft«; ^euu V* UjT \j*J& V Jlii *J llii3 ^ l^si 

(1521/156) It is related by Abu Umama Bahli 4^0 that (once) we 
stood up as the Messenger of Allah Wt came using a staff as a 
support. "Do not stand up as the Persians do for each other', the 
Prophet observed. (Abu Dawood) 

ill J^j 'ja L$\ L±\ JfJJ> 'J*i 'J Jll tf> ( \ 0 Y x/ \ o v) 

(1522/157) Sayyidina Anas *£jk> narrated that no one was more 
dearly loved by the Companions than the Prophet ǤS\ and, yet 
their practice was that they did not stand up on seeing him for 
they knew that he did not like it. (Tinnizi) 



Everyone Ought To Rise When The 
Head of The Assembly Rises To Leave 

jpm J>iAs t\ y C»tI5 ilia ^ll Lil^J jjnt-LJl [ji (ju> J*is^j 

(1200/158) Narrated Abu Hurayrah ^> that the Messenger of 
Allah ill used to sit with us in the Mosque, and he would talk to 
us. Then, we all used to stand up when he rose (to leave for 
him), and remain standing until we had seen him entering an 
apartment among the apartments of his wives." (Baihaqi) 

Commentry: That the Holy Prophet iH did not stop the 
Companions from standing up as he rose to leave for home shows 
that he did not consider it improper though, as stated ealier, he did 
not like anyone to stand up when he came. In our view, the 
difference between the two positions is that while to stand up on 
the Prophet's arrival was solely out of respect which was 
displeasing to him, to do so when the Prophet W> rose to leave was 
for the reason that the assembly had ended, and those who were 
present, too, had to go home, and, hence he did not object to it. 



TEACHINGSOFTHEPROPHETCONCERNING 
LYING, SITTING, SLEEPING, AND HIS OWN 

PRACTICE 



The Holy Prophet m has furnished guidance to his followers 
about lying, sitting and sleeping as well. Below we shall discuss 
some of the relevant Traditions which, also, give an idea of the 
amazing comprehensiveness of his teachings. 

Forbidding Sleeping On A Flat Roof 

(1524/159) It is related by Sayyidina Jabir 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah H forbade sleeping on a roof which was 
not surrounded by a low wall or parapet." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The sacred Prophet S told people not to sleep on a 
roof that was without a caping or surrounding wall because there 
was the danger of falling from it in one's sleep or owing to 
darkness. 

(1525/160) Sayyidina Ali ibn Shayban 4&> said that the 
Messenger of Allah A said: "If anyone spends the night on the 
roof of a house with no protection or a stone palisade, the 
responsibility to guard him no longer applies. (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: This is an eloquent method to disallow something. 
There are unseen ways of Allah's protection for mankind. The 



456 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



Qur'an says: 

If anyone disregards personal protection then he loses the 
opportunity of divine protection. 

Forbidding Sleeping With The Thigh 
of One Leg In An Upright Position 
And The Other Leg Resing On It 

^5 o ' (J^3 ^ ^ 0 j ^ J ^ ^ «^ ^ ° v 11 ' ^ ^) 

(f JL- * jj) - *^ > ^ >J > &j ^ J*> 

(1526/161) It is related by Sayyidina Jabir 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah ^ forbade that a man should raise one of 
his legs over the other when he lies down on his back. (Muslim) 

Commentary: In the Holy Prophet's time, it was common among 
the Arabs to wear a sheet round the waist, and when a person 
wearing it will lie on his back with the thigh of one leg held in a 
vertical position and the other leg resting on it, his private parts 
may, sometimes, be laid open. The Prophet S forbade it, probably, 
for the same reason, but if a man is putting on trousers or any other 
garment which carries no such risk, the commandment will not 
apply. 

Forbidding Lying On Stomach 

(1527/162) It is narrated by Abu Hurayrah 4&> that on seeing a 
man lying on his stomach, the Prophet S- remarked that such a 
manner of lying was displeasing to the Lord. (Tirmizi) 

Wj jfcj 4*'b\ JU> $ ^iy Jtf y i» & (\°u/nr) 

(1528/163) It is narrated by Abu Zarr 4& that the Prophet S 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



457 



passed by while he was lying on his stomach. He jerked him 
with his foot and said, "Jundub, only those who go to Hell lie 
like this." (IbnMajah) 

Commentary: This is an effective way to show how detestable 
something is. Jundub was the real name of Abu Zarr. 

How Did The Prophet Lie? 

t^jj s—^ ^r^' {f&-*>\ Jsi» 

(1529/164) It is related by Abu Qatadah 4§& that he practice of 
the Prophet HI was that when he made a night-halt during a 
journey, he used to lie on the right side, and when he made the 
halt a little before the morning, he would raise his arm on the 
elbow, and place the head on its palm, and, (thus), have some 
rest. (Sharh-a-Sunna-Baghawi) 

Commentary: The Arabs, generally, travelled in the night to avoid 
the scorching heat of the desert. So, if they started early in the 
evening, they used to make a halt when enough of the night was 
left so that they could snatch a few hours sleep, and when the start 
was delayed, they halted towards the morning. 

The above Tradition tells that when the Holy Prophet made 
a halt at a time that a sufficient part of the night remained, he 
would take rest in sleep by lying on the right side, as was his usual 
practice, while when he made the halt in the early hours of the 
morning, he would lie with his head resting on the palm of his 
hand raised on the elbow, and, thus, wait, as it were, for the Fajr 
service. 1 

From Traditions like it, one can imagine what excepetional care 
the Companions took to preserve the account of the Prophet's ^1 
life, to the minutest detail, such as, his customary way of lying and 
sleeping. 

^ ^ Jtii&iJ- ^ (\oy .l\^o) 



O. Early morning prayer. 



458 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



(tSjWJloljj) 

(1530/165) It is related by Huzaifah 4|e> that when the Prophet 
£H went to bed in the night, he would place his hand under his 
cheek and make the (following) supplication: 

Oh Allah! In Thy name do we live and die. 
And, when he got up, he would say: 

Praise be to Allah who restored us unto life, having caused to 
die, (in a way), and unto Him shall be the Resurrection. (Bukhari) 

Commentary: In some other narratives, it is also stated that the 
Holy Prophet i$| used to lie on the right side, with the right hand 
placed under the cheek, and advised others to do the same. 

Apart from the above supplication, many other supplications 
too, are found in the Traditions for the two occasions of retiring to 
bed in the night and rising up in the morning. We shall, Insha 
Allah, be taking them up in the next volume. 

Miswak On Waking Up 

— - s- * s s s \ } % 

(^LsxJi j A*j»-t o\ jj) . <»_5lj-lJb \X» ka'.:.'J I its Jut <^£\jZJ\j 

(1531/166) It is related by Abdullah ibn U mar ^ that it was the 
custom of the Prophet sjfe to place a Miswak 1 at the head of his 
bed as he retired for the night, and the first thing he did on 
waking up was to use it. (Mustadrak Haakim) 

■y> frjCih^ <d*'fa JU ^Ji o' 'J- ( \ orr/^iv) 

(1532/167) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah u^ii^j that the 

O. A twig or tender shoot of the branch of a tree which was, generally, used by 
the Arabs for brushing the teeth during the olden days. Many Muslims do so 
even today. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 459 

Prophet 0 always use to Miswak on waking up from sleep, 
whether during the night or the day. (Abu Dawood) 

Manner of Sitting 

(^uji 01 jj) 11^; ^ 

(1533/168) Abdullah ibn Umar 4&> related to us, "I have seen 
the Messenger of Allah S sitting in the court-yard of the House 
of Allah (in Makkah) in the position." (Bukhari) 
Commentary: To sit down upon the rump and the soles of both 
the feet, with the thighs standing upright and the arms thrown 
round them, is called Ihtiba. It denotes a mood of thoughtfulness 
and humility. It appears from the Traditions that the Holy Prophet 
A, generally, used to sit like that. 

(1534/169) It is related by Jabir ibn Samurah 4& that the usual 
practice of the Prophet || was that he remained sitting at the 
same place, after the Fajr prayer, in the squatting position, until 
the sun had fully risen, i.e., hhraq. (Abu Dawood) 

This is another method in which the Prophet % sat from after 
Fajr to Ishraq in squatting position (turning one leg into another 
and sitting on the hips). 

Those Who Come To a Meeting Or 
Assembly Should Sit At The Edge 

(ijto *i .ijj) ^ uJU-i JJ£ ,JL.j 

(1535/170) It is related by Jabir ibn Samurah <^e> "Our habit, 
(the habit of the Companions), was that when anyone of us 
came to the assembly of the Prophet ft, he sat at the edge 
(instead of making his way through the men who were already 
sitting." (Abu Dawood) 



460 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



Commentary: It is an accepted principle of the essentials of the 
Traditions that when a Companion relates that, at the time of the 
sacred Propeht, his Companions used to do such-and-such a thing, 
it shows that it was in accordance with the wish and desire of the 
Prophet 0, and a direct result of his teachings. The above 
Tradition would, thus, denote that the Holy Prophet S had taught 
it to the Companions that if an assembly was in progress and 
someone came late, he should sit in the last row where the space 
was available. The head of the assembly could, of course, tell him 
to come nearer if he liked. 

Wrong To Sit In The Middle 
of A Group Of Persons 

(1534/171) Sayyidina Huzayfah has said that a person who 
comes and sits in the middle of the circle of some persons is 
cursed by the Prophet 0. (Tirmizi, Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Scholars have forwarded many explanations of this 

hadith. 

(i) A proud person or an ill-mannered one interrupts the slaves 
of Allah who sit in a circle jumping over them to sit in the 
middle. 

(ii) The people in the circle sit facing each other but the intruder 
obstructs them when he sits in between. 

(iii) It refers to the comedians who sit in the centre to disturb the 
group by cracking jokes. Allah knows best. 

Forbidding People From 
Sitting in Separate Groups 

(1537/172) It is related by Jabir ibn Samurah that once as 
the Propeht 0 came, the Companions were sitting divided (in 
groups). Upon it, he exclaimed: "Why is it that I see you sitting 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



461 



separately (in groups)? 



(Abu Dawood) 



Commentary: One of the ways of expressing displeasure at 
anything is to say: "What am I seeing?" Meaning it should not be 
like that. The Holy Prophet 0 was surprised to see the 
Companions sitting in separate groups, and he admonished them 
and told them to sit together and not in twos or threes. In some 
other Traditions, it is told that apparent separation or disunity 
produced an identical effect on the hearts while sitting together 
promoted fellow-feeling and sense of solidarity. 



(1 538/1 73) It is related by Abu Hurayrah «&> that the Messenger 
of Allah W> said: "When anyone of you is sitting at a place 
sheltered from the light of the sun and the shadow recedes and a 
part of his body is exposed to the sun and the other remains in 
the shade, he should move away from there." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Medical experts are of the view that to sit or lie in 
the position that some part of the body is in the sun and the other in 
the shade is injurious to health. The Prophet 0 has forbidden it, 
perhaps, for the same reason. 



One Should Not Sit In Such A Way 
That A Part of His Body Was in The 
Sun, And The Other in The Shade 




GUIDANCE REGARDING TALKING, 
LAUGHING, SNEEZING AND 
YAWNING IN COMPANY 

The Holy Prophet J$| s also, has given precise instructions 
concerning things one should be careful about in conversation and 
while cutting a joke or when sneezing or yawning. The substance 
of these teachings is that a person conducted himself at such a time 
and during these natural acts with grace and dignity, and, at the 
same time, made them an occasion for remembering Allah, and 
paying attention to His Comandments. 

We have seen, already, in this very volume, a number of the 
Traditions regarding speech which included truthfulness and 
falsehood, gentleness of the tongue and rudeness, and tale-bearing, 
back-biting, fault-finding and slander and idle chatter and aimless 
conversation. We, now, proceed to take up reports dealing with the 
remaining subjects of the same division. 

Speech Should Not be Prolonged Unnecessarily 

jjft 'jib ftsj U>; jb & uii 3 ju p Oon/wt) 
4*%\ JUAi Jpj tft> 4iji ^ JUJ )j j^jiil 
j»>d' SiJ J jilt J }j*3 -Ji 6>i Jilji dJijAiJ J>; j 

(1539/174) Amr ibn al-Aas 4^ narrated that, one day, as a 
person stood up, and spoke (by way of a sermon) and prolonged 
it much, so he said: "It would have been better if he had made it 
short." Amr ibn al-Aas 4*> went on to say "I heard the Prophet 
0 say: 'I think it fitting (or have been commanded by Allah) to 
be concise in speech for it is better to be brief and to the point." 

(Abu Dawood) 



464 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part P / 



Commentary: It is common experience that listeners set bored it' 
the speech is lengthy. 

Speech Can Be A Cause of Felicity 
And Happiness As Well As of Misery 

14 d& \&> <&i. j£\ & u£h< fig 3*> S» 

(1540/175) Bilal ibn Harith narrated that the Messenger of 
Allah W* said: "Sometimes, a person lets fall a good and 
virtuous thing from rus lips whose true worth is not known even 
to him, but upon that very speech the Lord decides to favour the 
bondsman with presence before Himself. On the other hand, 
sometimes, a person lets fall a bad and vicious thing from his 
lips, the full range of the wickendness of which is not known 
even to him, but upon that very speech the Lord decides to send 
down His wrath upon him until the Day of Last Judgement." 

(Baghawi) 

(A similar narrative has been quoted by Imam Malik in 
Muwatta, Imam Tirmizi in Jama'i, and lbn Majah in his Sunnan) 

Commentary: The purport of the above Tradition is that a person 
should not forget Allah and sequel of the Hereafter while speaking. 
The words he utters can make him worthy of the good pleausre of 
the Lord, and, also, deprive him of His beneficence and take him to 
Hell! 

Care Should be Taken Even 
While Praising Anyone 

To praise anyone, in fact, is to testify and bear witness in his 
favour which, evidently, is a matter of great responsibility. Besides, 
it might make the person who is praised conceited and egotistical, 
and encourage him to think too highly of himself. 

It, also, essential to bear in mind the difference between 
genuine praise and flattery. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 465 



^U^jiil* j£5 Jip jj^-j Jji jis 5^ 'j, ( \ e n/^ vi) 
^ >; v'j 33tlr *A ^ 6ir & wS C-J-i jiii ft*; 

(1541/176) Narrated Abu Bakrah 4#e> that once a person praised 
someone in the presence of the Prophet (and did not exercise 
enough care or restraint in it), upon which he remarked: "You 
have cut off the neck of your brother, i.e., done something that 
may be his ruin, by praising him like that". The Prophet said 
it thrice, (and observed): "Should anyone of you find it 
necessary to praise (a brother), and regard him worthy of it, he 
ought to say: 'I think so of such-and-such a brother (and this is 
my opinion of him), and the reckoning is with Allah. (He is 
aware of all things)'. He should refrain from issuing a command 
to Allah concerning the piety and purity of anyone. (He must 
not, for instance, say about anyone that he is, definitely. Holy 
and virtuous in the sight of Allah for it would amount to issuing 
an order to Allah which is most unworthy of a bondsman)." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 



4* JU Ai J>i3 Jil JlS J> aOlJi j& (\oi \7 wv) 

(1542/177) It is related by Miqdad ibn al-Aswad 4& that the 
Prophet said: "When you see the 'praisers' i.e., those who are 
too lavish in praise, throw dust at their faces." (Muslim) 

Commentary: In it, 'Praisers' has, probably been, used for 
flatterers, sycophants and adulators who shower praises for 
personal gain or any other unworthy purpose. It is for such people 
that the Holy Prophet H§l has said that when we see anyone being 
extravagant in praise and portraying a person too favoruably we 
should throw dust at his face. 

Commentators have offered various explanations of it. Some 
believe that dust should, actually, be thrown at the faces of 
'praisers' as an expression of dislike while others hold that they 
should not be patronised or treated condescendingly, and to throw 
dust has been used here as an idiom denoting 'discouragement' or 



466 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



'turning away'. Yet others like that such 'praisers' ought to be told 
that dust may be in their mouths which is the same as throwing 
dust at their faces. 

The narrator, Miqdad ibn Aswad tells that once, in his 
presence, a person praised Sayyidina Uthman ^ before him upon 
which he acting upon the above Tradition, picked up dust from the 
ground and threw it at his face. Similar incidents are related 
concerning latter-day religious and spiritual leaders as well. 

It needs, however, be remembered that if with a good intention 
or out of a religious consideration, a genuine compliment is paid to 
anyone, at his face or behind his back, and there is, also, no 
likelihood of his beginning to overrate himself, it is not forbidden. 
On the contrary, the giver of such a praise will, Insha Allah, be 
deserving of Divine reward, in accordance with the soundness of 
his intention. There are instances of the Holy Prophet jS 
commending the merits of the Companions and the Companions 
commending the merits of other' Companions. These instances fall 
within the same category of praise. 

Poetry 

Poetry was very popular among the Arabs during the days of 
the Holy Prophet ll, but the Prophet S, himself, had no taste for 
it. It, in fact, appears from the Qur'an that Allah had purposely kept 
him away from it. 

And We have not taught him (Muhammad) poetry. Nor is it 
meant for him. (Ya'sin 36:69) 

Moreover, the kind of poetry that was in vogure, in Arabia, at 
that time, and the moral character of the poets have been 
condemned by the Qur'an in these words: 

As for poets, the erring follow them. Hadst thou not seen how 
they stray in every valley, and how they say that which they do 
not know? (Al Shu'ara 26: 224-26) 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



467 



Once some Companions enquired from the sacred Prophet 
about poetry if it was totally bad and forbidden. "No", replied the 
Prophet. "If the subject-matter of a verse is good, it is good, and if 
the subject-matter of a verse is bad, it is bad." On some other 
occasions, he is, also, reported to have remarked that "Some verse 
are full of wisdom." 



(1543/178) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah that once 

as poetry was mentioned in the presence of the Messenger of 
Allah observed: "Poetry, too, is a form of speech. What is 
good, in it, is good, and what is bad, is bad." (DarQutni) 
(The same Tradition has been quoted by Imam Sha'fee on the 
authority of Sayyidah Aysha's nephew her sister's son, Sayyidina 
Urwah, by way of a Mursal). 

(1544/179) It is related by Ubayy ibn Ka'b 4k that the 
Messenger of Allah % said: "Some verses are pure wisdom 
(from the point of view of theme)." (Bukhari) 

(1545/180) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4& that the Messenger 
of Allah S said: "The truest thing a poet said is what Labeed 
ibn Rabee'ah has said in this line: Ala kullu shiyin ma 
khalallaah baatil. (Know that everything is perishable save 
Allah)." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Labeed was a distinguished poet of the Age of 
perversion yet, even in those days, his poems contained pious ideas 
and sentiments. The Holy Prophet S praised the verse mentioned 



468 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 

above and said that it was the truest line of poetry because it 
conformed to the Qur'anic verse: 

( A A : r A je^aft) Qrj ^! Js* ^ 

Everything will perish save His countenance. (Al Qasas 28:88) 
The panegyric in which this line occurs was written by Labeed 
when he was a pagan, and, then, Allah blessed him with Faith. It is 
said that on embrcing Islam, Labeed gave up writting poetry. He 
used to say, "Now the Qur'an is enough for me." According to 
Hafiz ibn Hajar. Labeed died at the age of 156. 

jj, > Jp3 J15 # & yl> #3f* < 1 • t VU 0 



(1546/181) 'Amr ibn Sharir narrated, on the authority of his 
father, Sharir ibn Suwaid Thaqfi, "In a journey, 1 was seated 
behind the Messenger of Allah 0, on the same mount, that he 
asked me if I remembered the verses of Umayyah ibn As-Salt. 
•Yes Messenger of Allah H, I replied. 'Recite some of them,' 
said the Prophet 0. I thereupon, recited a couplet, he, then, told 
me to recite more, and I recited another couplet, and, then, he 
(again), told me to recite more, and I recited a hundred 
couplets." (In another version, it is told that the Prophet m 
observed: "Umaiy.yah had come very close to Islam in his 
poems)." < Muslim) 
Commentary: Umaiyya ibn As-Salt, too, was a poet of the age of 
perversion whose poems were of a devotional nature. It was for 
this reason that the Holy Prophet & liked his poetry and said that 
he had come very near to Islam in his verses. 

In another report, ft is stated that, once, on hearing the verses of 
Umayya ibn Salt, the Holy Prophet S remarked "his poetry had 
become Muslim, but his heart remained an infidel." 

Umayya ibn Salt lived long enough to see the days of the Holy 
Prophet, and the Call of Faith, also, reached him, but he did not 
embrace Islam, 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



469 



Wit and Humour 

Wit and humour is a pleasing attribute of life, and just as its 
excess is bad, to be devoid of it, also, is not commendable. 
Besides, if an eminent and Holy Person behaves towards an 
ordinary man in a light-hearted manner and jokes with him, it 
makes him happy and he feels honoured. Hence, the sacred Prophet 
£§fe. too. sometimes, made jokes with his Companions, but his 
jokes were, always, refined and in good taste. 

Jtl Oj Jdj > J^>; rjiii Jil3>:>^^ (^o^v/^AY) 



(1547/182) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that once some 
Companions said : "Messenger of Allah Do you make jokes 
with us." "1 tell what is just and correct (in a joke as well)," the 
Prophet &ji replied. (Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 

jLj ^U'^t J^>,^ Jj-^J J-ij^>» *Ar j J' o^' 0* ( w aa ayO 

(1548/183) It is related by Sayyidina Anas ^ that once a 
person requested the Messenger of Allah for a camel to ride. 
"Yes, I will give you the off-spring of she-camel for riding,' said 
the Prophet "What will I do with the Young one of a 
she-camel?" the man asked. "A camel, after all, is the young one 
of a she-camel," the Prophet W* replied. (Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 

i*j jui jT jifi i^j dJiTj ? jjj cJia 'Sj** &ii ji-Ju v 

(1549/184) It is related by Sayyidina Anas 4& that the Prophet 
£§fe said to an old woman: "No old woman will go to Heaven." 
"Why?", asked the woman. "What have they done?" She used to 
recite the Qur'an regularly. The Prophet life asked her if she had 
not read the verse in the Qur'an: 



470 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



Lo! We have created them a (new) creation and made them 
virgin. (Meaning the Lord shall recreate the old women in 
Heaven and make them young maidens). (A!-Waqi'ah 56:35-36) 

(Musnad Razeen) 

Commentary: The two aforementioned narratives of Sayyidina 
Anas 4fe offer an example of the refined sense of humour of the 
sacred Prophet 0. In some other Traditions, however, jesting is 
forbidden. But as these Traditions show, and it is, also, supported 
by the practice of the sacred Prophet S we have just seen in the 
above reports, the commandment applies to jokes that have a 
malicious intent and are likely to be hurtful. 

(1550/185) It is related by Abdullah ibn Abbas 4s> that the 
Prophet 0 said: "Do not quarrel with your brother, nor joke 
with him, nor make a promise to him which you can not fulfil." 

(Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The context in which jesting has been forbidden in 
it clearly shows that it relates to jokes that may be a cause of pain 
or annoyance to others. 

Laughter 

To laugh or show pleasure or approval by smiling, also, is 
natural to man and there is no virtue in always being grave and 
solemn. It was customary with the Holy Prophet S to greet people 
with a smile, and it is easy to imagine how happy it would have 
made them. 

(1551/186) It is related by Jarir ibn Abdullah Bahili ^ "Ever 
since I embraced Islam, it never happened that the Prophet 0 
refused me admission and he never saw me without smiling". 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



471 



(1552/187) It is related by Abdullah ibn Harith "I never saw 
anyone who smiled more than the Messenger of Allah Hi." 

(Tirmizi) 

J 4»i JU> cJijU cJia LtiU ^ door/ ^AA) 

(cs jUUi ftijj) . (iJLal jlT Uil *Jt^J J ji j£ cx*-U? Wftili 

(1553/188) Sayyidah Ayshah i^Ai^*, related, "I never saw the 
Prophet iH bursting into laughter, revealing the inner part of his 
mouth, i.e., he never laughed loud and I ong so that one could 
see the inner part of his mouth. He only smiled." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: In some Traditions, the Holy Prophet's act of 
showing pleasure has been described as mirth of Dahak (laughter), 
but it, simply, denotes what was so typical of him. i.e.. a smile. 
Sometimes, however, when the Prophet all felt very happy, lie 
would smile broadly which revealed a part of his inner mouth. It is, 
thus, stated in some reports that "the Prophet $1 laughed so much 
that the molar teeth could be seen." 

cJ& v4 J~^Ji £r^1 W J^. kUi J> \% i 

(1554/189) Narrated Jabir ibn Samurah "The Messenger of 
Allah would remain seated, till the rising of the sun, at the 
place where he had offered the Fajr prayers, and get up when 
the sun had risen. (During that time), the Companions, used to 
relate incidents of the age of perversion and laugh heartily, but 
he only smiled." (Muslim) 
Commentary: It would be advisable, here, to refer to the two 
statements of celebrated Companions which have been reproduced 
in Mishkaat from Sharh Simnah. They read: 

(i) It is related by Qatadah (a Taba'ee) that once, someone 



472 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 

enquired from Savyidina Abdullah ibn Umar ^whether the 
Prophet % (ever) enjoyed a joke with the Companions and 
laughed with them, upon which he replied: 

"Yes of course. The venerable men laughed (on occasions of 
laughter), but, even then. Faith used to be greater in their hearts 
than the mountains. (Their laughter was not like the laughter of 
the heedless which deadened the heart)." 
(ii) Bilal ibn Sa'd narrated: 

& v4 jpZ. J\ 3^.3 j* l >^ & 65^ rift* 

"1 have seen the Holy Companions. They used to run between 
fixed marks, {as the young do for fun or exercise), and, also, 
laugh. Then, as the night fell, they became ascetics." 

Sneezing And Yawning 

(1555/190) It is related by Abu Hurayrah $k> that the Messenger 
of Allah S said: "When anyone of you sneezes, he should say; 
"Al-hamd-u-lilhah. (Praise be to Allah). And, his brother (or 
did the Prophet 0 say, 'his friend'?) who happens to be with 
him should say: "Yar hamukallaah. (Mercy of the Lord be upon 
you) In reply to it, the one who sneezes should say to him: 
"Yahdeekwmdlaah wa yusleh baahkum. (May Allah favour you 
with Guidance and set right your state)." (Bukhari) 
Commentary: When a person sneezes, some vapours and fluids 
are expelled through the nose or the mouth which can, otherwise, 
be harmful. A sneeze, thus, is a blessing of Allah, normally and in 
state of good health. That is why, it is told in this Tradition that a 
person who sneezes should say, "Al-hamd-u-Lillah", and he who is 
present there, at that time, should say, "Yar hamukallaah", and, 
then, the one who sneezes should say. "Yahdeekumullaah wa 
vuslch haalakum." 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



473 



Now, imagine how an ordinary act like sneezing has been 
made, through this advice, an occasion for Allah remembrance and 
a means of earning His good pleasure. 

(1556/191) It is related by Abu Moosa Ash'ari that he heard 
the Prophet 0 say: "When anyone of you sneezes and says, 
'Al-hamd-u-litlaah\ you should bless him by saying 'Yar 
hamukallaati, and if he does not say Al-hamd-u-liUaah. you, 
too, should not say Yar Hamkullaah. (He loses the claim to your 
supplication by not say\ngAl-hamd-u-lillaah)." (Muslim) 

(( JL~. j jbxJl si j j) ."&.U*J ^j<ttU*#- lib h\ J 1 * Jr> 4 «' "' 

(1557/192) Sayyidina Anas 4&> narrated that once two persons 
who were sitting with the Prophet i§l sneezed upon which he 
blessed one of them by saying Yar-hamitkaUaah, and did not do 
so for the other. The other person, thereupon, said to him: 
"Messenger of Allah ill! You blessed him by saying 
Yar-hamuka!laah, but did not say so for me." The Prophet 0 
replied: "He said Al-htmid-u-IiHaah, while you did not. 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

jJLj g*% JL> $\ & ^/tf j> uL 'j> ( ^ °oa^ <\r) 
j*> jui ^ J^p ^ ft if jui ti» J^j ^3 

(1558/193) Salmah ibnt al-Akuwa/ * ^ related "(Once) as 
a person sitting with the Prophet $fr sneezed, he blessed him by 
saying, Yar-hamukallaah, but when he sneezed again, the Holy 
Prophet S remarked : 'He has cold'." (Muslim) 



474 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



(In another report of the same incident, quoted in Tirmizi it is 
slated that the sacred Prophet had made the remark when the 
person had sneezed tor the third time). 

Commentary: It shows that if a person sneezes repeatedly owing 
to cold it is not necessary to say Yar-hamukallaah every time. The 
following Tradition is more explicit. 

(1559/194) It is related by Ubaid ibn Rifa'ah 4& that the Prophet 
J$?5 said "Say. Yar-hamukallaah thrice to the person who 
sneezes, and if he sneezes in excess of it, it is up to you to say it 

or not." (Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 

J^fc (i-Lij aIIp 4)il ^^U? J j~/> Luip IjlSJs l _ r J j <&! J j-jj, 

(1560/195) Sayyidina Nafi' related that once a person who was 
sitting next to Abdullah ibn Umar<^& sneezed, and, then, said: 
"Al-hamd-it-lillaah was-salaam-u-'ala Rasoolillah. (Praise be to 
Allah, and peace be with the Messenger of Allah)." Abdullah 
ibn Umar ^observed: "I, too, say, Al-hamd-u-Lillaah 
was-salaam- u-'a/a Rasoolilfaah, but it is not said like that at 
the time of sneezing. The Prophet Ws has taught us to say. 
Al-hamd-u -lillaah 'aia kull-i-haal (Praise be to Allah in all 
conditions), on such an occasion." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: It shows that the sacred Prophet ill has taught both 
the phrases of Al-hamd-u-lillaah and Al-hamd-u-lillah cda 
kull-i-haal for utterance when we sneeze. We. further, learn from 
Abdullah ibn Umar's 4fa remark that no addtion should be made in 
the formula of supplication taught by Prophet 0 even though the 
addition may be correct from the point of view of meaning. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



475 



(1561/196) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4* "When the 
Prophet sneezed, he used to cover his face with both hands 
or a cloth to suppress its sound." (Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It tells that to cover the face with the hands or some 
cloth when one sneezes and keep the sound low, as far as possible, 
too, is among the proprities of sneezing. 

01 jj) 

(1562/197) It is related by Abu Sa'eed Khudri ^ that the 
Messenger of Allah ^ said: "When anyone of you yawns, he 
should cover the mouth with his hand as the Devil gets in (if the 
mouth remains open)". (Muslim) 

Commentary: The mouth is stretched open while at the time of 
yawning, and an ugly sound is produced, and the face, too, gets 
contorted. In view of it, the Holy Prophet 0 has advised us to 
cover the mouth with the hand when we yawn. 

As for Satan's getting in, the authorities have held that it might 
denote his actual entry, whose significance is not known to us, as 
well as that it gave him an opportunity to cause harm or annoyance. 

Shah Waliullah <uU i»i moreover, has offered the 
explanation that when the mouth of a person is opened wide, at the 
time of yawning, the Devil causes something like a mosquito to fly 
to get into it and even inside the stomach 1 . But Allah knows best. 



O. Hujjat, Vol. II, P. 200 



EATING AND DRINKING 



The teachings of the Holy Prophet Hi concerning eating and 
drinking can be divided into two parts. One in which it is told 
about articles of food and drink as to which of them are allowed 
and which are forbidden, and the other that deals with the rules and 
proprities of eating and drinking with reference to good manners, 
and which, are also beneficial to health or belong to the category of 
Allah-remembrance or expression of gratitude to Him. and by 
means of which even acts like these that are purely physical in 
nature and in response to a biological urge get elevated to acts of 
worship and become a source of gaining Divine good pleasure. 

About the sanctioning or forbidding of the articles of food and 
drink, the fundamental principle is what has been set forth in the 
Qur'an in these words: 

(1 oY;y jP'jfl) di-rfJl (^lU t'jru) oCkK $ J~ 

The Prophet (who can neither read nor write) will make lawful 
for them all good things and prohibit for them only the foul. 

(Al A'raf,7:157) 

The Commandments regarding the lawful and prohibited 
articles of food and drink are, in fact, an elaboration of what has 
been stated briefly in this verse. The things the sacred Prophet S> 
has forbidden, at the Command of Allah, certainly, are foul and 
harmful, one way or the other. In the same way, the things he has 
allowed are good and clean, agreeable to the taste and beneficial to 
health. 

Among the articles of dirnk, wine has been explicitly forbidden 
in the Qur'an, and, as we shall see later, detailed instructions are 
given in the Traditions about it, while among the articles of food 
that are forbidden, these few things are specifically mentioned in it: 



478 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Pari VI 



carrion, blood (that has poured out), swineflesh and the animal that 
has been immolated to the name of anyone apart from Allah. 

All these were used as food among some sections or tribes of 
Arabs though the earlier canonic laws had declared them unlawful. 
Hence, it was thought necessary to reiterate it in the Qur'an. 

The forbidding of carrion, evidently, is for the reason that the 
very idea of eating it is revolting to a right-minded person, and. 
besides, it is injurious to health for, according to experts, it 
becomes toxic owing to the dimunition of the natural heat of the 
body and absorption of blood into the system. 

The same is the case with blood. No sane or civilised person 
will consider it fit to eat it, and, in the Islamic Shari'ah, it has been 
declared to be positively loathsome and filthy. 

The swine is the cursed creature so much so that when the 
wrath of Allah fell on certain communities due to excessive 
wickedness and evil-doing, and He decided to deface them and 
alter their forms, He turned them into apes and swine. 

Allah hath turned some to apes and swine. (Al Ma'idah 5:60) 

It shows that both these animals are extremely foul and 
detestable and a manifestation of the fury and indignation of the 
Lord, and, that is why, it is forbidden to partake of their flesh. 

The Qur'an has not, specifically, mentioned the monkeys 
because their flesh, generally, is not eaten, but pork has been made 
an agreeable article of food by a number of communities, specially 
the Christians and, therefore, it has declared it forbidden to the 
Believers over and over again. 

Moreover, as it is told in the Traditions, when Sayyidina Isa 
Ml will appear on the earth in the Last Days, just before the 
Resurrection, he will, along with the destruction of the crucifix, 
also, order the extermination of pigs from the world, and it will, 
then, become manifest how the Christians had flouted his teachings 
and the teachings of all the Divine Messengers by making pork a 
favourite dish. 

The reason for the prohibition of the flesh of the animal that 
has been dedicated to anyone aside that of Allah, or, in the words 



Book o f Monetary ami Mutual Dealings 



479 



of the Qur'an: 

i ,. i > f 

(Uo:l fUj^l) ^ fUl ^1*1 Jufcl li-lj 

Which hath been immolated (to the name of) any other than 
Allah, (AlAn'am 6:145) 

is that the uncleanlines of the polytheistic belief and the intention 
of the person who does so pollutes the animal as well and hence, 
its flesh becomes unfit for human consumption. 

In fine, these four things have, specifically, been forbidden by 
the Qur'an, and the other articles of food that have been declared 
unlawful by the Holy Prophet $m mark, so to speak, the 
culmination of the same commandment. 

Now, the Traditions. 

Lawful And Unlawful Food 

frdil ^jft ^lMsiJl jii 0^ Jl5 jfa Jt\ j£ o"\r/ \ <\a) 

^ J?-1j <UUT JJjlj 41' I jJLlJ h'fi £b 

(1563/198) It is related by Abdullah ibn Abbas 4& that the 
people of the age of ignorance i.e., the Arabs before the advent 
of Islam used to eat certain things, (owing to natural liking or 
inclination), and avoid eating certain things (because they 
instinctively felt an aversion for them. It went on like that) till 
the Lord raised up the Prophet iil as His Messenger and 
revealed His Book and declared lawful the things that were 
lawful in the judgement of the Lord, and unlawful the things 
that were unlawful in the judgement of the Lord. Thus, the 
article of food or drink Allah and His Messenger have allowed 
is allowed, and the article they have prohibited is prohibited, 
and the article concerning which they have remained silent, i.e., 
have not told whether it is allowed or forbidden, is forgiven. 
(There is no penalty on making use of it)." After it, Abdullah 
ibn Abbas related the following verse of the Qur'an in support of 
his statement. 



480 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



Say: I find not in that which is revealed unto me aught 
prohibited to an eater that he eat thereof, except it be carrion, or 
blood pored forth, or swineflesh for that verily is foul or the 
abomination which was immolated to the name of other than 
Allah. But whosoever is compelled (thereto), neither craving nor 
transgressing, (for him) lo: Your Lord is Forgiving, Merciful." 
(Al An'am 6: 1 45) (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It shows that the raising up of the sacred Prophet 
iH and the revelation of the Qur'an, the criterion of the legality or 
otherwise of anything is Divine revelation and the Command of 
Allah and the Messenger, and the likng and inclination or dislike 
and aversion of anyone has nothing to do with it. 

(1564/199) It is related by 'Abdullah ibn Abbas 4&>, "The 
Prophet mt has prohibited (the eating of the flesh of) every 
beast with a canine tooth and every bird which seizes with its 
claws." (Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that the flesh of all the animals, like a lion, 
wolf, dog. or cat, which have a canine tooth, and all the birds, like 
a falcon, eagle, or kite, which hunt with their claws is forbidden to 
the Believers. 

(1565/200) It is related by Abu Tha'labah «&, "The Prophet &t 
has prohibited the flesh of domesticated donkeys." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: In some Traditions, mules are, also mentioned 
alongwith the donkeys. The Holy Prophet 0 has forbidden the 
flesh of both the animals to the Believers. 

y^w^ j!L}4*% J+M&i&ffcofi ()°wy.o 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



481 



(J 566/201) Jabir narrated that on the Day of the Victory of 
Khyber, the Prophet S prohibited the eating of the flesh of 
domesticated donkeys and allowed the flesh of the horses." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 
Commentary: In view of it, many legist-doctors are in favour of 
the allowability of the flesh of the horses, but Imam Abu Hanifah is 
reported to have held it uneatable on the basis of the Tradition 
quoted in the Sunan Abi Dawood and Sunan Nasai, and on the 
authority of Khalid ibn Waleed which says: 

"The Messenger of Allah S forbade the eating of the flesh of 
the donkeys, mules and horses." 

Though the documentary evidence of its transmission is weak, 
the general practice of Imam Abu Hanifah is that when a doubt is 
created about the lawfulness or otherwise of a thing, on logical 
grounds, he prefers prohibitation out of prudence. 

Perhaps it is because of it that the Imam has held the horse 
flesh uneatable. He has advanced some other reasons as well. In 
some books of the Hanafi school, however, it is stated that Imam 
Abu Hanifah had, ultimately, accepted the view of the other 
legist-doctors and agreed that the flesh of a horse was lawful food 
for Muslims. 

( 1 567/202) It is related by Jabir that "The Prophet S 
forbade the eating of cat, and, also, forbade the eating of its 
P rice -" (Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It tells that the cat, too, is among the animals whose 
flesh is forbidden as an article of food. It could, of course, not be 
different for a cat, also, has canines. It, further, lays down that 
eating out of the money obtained by selling a cat, too, is 
disallowed. According to the authorities, this act of forbidding 



482 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



denotes disgust and aversion. 

(JLj 4*%\ JU> Jp5 J# J« * l < * •ia/y . r) 

(1568/203) Abdullah ibn Umar related that the Messenger of 
Allah % disallowed the eating (of the flesh) of the animals that 
ate filth as well as the drinking of their milk." (Tirmizi) 
Commentary: Sometimes, animals like a camel, cow or goat 
begin to eat filth till the stench is felt in the irmeat or milk. It is the 
flesh and milk of such animals which is forbidden in this narrative. 
If a hen has the same habit, the above commandment will apply to 
it as well. But if the animal is prevented from eating the filth for 
such a time that the stench is removed from its meat or milk, it will 
be permissible to partake of its flesh and milk. 

(i jla y\ j * jsH ol jj) . j£jJ •Sl iv ^ 

(1569/204) Narrated Abu Waqid Laithy 4&, "When the Prophet 
0 came to Madinah (on migrating from Makkah, a most cruel 
custom) prevailing there was that some people used to cut the 
hump of their living camel for eating, and, in the same way, they 
used to cut the tail of the sheep (with fat tail). The Prophet m 
observed that the flesh that was served and removed from a 
living animal was carrion. It was not permitted to eat it." 

(Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 

4* %\ jj> > fej # $ jfr &\ j* ( \o V . /Y • o) 

(1570/205) It is related on the authority of Abdullah ibn Abbas 
and Abu Hurayrah 4k that the Messenger of Allah 0 forbade 
the eating of Sharita-Shaitan" The narrator, Ibn 'Isa, added (by 
way of ~n explanation of Sharita Shaitan), "It denotes a 
slaughtered animal from whose body the skin is removed, and 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



483 



the arteries of the thorat (from which the blood pours forth) are 
not cut, and it is left in the state till it dies." (AbuDawood) 
Commentary: Meaning this cruel act, too, is unlawful for it causes 
great pain and suffering to the animal unnecessarily and for a long 
time, and to eat the flesh of an animal slaughtered that way will be 
as wrong and unlawful as the eating of carion. 

An animal that is killed like that has been described as Sharita 
Shaitan which means "wounded by the Devil", or that this method 
of slaughter has been taught by the Devil. 

(1571/206) It is related by Abdul Rahman ibn Shibl that the 
Prophet J& has forbidden the eating of the flesh of the lizard 1 . 

(Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: From it, we learn that lizards is not among the 
permitted animals. Its flesh is unfit for use, and Imam Abu Hanifah 
is of the same view. But from the Tradition to follow, it appears 
that its flesh can be eaten, on the basis of which some authorities 
have held it is lawful food. 

J^5 £ & Yfi rtjli SW* a y£ Ji\ >( \ • Y T/Y • V) 

£y j^Lj JU> J^iJJ iit c-^ii b>Ui ^ UJU 
f >>t JU> Jiii yil) ^ «ju: ,£-3 ^ JU >i 

(1572/207) It is related by Abdullah ibn Abbas that Khalid 
ibn Walid had told him, "Once I went to Maimoona 2 , in the 
company of the Prophet 0." (The narrator tells that Maimoona 
O. The word 'Lizard' is, also, used for chipkali which is, generally, found in 
homes, but here it denotes goh which though belonging to the same species, is 
of a much larger size and lives in trees. 
©. Name of a wife of the Holy Prophet. 



484 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



was the real maternal aunt of both, Khalid ibn Walid and 
Abdullah ibn Abbas. He goes on to relate "There I saw (that our 
aunt, Maimoona) has roasted a lizard for food. She placed it 
before the Prophet 0, but he withdrew his hand (which showed 
that he did not want to eat it). Upon it, I (Khalid ibn Walid, who 
was, also, sharing in the meal), enquired: 'O Messenger of Allah 
0! Is is prohibited? 'No', replied the Prophet '(It is not 
prohibited), but since it is not found in our region (Makkah), I 
am not used to it. (1 do not feel inclined to partake of it)." "(On 
hearing it)", Khalid ibn Walid said, "1 pulled (the dish) towards 
myself and began to eat, and the Prophet 0 looked on, and did 
not forbid." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: This narrative is the main proof or basis the 
legist-doctors who favour the use of the flesh of the lizard as lawful 
food put forward in their support. There are, however, other 
reports, too, showing that it is permitted to partake of lizard's flesh. 
Imam Abu Hanifah, on the other hand, thinks that these Traditions, 
probably, belong to the time when the commandment prohibiting 
its use had not been revealed, and until the command forbidding a 
thing comes, it is supposed to be permitted. 

Be that as it may , Imam Abu Hanifah holds that the Tradition 
preceding the one given above is now operative, (in point of time), 
and it abrogtes all the previous Traditions on the subject. 

It may, further, be noted as we have remarked earlier that where 
there is a doubt about the lawfulness or otherwise of a thing, Imam 
Abu Hanifah prefers to adopt the latter course. 

(1573/208) The sacred wife of the. Prophet ill, Sayyidah 
Maimoona i+* A'^j narrated that once a rat fell into (the 
container) of ghee 1 , and died. It was, thereupon, enquired from 
the Prophet Hi what was to be done about it, and he said: 
'Throw out the rat and the ghee around it, and, then, eat of it that 
remains." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: As the next Tradition tells, the command will apply 

O. Clarified butter. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



485 



only when the ghee is solidified, but if it is in a liquid form, the 
whole of it will not be fit for use. 

lit ^3 dp %\ JU> >l JtS i'JCjk 'J} & ( \ o v i/Y • O 

(^-lp jji ^ jioJi s\j J3 i jb j>\ j Ju^-\ si j j) . o^jyu" 

(1574/209) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger 
of Allah said: "When a rat falls down in ghee, (and dies), 
then if the ghee is solidified, throw away the rat and the ghee 
surrounding it, and if it is in a liquid form, do not go near it, i.e., 
do not eat it (at all)." (Musnad Ahmad and Abu Dawood) 

(The same Tradition has been quoted by Daarami, on the 
authority of Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Abbas 4^>). 

JL> ^Ji Jiii 4*^3 G 1 * 5 : est) **\ SiisS ^ 0*0 °v°/y \ ♦) 

(1575/210) Abu Qatadah narrated that once, in a journey, he 
saw a wild ass, and (being a good hunter), he killed it. 
(Afterwards, when he met the Prophet he enquired whether 
it was allowed to eat its flesh or not). The Prophet £H asked him 
if some of it meat was left with him. Abu Qatadah «|& replied 
that the lower end part of one of its legs was still with him, and 
he presented it to the Prophet ill who accepted it and ate it." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that the flesh of a wild ass is lawful food 
and an animal killed in hunting is decreed as good and permitted. 

i£JU*3 1# /ji (JL-3 K&%\ JU k\ j>^3 J\ d*3 \&>ti 

(1576/21 1) It is related by Anas 4^> that once they chased and 
caught a hare in the forest of Mar-uz-Zahran, and he brought it 
to (his benefactor), Abu Talha ^ who slaughtered it and sent 
both of its hind-legs, (between the knee and the trunk), to the 



486 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 

Prophet as a gift. The Prophet % accepted the gift. 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

(1577/212) Abu Musa related "1 have seen the Prophet m 
eating a chicken". (Bukhari and Muslim) 

fa4*%\ JU> J^^cJ^JiJiS^i* (toYA/m) 

(ajbjitrtjj) .^jV^Jt^SJ 
(1578/213) Narrated Safina 4fc (a manumitted slave of the 
Holy Prophet 0), "I have eaten the flesh of the bird Hubara in 
the company of the Prophet 0. (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Hubara is a species of bustard. As already stated, 
all the birds are legitimate food which do not swoop down on their 
prey and catch it with their claws, and which are not filthy and 
noxious by nature. 

. jukj»3 i£fi oUliijS i>tf 'o ui J 

(1579/214) It is related by Abdullah ibn Umar that "Two 
dead things and two kinds of blood are sanctioned to us as 
lawful (food). The two dead things are fish and locusts, and the 
two kinds of blood are liver and spleen (which, in fact, are 
congealed blood)." (Musnad Ahmad, Ibn Majah and Daar Qutni) 
Commentary: It shows that the fundamental rule concerning the 
animals whose flesh is sanctioned as lawful is that they are 
slaughtered according to the method prescribed by the Shari'ah, 
otherwise it is carrion, and, threfore, forbidden. But two things are 
exempted, the fish and the locusts, both of which can be eaten, 
though dead. Similarly, in spite of the fact that the liver and spleen 
are congealed blood and the blood is forbidden to the Believers as 
food, Allah has declared them lawful. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



487 



(1580/215) Narrated Abdullah ibn Abi Awfa 4&>, "I have fought 
in seven wars, alongside of the Messenger of Allah and, in 
these wars, we have eaten locusts in his company." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It is quoted in Sunah Abi Dawood, on the authority 
of Salman Farsi that, once, the Prophet was asked about 
locusts, upon which he replied: "There are many animals which I 
do not eat myself, but do not say that these are forbidden. (These 
animals are allowed and people can eat them)". It shows that the 
Holy Prophet did not eat locusts himself, and, in the light of it, 
commentators have concluded as regards the aforementioned 
narrative of Abdullah ibn Awfa 4^>, that during military 
expeditions, the Companions ate locusts in the presence of the 
sacred Prophet 0 and he did not check them. 

ta*i SJ£p}J ji'j <L>'& JlS ( \ ©A\/Y u) 

l*jJ Uis A*ikp U£p 3J££ i>U ^ uLii 

u)i*k^ ^Vii lijj \'j£ jua (JLj & JU 

(1581/216) It is related by Sayyidina Jabir "I was taking part 
in Jihad of Jaishul Khabat, and Abu Ubaidah was the 
Commander of the (Muslim) army. During the war, we were 
faced with starvation (due to want of provisions, and it was at 
that time that the) sea threw up a dead fish. We had not seen 
such a (big) fish in our lives. It was called 'Amber'. We all, i.e., 
the entire army ate it for half-a-month. Afterwards, as Abu 
Ubaidah set upright one of its bones, (perhaps, a rib, it was so 
high that) a ramel-rider could pass under it. On our return to 
Madinah, we related the incident to the Prophet (and 
wanted to know whether it was proper for us to have eaten the 
fish). He observed : 'It was a gift of Allah which He had thrown 



488 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



up for you. If some of it is still left, give it to me to eat. 1 I, 
thereupon, sent a piece of it to him and he ate it." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The incident related above took place during a 
military expedition in the 6th century A H. The Holy Prophet 0 
had despatched an army of 300 under the command of Abu Ubaida 
and given him only a bag of dates as provision, which was all that 
could be arragned for at that time. It is reported in Sunan Abi 
Dawood etc., that Abu Ubaidah gave one date each from the bag to 
the crusaders every day and they subsisted merely on it. Some 
related that they used to put the date in their mouths and suck it 
slowly, like children, and, then, follow it up with water. It sufficed 
for the whole day. When the stock of the dates had been used up, 
they used to strike the trees for leaves and eat the leaves after 
wetting them with water, owing to which they developed ulcers in 
their mouths. In fact, it is because of it that the expedition is 
remembered as Jaishul Khabat, denoting striking of trees for 
leaves. 

In another version of the same event, appearing in Abu Dawood 
etc., it is stated, again, on the authority of Abu Jabir 4§fe, "(As) we 
were travelling, (in those circumstances), along the sea-shore, 
something like a ridge came into our view. On coming close to it, 
we found that it was an animal similar to a fish which the sea had 
thrown up, and it was dead already. Abu Ubaida had his doubts 
about its fitness for food, but on second thought, he felt that we 
had set out in the path of Allah, at the command of the Holy 
Prophet, and there was nothing with us to eat; so, the Lord had 
provided it for us as food. When Abu Ubaidah satisfied about it, he 
permitted the army to eat the fish." 

According to the report quoted in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih 
Muslim, the whole army ate the fish for a fortnight while some 
other reports tell that it lasted for a month. The two statements, in 
our view, are not inconsistent with each other because the army 
had stayed in that area about half-a-month during which time the 
fish was eaten heartily, and, then, it had returned which nearly took 
another two weeks, and during the course of it, too, the fish was 
used, partly, for food. Thus, the versions in which it is mentioned 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



489 



that the fish was eaten for a fortnight refer to the period of the 
army's stay in the region, during which it was eaten liberally by the 
whole army, and the versions in which it is told that the fish was 
eaten for a month includes the period of the return journey as well 
during which, also, the fish was eaten to some extent. 

Lastly, it tells that when, on return to Madinah, the incident 
was reported to the sacred Prophet iS, and, perhaps, the hesitation 
of Abu Ubaidah too, was brought into his notice, he assured 
them that the fish was a special gift of the Lord which He had 
caused to be thrown up by the sea for the use of the crusaders, and 
such a thing ought to be eaten with gratitude. In order to set at rest 
the misgivings of the crusaders and by way of expressing 
thankfulness to Allah, the Holy Prophet Hi, also, asked for a piece 
of the fish and ate it before them. 

It, further, shows that even such an enormous fish of the sea 
which must have looked strange is lawful food. 

The above Tradition, moreover, tells that the fish was called 
'Amber'. According to some authorities, the waxy substance, 
ambergeris, which is found floating in tropical seas and used in 
making perfumes is produced by it. 

JJ^ UljSt & fa I jifi cJll UJlP j* ( \ o At/Y \ v) 

(1582/217) It is related by Sawidah Ayshah i** 41^*, that some 
persons said to the Prophet "There are people back home 
whose period of polytheism has just passed, i.e., they have 
embraced Islam only recently and their knowledge of the 
Islamic rules and Commandments is incomplete. They, 
(sometimes), bring meat for us, and we do not know whether 
they have taken the Name of Ailah on slaughering the animals 
or not. (Should we, then, eat such a meat)?" "Take the Name of 
Allah and eat," the Messenger of Allah Hi replied. (Bukhari) 

Commentary: The practical meaning of the above Tradition is 
that one should not be swayed by imaginary doubts and fears nor 
suspect others without sufficient proof. When people about whom 



490 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



the enquiry was made had embraced Islam, it should be taken for 
granted that they would be slaughtering the animals in accordance 
with the method prescribed by the Shari'ah, and the meat sent by 
them should be eaten after saying Bismillaah 1 . 

It does not, of course, mean that the meat of an animal 
butchered without taking the Name of Allah and according to the 
Paganish method would become lawful on saying Bismillaah. 

As the Qur'an say: 

And eat not of that whereon ^ 

Allah's name has not been M J^Sj ^U* ijlS'tt *i j 

mentioned, for lo! it is , \U&&' 9 & 

abomination. (AlAnam6:22) < U ^ ****** 

4i%\J+$&$$&* s k#**il& ( \ o Af/X \ a) 
£ OPjU flit JTjJu> £ 4 ftft- ft j 

((fJUjAlljj) .%l>Juil 

(1583/218) Qabeesah ibn Hulb related on the authority of his 
father, Hulf Ta'i, that, he enquired from the Messenger of Allah 
& about eating the food of Christians. (Whether it was allowed 
or not)? He replied: 'There ought to be no fear or hesitation in 
your mind with regard to it. (In this sort of narrow-mindedness 
and unreasonable extremism), you come close to the way of 
Christianity." (Tirmizi) 
Commentary: Hulb Ta'i, originally, was a Christian. When he 
accepted Islam, he was not sure if he could dine with the Christians 
and eat of the animals slaughtered by them. Hence, he sought the 
advice of the Holy Prophet Wt who told him not to worry over it. In 
the Islamic Shari'ah, it was lawful to partake of the food of the 
Christians, including the meat of the animals slaughtered by them. 
It is laid down clearly in the Qur'an: 

The food of those who have recieved the Scripture is lawful for 
you (A!Ma'idah5:5) 

The Holy Prophet 0, further, remarked that such intolerance in 
matters of food and drink was the characteristic of the Christian 
monks while the Islamic Shari'ah was liberal and broadminded. 
O. Meaning 'In the Name of Allah'. It is, generally, pronounced by Muslims at 
the beginning of any action or work. 



LIQUIDS FOR DRINKING 



As stated already, the fundamental principle regarding the 
sanctioning or forbidding of articles of food and drink is what has 
been enunciated in the Qur'an in these words: 

(The Prophet) will make lawful for them all good things and 
prohibit for them only the foul. (Al A'raf 7:5 1 7) 

Thus, all the beverages that are clean, refreshing and 
wholesome, such as the milk of animals whose flesh as been 
declared fit for food, fruit juices and soft-drinks are allowed in 
Islam while those that are foul and injurious are forbidden. 
Moreover, just as among the eatables, the prohibition of some of 
the things that were forbidden in the earlier canonic laws, but some 
sections of the people still ate them, as for instance, carrion and 
pork has, also, been made known, specifically, in the Qur'an, 
among the beverages, too, the prohibitation of strong drinks has 
been stressed particularly in it, and the sacred Prophet has taken 
special care to forbid it to the Muslims. 

Prohibition of Strong Drink 

For the prohibition of wine only this much is enough that, 
under its influence, a man, at least for some time, loses the faculties 
of reason and intellect which are most precious gift of the 
Almighty and comes down to the level of animals. Moreover, when 
a person is drunk, he, often, does most shameful and undesirable 
things and becomes a tool of the Devil. Intoxication, again, is 
sometimes, the cause of wide-ranging mischief and calamitie. That 
is why, it has been forbidden in all the canonic laws, and reformers 
and religious-minded men, in all ages have kept strictly away from 
it and striven for its eradication. 



492 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



Before we proceed with the relevant Traditions, it will be 
advisable to note that at the time of the raising up of the Prophet 
Muhammad 0, and, perhaps, long before it, wine was very 
popular among the Arabs, particualrly the Makkans. It was 
manufactured and imbibed almost in every home, and to drink it 
had, so to speak, become a mark of advancement in culture. The 
rich used to spend lavishly in the state of drunkeness from which 
the poor and needy people profited and it gave rise to the practice 
of looking down upon those who abstained from alcholic liquors as 
mean and miserly. 

The same was the case with games of chance, some peculiar 
forms of which were current in Arabia. Generally, only the rich and 
open-handed people indulged in them and the winnings, often, 
went to the poor. Thus, gambling, too, was a dignified pastime of 
the well-to-do which went to the advantages of the needy sections. 
A distinct proof of it is available in the poetry and customs of the 
Age of Perversion. 

It is, perhaps, this particular aspect of 'utility' that has been 
alluded to, also, in the verse of Surah al-Baqara, (11:219), which 
was the first to be revealed concerning wine and gambling. 
However, since drinking was very common among the Arabs in 
those days and they were greatly addicted to it and regarded it a 
virtue and a sign of social and clutural eminence, a toerant 
appraoch was made, in the beginnig, towards prohibition and it 
was enforced by degrees, but when the ground had been prepared 
to the extent that it could be expected from the people to respond, 
unreservedly, to the command and give up the habit altogether, 
such a firm and uncompromising attitude was taken that even the 
use of vessels associated with it was forbidden. Other extremely 
stringent commandments followed that were aimed, basically, at 
creating a climate of aversion, among the Believers, against 
intoxicants, and when the object was gained, the more severe laws 
were withdrawn. 

ujIp ijJLJ y& & & % & 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



493 



f *• s s 3 M 1 4 * 

dHJntf 5 cJ> : ijitfj "V* .^j^ 

\y*s J^jJl Jlp J«J Jj3 o^^-^ J** ^ LiU-j %\ jJj 

(1584/219) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4^ "The forbidding 
of strong drink was enforced (gradually), in three steps, (the 
details of which are that) when the Prophet $H came to 
Madinah, the people of Madinah, at that time, used to drink 
wine and eat the money acquired by gambling. Men, 
consequently, enquired from him about both the things, i.e., 
whether these were allowed or not. (The enquiry, perhaps, was 
made as right-minded persons felt that the two things did not 
accord with the spirit and general precepts of Islam). The 
following of Surah Al-Baqarah was, then, revealed: 

They question thee, (O 

Muhammad), about strong ^i^jl ^ uJ^ jlLr^ 
wine and games of chance. ,* , 

Say: In both is great sin, and J*r ^ tr i _rr*'* J \J 
(some) utility for men; but the ^ *g\ UfiSlJ ^uU IsLij 
sin of them is greater than their ' ' ,* 

usefulness. (AlBaqarah 2:219) (T^:t«^Ji) iU«*ii 
"Some people, thereupon, said that, (in this verse), drinking and 
gambling had not been forbidden positively, and- they went on 
drinking (wine, imagining that it was permitted), till, one day, it 
so happened that a person from among the Emigrants who was 
offering prayer (salah) with a few of his companions, (he was 
leading the service and was drunk), made some mistake in the 
recital of the Qur'an. Upon it, the second verse regarding the 
forbidding of alcoholic drinks was revealed which was more 
severe than the first: 



494 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



O ye who believe! Draw not 
near unto prayer (salah) when 
ye are drunken, till ye are (in 



near unto prayer (salah) when \ yj&i 1 



yc arc uruiiK.cn, um yc aic ^111 *, y, , ; '1*1 

your senses) and know that ^ ***** f^J 
which ye utter. (Al Nisaa4:43) (ir :i«A-Ji) 1^iiiS 

"Some, however, (still felt that wine had not been wholly and 
strictly forbidden), and they continued to drink. (Of course, as 
some other Traidtions tell, they took care not to drink when the 
time for prayer was near). The following verses of Surah 
Al-Maidah were, then, revealed which were more strict and 
explicit than the two earlier ones: 

O ye who believe! Strong drink 

and games of chance and idols ^XaJI Uil \yj>\ jjOJI Ifcl Xj 

and divining arrows are only an V'tf' * * "\ - 

infamy of Satan's handiwork. W'J, V^^J rr^'j 

Leave it aside in order that ye ^UaliJt \ls- J*jtj 

may prosper. Satan seeketh '* r% 3tM , M 

only to cast among you enmity ^ o£j*A& «>r^ 
and hatred by means of strong ^ ^C; * h j^J 

drink and games of chance, and ~\ 
to turn you from remembrance J> *CiaAJlj SjUiJt 

of Allah and from (His 1 , . -{ r. 

worship). Will ye then have ' ^ ' J'T 

done with them, i.e., strong d^^'^tA ^SjJliil ^Pj 

wine and games of chance etc. ( q 1 , s ♦ • a ajuuli) 
(AlMa'idah 5:90-91) 

"When these verses were revealed they said: 'Our Lord! We 
abstain, and now we have given them up altogether.' They, then, 
asked the Prophet ^: 'What will be the sequel of those who 
have been martyred in the path of Allah or died in their beds (of 
illness) and they used to drink wine and eat of the earnings from 
gambling, and, now' the Lord has condemned both the things as 
foul and Satanic? (What is going is to be the fate of our brethren 
in the Hereafter who were guilty of both drinking and gambling 
and had died in that state)?' It was in reply to them that the 
following verse was revealed: 

There shall be no sin (imputed) 1jLpj ^jjt J^J 
unto those who believe and do A * r " * ' ' 1 
good works for what they may 'j*?* C^" ^-^4-^" 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



495 



have eaten (in the past)." ,J^j UQ) , 

(AlMa'idah5:93) 

(^r:o5uiUJi) .^V'C»ALiJ» 

(Musnad Ahmad) 

Commentary: Comments have, already, been offered on it, from 
place to place, in the course of the translation. What it tells, briefly, 
is that, in the beginning, a graduated attitude was adopted about 
forbidding of wine, and, finally, total abstinence was decreed by 
characterising intoxication as only an infamy of Satan's hadiwork 
in the verse of Surah Al-Ma'idah. 

According to some reports this verse was revealed in 8 A.H. 

(tJkj*^ cJtTj Jla iii-UJi iJJJ o^jti Jl5 \4SjA\i 

(1585/220) Sayyidina Anas 4fa narrated: Some friends had 
collected at the house of (my benefactor), Abu Talha Ansari 
and wine was flowing and I was acting as the cup-bearer that 
the commandment of prohibition i.e., the verse of Surah 
Al-Ma'idah was revealed to the Prophet 0s$& forbidding 
completely the use of strong drink and calling it only an infamy 
of Satan's handiwork. The Prophet at once, ordered a crier 
to proclaim it publicly in Madinah. The crier, thus, (went 
around) calling out the announcement upon which Abu Talha 
told me to go out and see what it was about. I went out, and, 
(on return), informed that alcoholic drinks had been forbidden 
as beverages. Abu Talha 4&>, then, told me to go and throw out 
all the wine that was in the house. (I did so, and wine was 
thrown out from other houses as well as a result of which) the 
streets of Madinah were overflowing with it. The wine being 
used that day was what is known as Fazeekh. Soon after, some 
persons were heard to say that many bondsmen of the Lord had 
been martyred in such a condition that wine was in their bellies. 



496 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



(What will be their fate then)? Upon it, the following verse was 

sent down by Allah: 

There shall be no sin (imputed) 

unto those who believe and do \ jU^j ' J**' (J* <J^ 

good works for what they may t * , + v 

have eaten (or drunk) (in the ^ C 1 ^ *r**M' 

past). (AlMa'idah5:93) <*r:«*UUii) 

(Meaning those who had departed from the world before the 
commandment of total prohibition was revealed and led a life of 
faith and good-doing shall not be called to account for what they 
might have eaten or drunk ealier)." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: The liquor Fazeekh was brewed from halfripe dates 
which were cut into small pieces. The pieces were, then, soaked 
into water and allowed to remain like that for some time till they 
had fermented. In those days, it was considered a wine of an 
average standard and it was, also, easy to manufacture it. 

Jl£s ^IsJ ij\ cJ5 j <lp ^JL»j 4~1p &\ ^Jfi &\ J j^j cJU# SJLtUJl cJjj 

(1586/221) It is related by Abu Saeed Khudri "There was 
some wine in my house which was the property of an orphan. 
So, when the verse of Surah Al-Ma'idah (containing the 
commandment of total prohibition) was revealed, I asked the 
Prophet what was to be done with it. I, also, explained to 
him that the wine was the property of an orphan. 'It should be 
thrown away and poured out,' the Prophet ill replied." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: It shows that the Holy Prophet 0 did not even 
allow the wine to be sold to a non-Muslim or put to a gain or 
advantage in any other way. 

In another Tradition, related by Sayyidina Anas 4$>, it is stated 
that Abu Talha Ansari had bought wine for some orphans who 
were under his charge and in their own account before total 
prohibition. He, too, sought the Prophet's advice about it, and the 
Prophet ill said: "Pour out the wine and throw it away, and, also, 
break the barrels in which it is contained." 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



497 



Warning of Punishment 

(1587/222) It is related by Abdullah ibn Umar that the 
Messenger of Allah 0 said: "Every intoxicating thing, i.e., 
every beverage that makes a person drunk is virtually identical 
to wine, and is forbidden, and whoever indulges in wine in this 
world and dies in the state of indulgence in it, and has not 
offered sincere repentance shall remain deprived of the pure 
wine of Paradise in the Hereafter." (Muslim) 

g*% J± jui j4\ # f jj ^ $ ^ ^ ( ^ 0 A A/ Y T r) 

i> i>J« X Vj^ & fa$t h.'M 'J- ^3 

* J* & f<> jr jtf ^ r jis ?> £U )i ^3 

U3 >i j^u ijftl juji £t ^ ajj i^j, ^ ^ 

((^-•'jj) o& Jii 53Up)i jUi jAi ^> jil al^ 

(1588/223) Narrated Jabir "(Once), a person came from 
Yemen and asked the Messenger of Allah m about a prticular 
kind of wine which was used in that region, and was called Mirz 
and brewed from Cheena 1 . The Prophet |fe enquired if it was 
intoxicating, and, on being told that it was so, he said: 'Every 
intoxicating thing is forbidden. (And listen)! It is the promise of 
the Lord concerning everyone who indulges in alcoholic 
beverages — and He has made it ibnding upon Himself to fulfil 
the promise that He will make him drink Tinatul Khahaal in 
After-life. On being asked what Tinatul Khabaal was, he said it 
was the perspiration exuded through the skin of the dwellers of 
Hell (or the pus discharged through their bodies)." (The narrator 
was not sure which of the two things the sacred Prophet % had 
said )- (Muslim) 

ill l\ Jj, Jll jil jgj ^ ^ Q OA VYU) 

O. A kind of corn. " 



49 8 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 

^ ^ ^ ^ 

J-r 3> A yW»J 

l& aixift ^ (fa H\ > ^ ^> Of ^ 

(1589/224) It is related by Abu Umamah 4*> that the Messenger 
of Allah S said: "Allah has sent me down as Mercy to the 
Worlds and a source of Guidance to all mankind, and the Lord, 
to Whom belong Might and Majesty, has commanded me to 
destroy the musical instruments, and to put an end to idolatry 
and worship of the Cross, and to do away with all the rites and 
practices of paganism. And my Lord, the Mighty and the 
Majestic, has vowed, by His Power and Glroy, that whoever of 
His bondsmen will take even a draught of wine, He will make 
him swallow an equal amount of pus in the Hereafter, and 
whoever of His bondsmen will give up drinking and abstain 
from it, out of His fear, He will give him to drink the pure wine 
of the heavenly ponds in the Hereafter." (Musnad Ahmad) 

Commentary: It tells that to put an end to the worship of the idols 
and the Cross, and to all the rites and ceremonies of the age of 
perversion, as well as the musical instruments, were among the 
chief aims and objects of the raising up of the Holy Prophet j» 
The terms used for musical instruments, in the original, are M'uazif 
and Mazamir. The former are the instruments played with the 
hands like dholak\ tablet, sitar\ and Sarangi* while Manzamir 
stands for instruments that are played with the mouth, such as, 
Shahnafi and Bamuri 6 . 

As we learn from the above Tradition, all musical instruments 
are the means to sensuality, dissipation and self-indulgence, and to 
free the world from them was one of the special duties assigned to 
the Holy Prophet 0. But how painful it is and to what great extent 
has the Devil triumphed that these instr uments are freely in 
O. A small drum; tomtom. 

©.A small tambourine, a small shallow drum, played by striking with one s hand. 

©. A kind of guitar with three strings. 

O. A musical instrument like a fiddle. 

©. A kind of musical pipe. 

©. A flute made of bamboo wood. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 499 
evidence now even during the Urs 1 of Holy men! 

Even a Small Quantity of Wine is Forbidden 

(1590/225) It is related by Jabir 4&> that the Prophet S said: "A 
small quantity of the liquor which produces intoxication when 
taken in a large quantity, too, is forbidden." 

(Abu Dawood, Tirmizi and Ibn Majah) 
(A Tradition conveying an almost indentical meaning is quoted 
in Musnad Ahmad and Swum Abi Dawood etc. on the authority 
of Sayyidah Ayshah i^iii^j as well). 

Wine Should Not be Used Even As Medicine 

jlj^ Jj & Jul } 1 l^L>i uJl JliS al0 jiijl (JLj .Op 

(1591/226) Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr Hadrami 4^> that once Tariq 
ibn Suwaid asked the Prophet % about wine and he told him to 
keep away from it. "But I take it as a mdeicine", said Tariq ibn 
Suwaid. "It is not medicine." the Prophet S replied. "It is a 
disease." (Muslim) 
Commentary: Some authorities are of the view that this narrative 
belonged to the time when the commandment completely 
forbidding intoxicating drinks was revealed, and, due to a special 
reason indicated in the Traditions given below, the Holy Prophet 
S had adopted a very rigid attitude in that regard and prohibited 
certain things to the Muslims which he was to allow later. On the 
basis of it, they have concluded that there is room for permitting a 
person who is critically ill and a competent and reliable physician 
is of the opinion that wine is essential for his treatment to take it in 
the perscribed quantity. 



O. Death anniversary 



500 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



Waging War Against A Community 
Which Insists on Drinking 

. ^ a jii # j.uii Si «£JH *JiW J* ^ 

(1592/227) It is related by Daylam Humayri 4^> that (once) he 
said to the Prophet %: Messenger of Allah %\ We live in a 
cold region and have to work very hard and we manufacture a 
wine from wheat and use it and it gives us the strength for the 
hard work we have to do, and, also, to withstand the rigours of 
the climate." "Is it intoxicating?" he enquired. "Yes, Messenger 
of Allah S," Daylam Humayri 4& replied. "It is intoxicating." 
The Holy Prophet H said: "Then abstain from it. Do not drink 
it, at all." "But the people are not going to give it up. (They are 
not likely to abstain on anyone's persuasion," submitted Daylam 
Humayri. "Wage war against them if they do not listen, "the 
Prophet S observed . (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It tells that if because of local conditions, the 

Muslims of some place feel that they cannot live without drinking, 

even then it is not to be permitted to them. 

Secondly, if the people of a region or locality insist, as a whole, 

on drinking and refuse to give up the habit, the Islamic State is free 

to use force against them. 

We can imagine, from it, how sinful indulgence in alcoholic 

drinks is from the Islamic point of view. 

Severe Denunciation 

(1593/228) It is related by Abdullah ibn Abbas 4&> that the 
Messenger of Allah % said: "Whoever drinks habitually and 
dies in that state will be produced before the Lord, on the Day 
of Resurrection, as a polytheist and an idolater."(Musnad Ahmad) 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



501 



4^Jl \Qa\*~j \£i>C*') ifcjlS>} Mt^asjutj \j>'j*ff\* VjZs- 

(1 594/229) Narrated Anas that (once) the Prophet Hi cursed 
ten persons in connection with wine: (1) he who distills wine 
even for someone else; (2) he who distills wine for himself; (3) 
he who dirnks wine; (4) he who serves wine; (5) he who carries 
wine (from one place to another); (6) he who receives or accepts 
wine (as something sent); (7) he who sells wine; (8) he who 
buys wine; (9) he who gives wine to another as a gift: and (10) 
he who eats of the money which comes to him from selling 
wine." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: To 'curse' means to pray that a person be consigned 
to eternal damnation. The above Tradition, thus, tells that the Holy 
Prophet ill prayed that anyone who was connected, in any way, 
with the use, sale, manufacture or transport of intoxicating liquors 
remained denied of Divine mercy and benevolence. 

(An identical Tradition is mentioned in Musnad Ahmad and 
Sunan Abi Dawood, on the authority of Abdullah ibn Abbas «^>). 

An idea of the extreme repugnance the sayings of the Holy 
Prophet 0 had produced among the Companions against wine can 
be obtained from the incident that once when the vineyards of Sa'd 
ibn Abi Waqqas 4& had yielded a bumper crop, the person who 
looked after them wrote to him that as there had been a very large 
crop of grapes that year and it was feared that it would rot, could he 
have the juice of the grapes extracted and preserve it. Upon it, 
Sayyidina Sa'd ibn Waqqas replied, 
"When you recieve this letter, 

relinquish the job and sever all Jj=Mi ^jtsT ^£ t^r lil 
connection with my lands and ,', - > - , , /f , 
orchards. By Allah, I cannot J* 1 * ^0* 

trust you with anything after it." \'^\ 



All Intoxicants Are Forbidden 



502 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



jis r 3 13443 V3 *>sJj j-ui» »>ii ^ j! to j 

j£\ JUi a*ji3*j ; gl&i £»1jsr 'J}& & (i^3 *»' J**^ J3-0 

(*JJaiiilj f JL-.j^jbgi8tjj) .SjLtfJtjP^I f if 

(1595/230) Narrated Abu Musa Ash'ari 4& that "The Prophet 
0 had sent me and Mu'az ibn Jabal 4&> to Yemen (on a 
religious mission) and instructed us to invite the people of Faith 
and give them the tidings (of a happy sequel) and refrain from 
saying things that may be repellent to them, and, further, to 
create facilities for them instead of hardships.' Abu Musa <$k> 
goes on to relate to us, saying that " 1, then, requested the 
Prophet iH to tell us what Shari'ah said about the two kinds of 
.wine we used to manufacture in Yemen, (one was called Bit'a 
which was brewed from honey, — a fixed quantity of honey 
was mixed with water and left to ferment, and the other, Mizr 
which was brewed from cheena and barely, — the two corns 
were soaked in water and left in that state until fermentation 
was produced). The Prophet H whom the Lord had blessed 
with preciseness and comprehensiveness of speech i.e., he could 
express himself plainly and positively in a few words, 
(thereupon), observed: "I forbid everything which is 
intoxicating and makes a man heedless of prayer (salah)." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: It establishes, as general rule, that all the articles of 
eating or drinking that are intoxicating and likely to make a person 
negligent of a fundamental duty like prayer are forbidden in Islam. 
It, also, includes cannabis and all the other herbs and plants that 
produce intoxication, and are, generally, used for that purpose. 

A Prophecy Regarding Indulgence 
In Wine by Muslims 

All this notwithstanding, it had been revealed to the Holy 
Prophet H that some sinful and unrighteous men among the 
Muslims will take to drink, but give it some other name, and, thus, 
try to decieve themselves as well as others. But the reality of a 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



503 



thing does not change with the change of its name, nor do the 
commandments of the Shari'ah. Such people, in any case, will be 
guilty of transgression against the Holy law and the artifice of 
changing the name will only add to the gravity of the offence. 

ds-'&\ JJf &\ J_^»3 iS\ <s yui,^ ^iJU ^tjp (\o<u/yn) 
• fyj+~4 y>^ s Is^Cf <j>^ It Sjfc (i-^j 

(1596/231) Abu Maalik Ash'ari ^ related to us that he heard 
the Prophet ^ say: 'Some people among my followers will 
drink wine, and give it another name (by way of deception)." 

(Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah) 

Some Exceptional Rules And Commandments 

As already stated, when complete prohibition had been 
proclaimed, after the revelation of Surah Al-Ma'idah, the sacred 
Prophet ^1 issued some exceptionally severe orders which were 
mainly aimed at creating a climate of repugnance against the 
'mother of evils' among the Believers so that they did not return to 
the old habit of drinking with the passage of time. 

(1597/232) It is related by Abdullah ibn Umar 4& that the 
Prophet forbade the preparation of Nabeez 1 in an earthen 
pitcher or a vessel made of hollow guord or date-wood, and 
ordered that it should be prepared only in leather-bags. "(Muslim) 

Commentary: The beverage called Nabeez was popular among the 

Arabs, and, as we shall see later, the sacred Prophet £§l, ioo, drank 

it. The three kinds of vessels about which the Prophet has said that 

the beverage should not be prepared in them were, generally, used 

in making wine. When the verse absolutely forbidding the-Tise of 

wine was revealed, the Prophet 0 forbade their employment for 

that purpose, probably, to guard against the possibility of the 

O. A beverage prepared by steeping grapes, dates or Munaqqus (a species of 
raisins) in water for such time that their flavour is drawn into the water, but it 
does not ferment. 



504 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



revival of the craving for alcoholic liquors at the sight of the 
vessels. Later, as aversion to drinking was firmly entrenched in the 
hearts and no such danger remained, the Holy Prophet ft allowed 
the use of these vessels. 



(1598/233) It is related by Buraydah ^s> that the Messenger of 
Allah ft said: "I had forbidden to you the use of certain vessels. 
(Now, I allow it) as nothing becomes allowed or forbidden 
merely because of vessels. You should, (of course), remember 
that every intoxicating thing is forbidden, (and keep strictly 
away from it)." (Muslim) 

Commentary: It makes it clear that for the reason we have just 
indicated, the Holy Prophet ft had, initially, taken some extreme 
steps towards prohibitation, but, later on, he had relaxed or 
withdrawn them. 

jtlj yfyj ±& >3 As >3 A 

(1599/234) Abu Qatadah 4#b narrated that "The Messenger of 
Allah ft forbade the mixing of dried ripe dates, with semi-ripe 
dates, and, in the same way, of dried grapes with dried ripe 
dates, and green dates with fresh, ripe dates (for the preparation 
of Nabeez), and said that Nabeez should be prepared from them 
separately." (Muslim) 
Commentary: Commentators have explained that it was possible 
for fermentation to take place when the afore-mentioned fruits 
were soaked together in water, and, hence, the Holy Prophet ft 
had forbidden it as a precautionary measure and ordered that 
Nabeez was to be prepared from them separately. 

The Prophet ft. perhaps, had given this order, too, during the 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



505 



early phase of total prohibitation and it was withdrawn along with 
other extreme measures when the object of creating an instinctive 
dislike, in the Ummah, against strong drinks had been realised. 

As we learn from the following narrative of Sayyidah Ayshah 
i^p &\ Nabeez was prepared for the Holy Prophet 0 himself 
by steeping dried grapes with dates, and he used to drink it. 

Nabeez is A Pure And Lawful Beverage, And The 
Messenger of Allah 0 , Too, Used to Drinkit 

(1600/235) Sayyidah Ayshah 14*^1,^*, narrated to us that 
"Nabeez was prepared from dried grapes for the Prophet i§l, 
and dates were, also, put in it. or it was prepared from dried 
dates, and grapes, too. were put in it." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It shows that Nabeez from mixed fruits like dates 
and grapes, too, is allowed, but care must be taken the fermentation 
is not produced and it does not become intoxicating. 

In another Tradition related by Sayyidah Ayshah it is 

stated "for the making Nabeez for Prophet S, I used to soak dates, 
etc. in water, in the evening, which he drank in the morning, and, 
in the same way, for the evening, we used to soak them in the 
morning." 

4*%\ > £±> jfi Jii ^ jp ( n . >/m) 

(1601/236) Sayyidina Anas ^> related to us, (pointing at a cup), 
that in this cup of mine. I have given to the Prophet $ all the 
things to drink that are to be drunk: honey, Nabeez. water and 
milk - (Muslim) 
Commentary: From the narratives mentioned above, it is clear 
that the Prophet S used to take Nabeez which wan specially 
prepared for him. 



506 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



The Prophet S Liked A Cool And Sweek Drink 

(1602/237) Sayyidah Ayshah t^'^j related to us, that among 
the liquids for drinking, the Messenger of Allah ft liked what 
was cool and sweet. (Tirmizi) 

Sweet Water For The Messenger of Allah ft 

oI^J ^3 JU> ^J< ^ dill iiiip y ( u • w r a) 
( jU>: &d» # 3 # & ^ »?jS 6* ^ * 

(1603/238) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah i«s*Ai,-a»j that 
sweet water was brought for the Messenger of Allah ft from 
Buyut as-Suqyah. (Abu Dawood) 

(It is stated by Qutaibah, the teacher of Abu Dawood, who is 
one of the narrators of this report, that Buyut as-Suqayh from 
where sweet water was brought for the Prophet ft was situated 
at a distance of two days' journey from Madinah). 
Commentary: As these Traditions show, it is not imcompatible 
with the spirit of Islamic asceticism to take cool and sweet drinks, 
and food that is agreeable to the taste. To arrange for such things 
for anyone, out of love and devotion which is wholly for the sake 
of Allah, is a commendable act, and pleasing to the Lord. 



PROPRIETIES 



Along with enjoining what is good and lawful, and prohibiting 
what is foul and forbidden in food and drink, at the command of 
Allah, the Holy Prophet ill, also, has taught the proprieties of 
eating and drinking that are either the requirements of good 
manners and dignified behaviour or based upon sound medical 
considerations or appertain to thanksgiving and remembrance of 
the Lord, and lift an apparently worldly act, like it, to a means of 
gaining His countenance. 

In the Traditions we are now going to take up, there is enough 
to show that the correct manners and proprieties of eating and 
drinking set forth in them are in the nature of what is termed in the 
Shari'ah as Istihbab or Istihsan, i.e., commendable, and not 
obligatory. Hence, no sin attaches if these are not followed. 

Washing Hands Before And After A Meal 

(1604/239) Salman Farsi 4k> narrated, "I had read in Torah that 
to wash the hands and mouth after a meal was a source of 
barkat'. (When) I mentioned it to the Messenger of Allah Jl&, 
he remarked: To wash hands and mouth before and after a meal 
is a source of barkat. (Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: In the Qur'an it is stated that, through the last of His 
Messengers, the Prophet Muhammad iH, Allah has brought to 
perfection the guidance that had been reaching mankind through 
the earlier Prophets: 

O. In the dictionaries, barkat is defined as 'abundance'; 'prosperity'; 
'auspiciousness'; 'good fortune'; 'blesing'. 



508 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



This day I have perfected your religion for you. (Al Ma'idah 5:4) 
In the light of it, the above Tradition would denote that while in 
the Torah, only the washing of the hands and mouth after a meal 
had been taught and described as a source of barkat, through the 
sacred Prophet S> it was advised to do so both before and after 
eating. 

The word, barkat has a very wide range of meaning. As Shah 
Waliullah says in Hujjatillahil Baligha, what barkat in food and 
drink denotes, among other things, is that the purpose for which a 
meal is taken is gained fully, one eats with relish, a small quantity 
of food suffices and provides ample nourishment for the body, and 
instead of giving rise to sensuality or moral or spiritual lassitude, 
produces a feeling of gratitude and submission to the Almighty 
Creator and Sustainer. All these are manifestations of the state 
described in the above Tradition as barkat. 

Again, in Kanzul 'Ummal and M'ojam Ausat Tabarani it is 
stated, on the authority of Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Abbas that the 
Prophet i$jfe said, "Washing hands and mouth before and after a 
meal keeps poverty away, and is the way of Divine Prophets. 

It is, further, an elementary principle of hygiene that hands and 
mouth should be washed properly before commencing to eat and 
after the meal is over. 1 

In Sayyidina Salman Farsi's 4$> narrative and most of the other 
Traditions on the subject, the word Wudhit has been used, but it 
does not denote the ablution performed for offering prayer (Salah). 
Only the washing of hands and mouth is meant which has, also, 
been made plain in some Traditions. 

( 1 605/240) !t is related by Abu Hurayrah <ife> that the Messenger 
of Allah HH said: "Whoever retires for the night in the condition 



O. The commandment, evidently, will apply when the meal is taken with the 
hands and not with a spoon etc., and the hand does not touch it. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



509 



that the effect of the oily substance of food or its smelt is 
present on his hands and some harm comes to him as a result of 
it, (as for instance, an insect or rodent bites him), he has only 
himself to blame." (Tirmizi, Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: What it seeks to stress is that hands should be 
washed carefully after a meal, particularly, when it is greasy, so 
that its effects are not left behind. However, since this 
commandment belongs to the category of supererogation and the 
omission of it is not sinful, the Holy Prophet 0 himself did not 
always abide by it, as the following Tradition will show. 

Wiping And Drying Hands 

%\ j^k J jis J, 4»juyi #Jk\& j* ( n . vy n ) 

y>\ 41 j j) • LUjII $ ^ ijj 4ju> blLfi j 

(1606/241) Narrated Abdullah ibn Harith 4& that (once) as the 
Prophet 0 was in the mosque, a person brought some meat and 
bread for him which he ate, and we, also, joined him in the 
meal. After it, he, and with him, we, too, stood up for prayer 
(salah), and, (at that time), we did nothing more than wiping our 
hands with the grave! (that was laid on the floor)." (Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: The object of the narrator, Sayyidina Abdullah ibn 
Harith in relating it, seemingly, is to indicate that, occasionally, 
it, also, happened that the Messenger of Allah S had a meal with 
his Companions, and, then, he only wiped and dried his hands 
instead of washing then* As commentators have remarked, the 
Holy Prophet m, probably, did so to show that it was not essential 
to wash the hands and the mouth after eating and even prayer could 
be offered without it. Sometimes, the Prophet iH used to omit a 
better and preferable act so that people could see and learn, at first 
hand, how much allowance or latitude was granted to them in a 
particular matter. It was, in fact, necessary for him, as a teacher and 
preceptor, to set an example by his own conduct in all the spheres 
of life. 

Apart from it, the circumstances in which the incident took 
place should, also, be borne in the mind. The time of prayer was 



510 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



near and the companions had gathered in the mosque for the 
service that a person brought some bread and meat for the 
Messenger of Allah It was quite possible that some of the men 
who were present in the mosque were hungry and wanted to eat, 
and the Holy Prophet lH thought it would be better if the meal was 
taken before the service, and he invited his Companions, also, to 
join. In those circumstances, it was out of the question for anyone 
to have a full meal and only a few morsels would have been taken 
as a blessing, and the hands, too, would, thus, not have become 
much dirty. 

It should, also, be noted that there was no arrangement for 
water in the mosque and they would have had to go out, perhaps, to 
their homes, if they wanted to wash their hands. In our humble 
opinion, all these factors would have contributed to the decision to 
wipe hands in place of washing them. 

The way in which the wiping and drying of hands with the 
gravel is mentioned in this Tradition shows that the Messenger of 
Allah too, had done the same at that time. From it, we can 
deduce that hands can be cleaned with a towel, paper or any other 
thing like it afer eating, and it, too, will be within the orbit of the 
Sunnah. 

Remembering Allah and taking His 
Name Before Commencing to Eat 

\i\ fa *Op %\ JU k jil cJii lite jp ( u . y/y 1 1) 

(1607/242) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah I** -Sii that the 

Messenger of Allah iS said: "When anyone of you intends to 

eat, he should take the Name of Allah, i.e., Bismillah, and in 

case he forgets to say Bismillah at the beginning, he should say 

Bismillah Awwaluhu wa Aakhirahu at the end." 

(Abu Dawood and Tirmizi) 

Commentary: To take the name of Allah is a source of blessing 
and auspeciousness, and as it is candidly stated in some Traditions, 
a special effect of it, also, is that the Devils keep away when it is 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



511 



mentioned. Thus, the food over which Allah's name is taken will 
remain safe from their participation and mischief. 

Another purpose of the teaching is that when food is laid before 
a bondsman, he should remember that it is the gift and favour of 
the Lord, and by His grace, is he able to eat and derive pleasure and 
nourishment from it. In this way, eating, which, to all appearance, 
is purely physical act and in response to an animal urge, becomes a 
lustrous and godly deed. 

As it, sometimes, happens, a person forgets to say Bismillah 
before commencing to eat. For him the Prophet's advice is that he 
should say Bismillah Awwaluhu wa Aakhirahu (I seek blessing 
from the name of Allah, both at the beginning and at the end) when 
he remembers. 

l\ jJLj dp %\ JU > 'S^ Ji5 Ji5 'J- ( n • A/r t r) 

(1608/243) It is related by Huziafah <S&> that the Messenger of 
Allah 0 said: "The Devil makes the meal legitimate for 
himself, i.e., the possibility and justification is created for the 
Devil to share the meal over which Allah's name has not been 
taken." (Muslim) 

Commentary: The name of Allah, as one would say, serves as a 
whip, or, rather, a battle-axe for the Devil. When Allah's name will 
be taken over a meal and Bismillah is said before one begins to eat, 
Satan will not be ble to participate in it, while if it is not done and 
the name of Allah is not taken, there will be nothing to stop him 
though the diner may not see that the Devil is joining in the meal. 

In another Tradition, quoted, again, in Sahih Musim, it is stated 
that when a person enters the house where he lives and spends the 
nights by taking the name of Allah, and, also, takes Allahs name 
when he begins to eat, the Devil says to his companions, "Let us go 
away from here. There is no room for us in this house, nor a share 
in the food." On the contrary, when a man does not take Allah's 
name on entering his house, and, also, fails to remeirber Him at the 
time of eating, the Devil says to his companions, "Come, this is the 
place for us to spend the night, and here is, also, food for us to eat." 



512 



Meaning and Message of (he Traditions Pari VI 



It may, however, be noted that the existence of the Angels and 
the Devils, and their functions and attributes are among the things 
of the invisible world which we cannot know on our own. The 
same, indeed, is the case with the Being and Attributes of Allah. 
For a faithful Believer, the path of duty lies in placing his trust in 
the knowledge furnished by the sacred Prophet concerning all 
transcedental truths. 

Eating With The Right Hand 

(1609/244) Umar ibn Salmah narrated that "(When), (in my 
childhood), I was in the care of the Messenger of Allah H, 1 
used to eat from all parts of the dish. The Messenger of Allah 
advised me to say Bismillah (before beginning to eat), and to 
eat with the right hand, and from (the part of the dish that was) 
in front of me." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Sayyidina Abu Salmah 4& was the son of the Holy 
Prophet's aunt, i.e, his father's sister, and among the notable 
Companions of the earliest phase. Umm Salmah if* Ai^j was the 
name of his wife who was a devoted Muslim lady. The narrator of 
this Tradition, Umar ibn Abi Salmah 4^>, was their child. When 
Abu Salmah died in the 3rd or 4th year of the Hijri calender, the 
Holy Prophet 0 married his widow, Umm Salmah if* isi to 
bring her relief and comfort, and, thus, Umar ibn Abi Salmah 4& 
who was, then, a child, came under his protection. He relates that, 
in those days, the Holy Prophet iH used to have him eat with 
himself, and from the same dish and his hand wandered all over the 
plate during the meal. The Prophet &, upon it, told him to begin 
the meal with Bismillah and to eat with the right hand and from the 
part of the dish that was before him 

In some other Traditions, it is stated that if the meal consists of 
several dishes or several kinds of fruit, the hand may be stretched 
in different directions. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



513 



S. , s & \ A ^ ^ ^ ^ 

(1610/245) It is related by Abdullah ibn Umar <j& that the 
Messenger of Allah £§k said: "When anyone of you eats, he 
should eat with the right hand, and when anyone of you drinks, 
he should drink with the right hand." (Muslim) 

Commentary: A man uses his hands for all sorts of things, both 
clean and unclean. His natural inclination for cleanliness demands 
that while one hand is used for acts like removing an impurity, 
other acts are performed with the other hand. It has, thus, been 
specified for the left hand that it should be employed for acts like 
purification after defacation or urination, and for the right hand 
that all good and clean acts like eating and drinking are performed 
with it. 

The superiority of the right hand over the left, being taken for 
granted everywhere, the afore-mentioned advice will appear to be 
in the natural order of things. 

4>>L:j du-iu jru jifclji 14 #jk> ij Aju-iu fiiti jifW 
(pi— .\it 

(161 1/246) It is related by Abdullah ibn Umar 4& that the 
Messenger of Allah 0 said: "No one of you should eat or drink 
with the left hand for (it is the way of the Devil); he eats and 
drinks with the left hand." (Muslim) 



Taking offShoes While Sitting Down to A Meal 

(1612/247) It is related by Anas ibn Maalik 4$> that the Prophet 
said: "Take off your shoes when the meal is placed before 
you. It will be more comfortable for the feet." (Daarami) 

Commentary: The idea behind this advice, as indicated in the 
above report, that it will give greater comfort to the feet if the 



514 



Meaning and Message of (he Traditions Part VI 



shoes are removed at the time of eating clearly suggests that it is 
based on kindliness and affection, and not that it is sinful to eat 
with the shoes on. 

Food Should Not Be Taken Too Hot 

*i &y>\ iij cjtf" \$\ & ^ c-u ;uJt ( n \ r/r i a) 

.ijj) . ^ ^ > j^i: ^Lj 

(1613/248) It is narrated concerning Sayyidah Asma ibnt Abu 
Bakr iii^joj that her practice was that when Sareed was 
prepared and brought to her, she had it kept covered until the 
intensity of its heat had subsided and it had ceased to give out 
vapours, and, in support of it, she used to say that she had heard 
the Messenger of Allah 0 say that there was harakat in eating 
like that, i.e., after allowing the food to cool down a little. 

(Daarmi) 

Commentary: A palatale dish made with meat and pieces of bread 
is called Sareed. It was more popular during the days of the 
Prophet Although Sareed is, specifically, mentioned in this 
Tradition, as it was eaten frequently, the advice applies to all 
cooked food that it should not be taken too hot. 

As for barakaj, we have seen, already, that, among other 
things, it signifies that the purpose for which a meal is taken is 
gained, in a greater degree, by eating that way. 

Medically, too, it is advisable that a meal is not taken much 
above normal temperature. 

Auspiciousness of Eating Together 

aJp % J^> ^Ji ji jii v> <y. '<r^3 > ( n \ t/v i O 
jis ^ i jits J& $d jil £ii tj ft wi> Jjijii ,i-3 

(1614/ 249) Narrated Wahshi ibn Harb'^& that once some 
O. It is the same Wahshi ibn Harb who had killed Sayyidina Amir Hamza 
<u*, the uncle of the sacred Prophet in the Battle of Uhud. He embraced 
Islam later on in 8 A.H.. at the time of the Victory (Continued on Next Page) 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



515 



Companions said to the Prophet agl "Our condition is that we 
eat, but do not feel satisfied (after a meal)." "Perhaps, you eat 
alone," said the Messenger of Allah life. "Yes." they replied. 
"We eat alone." The Prophet, thereupon, observed: "Sit down to 
the meal together, and take the name of Allah, i.e.. say Bismillah 
before commencing to eat. There will, then, be greater barakat 
for you in the meal, (and it will be more satisfying)." 

(Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Anyone can have the experinece of the barakat of 
eating jointly, spoken of in it, provided that those who dine are 
blessed with the virtue of unselfishness, which is expected of all 
faithful Believers, and everyone wants the others to have a better 
and larger share of the meal. Otherwise, they will have no claim to 
barakat, and it may. in fact, turn out to be the other way round. 

fU&j fojtf j& Jut; — j& m j^-ijii ^ut 

(pi — . al jj) iliUilt tS iSj 

(1615/250) It is related by Sayyidina Jabir 4&e> that he heard the 
Prophet m say: "A meal for one suffices two, and a meal for 
two suffices four, and, in the same way. a meal for four 
suffieces eight." (Muslim) 

Commentary: A similar report is found in Kanzul Ummal. It has 
been reproduced from M'ojim Kabir Tabarani, and its narartor is 
Abdullah ibn Umar. At the end of it, it is added "you should, 
therefore, dine, not separately but together." 

Eating From The Sides of Vessel 

Continued of Makkah. Since then it was his constant desire to do something 
which could make amends to any extent, for the grave wrong he had 
committed. When, after the death of the Holy Prophet Sayyidina Abu 
BakrA^^ii^j despatched the army, under the command of Khalid ibn Walid, 
to put down the mischief of the claimant to Messengership, Mussailima the 
Liar, he, too, joined it in the hope of killing the imposter with his own hands. 
Wahshi's ambition was fulfilled, and he used to say that he had killed 
Mussailima with tthe same spear with which he had killed Sayyidina Ham/a 



516 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



a ^ ^3 & » * & ^ •&} * 

(1616/251) Abdullah ibn Abbas 4& related to us, that once a 
lagan (meaning a long flat copper basin) full of sareed was 
brought to the Messenger of Allah 0. The Messenger of Allah 
S (had the others join him in the meal, and), said: "Eat from 
the sides of it, and do not put your hand in the middle for 
baxakat descends on the middle." (Tirmizi) 
(In the Tradition quoted in Sunan Abi^ Dawood, the following 
remark of the Messenger of Allah A is mentioned without 
reference to the incident related above: 

"When anyone of you eats, he ^ ^ „ 
should not do so from the JTU ^3 lilit ^A^l J5 nil 
upper, i.e., middle part of the ^ ,^ j,- . 

dish, but from the lower parts, tr - ^ J ' , 
i.e., the sides of it because ^ J^j iT^jl £li 
barakat comes down from the ^ 
upper part (to the lower parts) 
of the dish). 

Commentary: As already stated, barakat, in truth, is an order and 
Command of Allah, i.e, an invisible manifestation of His Will. The 
Prophet % used to perceive it, and he saw that barakat descended 
directly on the middle part of a dish, and, then, its effects spread to 
its sides and edges, and, therefore, advised the people to eat from 
the sides of a vessel, and not from the middle. The Divine rule 
concerning barakat in food is still unchanged, but is dependent on 
faith and worthiness. 

FoodLeftOverlnThePlateorOnFingers 

gtrffl jiL. y\ fa & to JU i> # jfr & < * " v/ T o ;) 

(1617/252) Sayyidina Jabir <$e> related, that the Messenger of 
Allah & advised (us) to lick the fingers (after eating a meal), 
and, also, to clean the vessel. He said: "You do not know in 
which part or particle of food the special effect of barakat lies." 

(Muslim) 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



517 



Commentary: What it denotes is that food is a gift of the Lord 
and due regard should be paid to every particle of it. No one knows 
which part of it is specially endued with barakat or auspiciousness. 
What is left over in the plate or adheres to the fingers during eating 
should, also, be eaten, considering it to be a Divine blessing. It is 
symbolic of one's gratitude to the Almighty as well as neediness. 
As the Prophet Musa had said: 

(Y i :T A jjAifiiJ') £r & $ CJ> UJ ^JJ ^ 

My Lord! I am needy for whatever good Thou sendest down for 
me. (Al Qasas 28:24) 

jtf jts jJLj^'it JUAi jJi3jpaiSlip(n\A/Yor) 

(1618/253) It is related by Nubaishah ^ that the Messenger of 
Allah iH said: "Whoever eats from a vessel and makes it wholly 
clean (so that nothing is left sticking to it), the vessel 
supplicates for forgiveness on his behalf." 

(Musnad Ahmad, Tirmizi, lbn Majah, and Daarami) 

The Morsel That Drops From The 
Hands Should Also, Be Eaten 

l\ j>; jjbj d£.%\ JU ^ dJ^ jti jfc & ( n \ vy © 0 
v j i# a ^ J41 j* uifo j&rf ^ ^» 

(1619/254) Jabir related that the he heard the Prophet m 
say: "The Devil is alongside of you whatever you may be doing, 
even while you are eating. So, if a morsel drops down from the 
hand of anyone (at the time of eating), he should make it clean 
and eat it, and not leave it for the Devil. Moreover, when he 
finishes, he should lick the fingers for he does not know what 
particle of the food is endued with barakat" (Muslim) 

Commentary: In its concluding part, it is stated that the fingers 



518 



Meaning unci Message of the Traditions Part VI 



should be cleaned after eating by passing the tongue over them 
which we have, already, explained. At the beginning, the above 
Tradition tells that if a morsel of food falls down from the hand of 
anyone, while eating, he should not leave it alone like a rich and 
conceited person, but as a needy and grateful bondsman, he should 
> pick it up, clean it. and. then, eat it. We, further, learn from it that 
when a fallen morsel is discarded it goes to the share of the Devil. 

Note: The Angels and the Devils are the Lord's creatures that 
are often with us though we do not see them. What the sacred 
Propet & has told about them is based upon the knowledge 
vouchsafed to him by Allah, and there can, certainly, be no doubt 
about its veracity and correctness. As the afore-mentioned narrative 
tells, the Holy Prophet J$fr, sometimes, actually saw them as we do 
the physical objects around us. It would, therefore, be a folly to 
imagine about the report in which it is stated, for example, that the 
Devils are present at the time of eating, or they join in the meal 
over which the name of Allah has not been taken, or the morsel of 
food that drops from the hand during a meal goes to his share that 
these are mererly of an allegorical character. 

Commenting on the above Tradition, in Hujjat, Shah Waliullah 
has narrated the following incident from his own experience. He 
says that once a friend, pupil or disciple who had come to visit him 
was eating at his house that a mosel of food dropped from his hand 
and rolled on the ground. He tried to pick it up, but the morsel 
moved away, and, as he followed it, it went farther, to the utter 
surprise of everyone. The person, at last, managed to catch hold of 
the morsel and eat it. 

A few days later, a satanic jinn set himself over a man and 
began to speak through him. Among other things, he, also, 
mentioned the name of Shah Waliullah's friend and said that he had 
gone to him while he was taking food and wanted to eat it, but he 
did not give it to him. Upon it, he snatched a morsel from his hand 
and made it fall on the ground, but he, also, took it away from him. 

Another incident Shah Waliullah has cited in the same context 
is that once while his family members were eating carrots, a carrot 
fell down, and one of them quickly picked it up and ate it. Soon 
afterwards, he was seized with a severe pain in the chest and the 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



519 



abdomen, and, then, a devil or jinn possessed him and complained, 
through him. that the man had eaten his carrot. 

After narrating these experiences. Shah Waliullah observed 'I 
have, also, heard numerous incidents of this kind and fee! 
convinced that the Traditions (relating to the participation and 
other activities of the Devils in food and drink) do not belong to 
the realm of the figurative and the metaphysical, but what has been 
told in them is a fact and an actual event." 

If a fly Drops In A Meal 

&\fe4*%\ J+b\ J^JiSJi5 5>:>^i^ (nr. /too) 

(1620/255) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4fe> that the Messenger 
of Allah said: "When a fly drops into the vessel from which 
you are eating or drinking, you should take it out after giving it 
dipped because out of its two wings, there is disease, i.e.. 
disease-producing matter in one, and cure, i.e.. healing 
substance in the other, and it shields itself with the wing that 
contains the disease-producing mater. [When it falls, it falls on 
the side of that wing and tries to protect the other]. Whoever of 
you is eating should, thus, take out the fly after dipping it (in the 
food)." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It is among the Traditions which, in the modern 
times, put the faith of many people to test though if one were to 
ponder a little over the laws and mysteries of nature, there would 
appear nothing in them that was not believeable. 

Like many insects, the fly, too, possesses some poisonous 
substance which is injurious to health, and all living beings, in 
addition, have a natural self-protecting tendency to throw out 
towards the external organs the toxins that are produced within 
them. It is, therefore, quite conceviable that the inward mechanism 
of a fly tranfers the poisonous matter inside its body to the wing 
which is an external organ, and, out of the two wings, to the left 
which is weaker and less useful, as our left which is weaker and 
less useful, as our left arm is as compared to the right. 



520 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



Again, in the event of danger, all animals, instinctively, try to 
protect the limb which is more vital to them. Hence, it is not 
strange if a fly, too, seeks to protect the wing which is 
comparatively free from poison and superior to the other one. 

Those who have studied closely the operation of the Divine 
Will in the scheme of creation will, further, agree that where the 
essential elements of illness are found, the essential elements of 
cure, too, are generally, present. They, often, go together. It is, 
thus, quite natural that if there is a poisonious substance in one 
wing of a fly, its anti-dote is present in the other. The advice of the 
holy Prophet $1, consequently, will appear to be in keeping with 
the Law of Nature. 

Like many other Traditions, it, in fact, is related to hygiene, 
and. hence, one can say that it is not religiously ibnding to follow 
the guidance contained in it. 

The above remarks have been adopted from Shah Waliullah's 
Ijujjatillahil Baligha. 

The Prophet's Attitude of Humbleness 
While Taking A Meal 

& 

(1621/256) it is related by Abu Juhayfah ^> that the Messenger 
of Allah A said: "1 do not sit in a recumbent position or with 
my back resting on anything while taking my food." (Bukhari) 

Commentary: To sit at a meal in a reclining position is a sign of 
vanity. The purpose of the above Tradition is that the holy Prophet 
H did not lean on a pillow etc., while having his meals. He was a 
bondsman of the Lord and ate like a bondsman. 

A saying of the Prophet 0 related by Sayyidah Ayshah h ^ 
ifr* and quoted in Kanzul 'Ummal from Musnad Abu Y'alaa and 
Ibn Sa'd, reads: 

"I eat like a slave and a Jj£ij jgj, ^ 

bondsman, and sit like a slave ' 

and bondsman." J4*i ^ 

Traditions of an identical nature have been related by some 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



521 



other companions as well, and the substance of all these is that the 
Prophet 0 ate his meals like an humble slave, and not a concieted 
person, and taught others, too, to behave in that manner. Anyone 
who is not neglectful of the fact that food is a blessing of the Lord, 
who is present every where at once and knows all things, will, 
naturally, not sit or eat like a vain and swollen-headed person. 

ojiTbu ^ Sdbfl JJ &f ^ tj-^J^j o'>r J* 

J* 

(1622/257) Narrated Qatadah (a Taba'ee) on the authority of 
Sayyidina Anas <g£b, the attendant of the Prophet that "the 
Prophet ^ never took a meal at a Khwan\ nor did he ever eat 
from a small cup or dish, nor was a chappati 2 cooked for him, at 
any time.' "On what did he (and his Companion), then, take their 
food?" Qatadah was asked. "On a sheet of cloth," he replied. 

(Bukhari) 

Commentary: In ancient Arabia, it was cosidered a mark of 
distinction to have one's food seated at a khwan, and to eat on the 
floor with a mat or sheet of cloth laid out on it was the way of the 
common people. Similarly, small cups and dishes were used by the 
rich. These things, in fact, had become common in Muslim homes, 
too, towards the end of the era of the holy Companions c^>. 

What it aims to tell, briefly, is that the holy Prophet H ate very 
simply and his meals were wholly in keeping with the attributes of 
austerity and humbleness that were so characteristic of him. He 
never dined at a khwan or from small bowls and dishes, nor were 
chappatis ever prepared, specially, for him. 

In the Traditions discussed ealier, we have seen how ruggedly 
simple and austere was the life led by the holy Prophet 0, in all its 
aspects. 



O. Meaning a low wooden frame with a flat top on which meals are laid out. 
0. A thin cake of unleavened dough, regarded to be a delicacy among various 
kinds of bread. 



522 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 

Forbidding The Use of Gold or Silver Vessels 

(1623/258) Anas 4e> related to us, that the Messenger of Allah 
£$i forbade taking food from vessels made of gold and silver. 

(Nasai) 

Commentary: To eat from gold or silver vessels is to make an 
unnecessary display of one's wealth or rank, and, this is why, the 
Holy Prophet $H has forbidden it to his followers. 

In another Tradition, quoted in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih 
Muslim, it is told that "whoever eats from vessels of gold or silver, 
so to say, takes the tire of Hell into his stomach." 



The Prophet m Never Found Fault With Food 

UUb ^ 1 o\£ U JlS 5>;> ^1 (H Y t/Y o^) 

(1624/259) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4& that the Prophet 
0 never found fault with food. If he liked anything, he ate it, 
and if he did not, he left it. (Bukhari and Muslim) 



The Prophet's Favourite Dishes 

ii^sijl jibUl (»JL»j A-Lfr <*ilt (JL* <^JI Cjij JbJJj «.Lp 

(1625/260) Sayyidina Anas 4$e> relates that (once) a tailor 
invited the Prophet to dine with him, I, also, went with him. 
The tailor offered barely-bread and broth containing pieces of 
gourd and dried meat. I noticed that the Prophet was picking 
pieces of gourd from the bowl and eating them. From that day, 
1, too, began to eat gourd with relish. (Bukhari and Muslim) 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



523 



(1626/261) Narrated Abdullah ibn Jabar <$fc. "| have seen the 
Messenger of Allah 0 eating ripe dates with cucumber." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

pjuy .ijj) . lU >y Ok % & ^ Ok > JZ^ Jjfc 

0627/262) Sayyidah Ayshah relates that the Prophet 

s& used to eat melons with ripe dates, he said that the coldness 
of the melons removed the effects of the heat of the dates, and 
the heat of the dates removed the effects of the coldness of the 
melons - (Abu Dawood) 

% S^j j\ puiii L±\ & jil ^ ^ < n Y A/nr) 
y «<jj) .^jyiJi Ju; ^ji j ^Ji ^ jl; Jji fa & 

(1628/263) It is related by Abdullah ibn Abbas '^ that the 
Messenger of Allah $jfr was found of eating Sareeii (made with 
bread and broth of mutton), and Sureed of Malidutf (made with 
bread, dates and ghee)." (Abu Dawood} 

(1629/264) It is related by Sayyidah Ayshah 4b that the 
Messenger of Allah S liked (to eat) sweets, (specially), honey." 

(Bukhari) 

Praising The Lord And Expressing 
Gratitude To Him After A Meal 

%\ Sj fa 3 4*%\ J± fo ji jii ^ ^ (m . mo) 

(1630/265) It is related by Sayyidina Anas that the 
Prophet m said: "Allah is greatly pleased with the act of the 
bondsman who, when he eats anything, praises and gives thank s 
O. Sweetmeat prepared with flour, ghee, sugar etc. " 



524 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 

to Him, and when he drinks anything, praises and give thanks to 
Him n (Muslim) 

u^j uvL.j u& J* ^ # t> *i A^j 



(1631/266) It is related by Saeed Khudri 4b that at the end of 
meal, the Messenger of Allah * used to make this supplicate 
praise and thanks giving to the Lord: 

££2 Uli^J 

Praise be to Allah who fed us, and gave us drink, and raised us 
up as Muslims." (Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 

ForbiddingDrinkingin OneBreath 

£S is* ^3 > tf> <#3 ^ *Xfr 

(1632/67) It is related by Abdullah ibn Abbas * that the 
Messenger of Allah ft said: "Do not drink in one breath hke a 
camel, but in two or three breaths, and say Bismdlah when you 
begin to drink, and praise the Lord, and give thanks to Him 
when you finish and remove the vessel from the mouth, (Turn*.) 

j i>> awtf < nrm \ A) 

(1633/268) Sayyidina Anas & related "The Messenger of Allah 
ft used to take three breaths when he drank." ^ B ™ t 
(In another version of this Tradition, quoted m febft Ato»/i«, | 
Is added that the Prophet ft said that "to drink >n this way . 
more satisfying, healthful and pleasing to the stomach). 
Commentary: Apparently, to drink in two or three gulps is based 
on medical grounds, and it is not sinful to drink in one gulp. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



525 



Forbidding Breathing Into The 
Vessel From Which One is Drinking 

(1634/269) Abdullah ibn Abbas related "the Messenger of 
Allah W> forbade breathing or blowing air from the mouth into 
the drinking vessel." (Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: Some people have the habit of breathing into the 
vessel from which they are drinking. It has been forbidden in this 
Tradition, as well as the blowing of air from the mouth. It is not 
only indecent, but, also, injurious to health. 

Forbidding Drinking in The Standing Posture 

fa)&'&J^^cfdf s d* Oiro/YV.) 

(1635/270) Sayyidina Anas related to us, saying that 
Messenger of Allah forbade drinking in the standing 
position." (Muslim) 

Commentary: In some other Tradiitons, too, it is forbidden to 
drink in the standing position, but Abdullah ibn Umar, Abdullah 
ibn 'Amr and few other Companions 4fe> have stated that they had 
seen the holy Prophet iH drink while standing. Taking into account 
the various reports in this connection, it appears that to drink in the 
standing position was undesirable, and the general practice of the 
sacred Prophet & was that he sat down when he drank. But, 
sometimes, he had, also, taken a drink in the standing position 
which could be due to some special reason or that he wanted to 
show, by his own example, that it, too, was allowed. 

As we have seen earlier, the holy Prophet occasionally, 
acted contrary to what was preferable in order to demonstrate that 
it, too, was permitted, and since it was done for the purppse of 
instruction, it was the better and more proper thing for him to do 
at that time. 



DRESS 



Foremost, the teachings of the Holy Prophet with regard to 
clothes are derived from the following verse of Surah Al-A'raf. 

O Children of Adam! We have bestowed raiment upon you to 
cover your shame, as well as to be an adornment to you, but the 
raiment of righteousness, that is best. (Ai A'raf 7:26) 

Two particular advantages of dress are mentioned in the above 
verse. 

One, it conceals the "shame", i.e., the parts of the body that 
should not be seen by others; and, 

Two, it is an adornment, i.e., gives a proper and seemly 
appearance to man and he does not have to move about naked like 
the animals. 

At the end, it is told that the dress which, in truth, is good in 
the judgement of the Lord, is the one that conforms to the 
principles of piety and restraint from evil and does not go beyond 
the limits set by Divine Commandments. All the clothes fulfilling 
this basic condition are befitting and suitable and their use with 
gratitude is a means to the atainment of Divine good pleasure. 

As we consider the sayings of the Holy Prophet S and his 
regular practice, we feel that the underlying principle of his advice 
and instruction regarding dress is that it should serve the purpose 
of hiding nakedness and make a person look good and respectable 
It must neither be so short or indecent as to fail in the primary 
object of covering nakedness nor so dirty, odd and inelegent that 
instead of being an adornment, one appeared clumsy, uncouth and 
repulsive in it. At the same time, clothes should not be 
unnecessarily expensive or intended to impress others with one's 



528 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 

wealth or importance which was inconsistent with the spirit of 
humility, and unworthy of a true bondsman of the Lord. Men, thus, 
are not permitted to wear silk. Like ornaments of gold and silver, 
silken clothes, too, are meant, exclusively for women. Again, men 
should not cultivate a resemblance with women by putting on their 
apparel, nor women do an injustice to their feminity by dressing 
themselves like men. 

The sacred Prophet S, further, has advised that those on 
whom there is the favour of the Lord should live and clothe 
themselves in a way that may be reflective of it. It, too, is a form of 
thanksgiving. But they must not be vain and wasteful, and avoid 
extravagance and ostentation that can be hurtful to the less 
fortunate brethren. They should regard their clothes a blessing of 
Allah and wear them with a feeling of gratitude. The use of every 
dress will, then, become an act of worship. 

Clothes Are A Blessing of The Lord 

(1636/271) It is related by Abu Matar (a Taba'ee), Sayyidina Ali 
4& purchased a dress for three dirhams, and when he wore it, he 
said: 

'Praise be to Allah who bestowed this raiment upon me, and by 
which I adorn myself among the people, and conceal my 
nakedness.' He then remarked 'I have heard the Messenger of 
Allah S praise the Lord and give thanks to Him in this way 
and in these words (when he put on a dress)." (Musnad Ahmad) 
Commentary: An almost similar report has been quoted in 
Tirmizi, on the authority of Sayyidina Umar fa and it is from 
these and many other narratives that we learn that clothes are a 
special blessing of the Lord for which we ought to be grateful to 
Him, and, also, that their main purpose fe the hiding of nakedness, 
and adornment 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 529 

ForbiddingADressThatDoesNotCoverThe 
Body Properly oris Unfit In Any Other Way 

jft 6' ft j J^, j— ^ $ ^ p (nrv/rvt) 
i JOi J^L' 513 5^3 jtf ^ ^ ^ ^ j^i 



(1637/272) It is related by Sayyidina Jabir that the 
Messenger of Allah S forbade that a man eat with the left hand 
or walk with the shoe only on one foot; and he, also, forbade 
that a man wrap himself up in a mantle which enfolded him on 
all s.des or sat on his haunces with the knees erect and covered 
with a sheet in a way that left the satr* bare." (Muslim) 
Commentary: Various styles in dress were in vogue among 
the Arabs in olden days. One of them, for instance, was that a sheet 
was wrapped around the body in such a manner that the whole 
body was shut in, from all sides, so much so that even the hands 
could not be taken out. It was called Ishtimal Samma'a, and has 
been forbidden in this Tradition because it was a shapeless and 
ungainly method of clothing oneself and made a man a prisoner of 
his dress. Another way was that a man sat on his rump, with the 
knees upright, and covered his waist and calves with a sheet It was 
called Ihtiba'a, and was forbidden as it did not cover the satr 
properly and the lower parts of the body remained exposed 
Similarly, to wear the shoe on one foot and leave the other bare has 
been forbidden owing to its patent absurdity and awkwardness It 
would, of course, be different if there was a valid reason for it 
such as, a wound or injury in the other foot. 

Forbidding An Excessively 
Thin Dress To Women 

> J^j J* ci^i A $ ^ i\^S # Ufl* ^ ( \ FA/YVf) 

Jf\ Qui) & j Ok j & gj gij ^ jj^t ^ , jf^j, 

0 SSP ' n me "'J t Si f ifieS the partS 0tthe bod y fr ™ *e navel 
to the calves, and, m women, the whole of the body excluding face, hands and 



530 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 

(1638/273) Sayyidah Ayshah t***^; narrated "Once my 
sister, (Asma), went to the Messenger of Allah H wearing a 
thin dress upon which he turned his face away from her, and, 
said: "O Asma! When a woman attains puberty, it is not proper 
for any part of her body to be visible except the face and hands." 

(Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It shows that ladies are not allowed to wear a dress 
through which the body can be seen. The face and the hands can, 
indeed, be left uncovered. 

It needs be remembered that, in this Tradition, the 
commandment of satr for women has been set forth. The 
commandment regarding hijab is different which lays down that 
women should not go out unnecessarily, and when they may have 
to do so, they should wear a veil or cloak. The commands of satr 
and hijab are two separate commands and the spheres of their 
operation, too, are different though some persons are prone to 
confuse them with one another. 

The incident in it had, perhaps, taken place before the 
commandment concerning hijab was revealed because, after it, 
Sayyidah Asma i«* & ^ could not have appeared before the holy 
Prophet A in that manner. 

Imam Maalik has quoted, in Muwatta, another incident related, 
also, by Sayyidah Ayshah l«* Ai ^> It is stated that once her niece, 
Hafsa, the daughter of Abdul Rahman ibn Abu Bakr, came to her 
wearing a very thin covering for her head. Sayyidah Ayshah * ^ 
^ took it off, and tore it, and gave her another sheet of a thicker 
fibre to use. This act of Ayshah i«* **** evidently, was the result 
of the education she had recievedatthehandsofthe Holy Prophet W. 

AThin Dress, Also, is Permitted 
To Women With Certain Conditions 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



531 



(1639/274) Narrated Dihyah ibn Khalifah 4b that (once) as 
some Qubti sheets came to the Prophet S (as a gift), he gave 
one to me, saying: "Divide it into two parts. Use one part for 
making a kurta* for yourself, and give the other to your wife to 
use as head covering." Then, as I was about to leave, he added' 
'Tell your wife to apply another piece of cloth under it (to serve 
as a lining) so that her hair and body are not visible (to others)." 

(Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: In those days, white sheets made from a fine fibre 
used to be brought from Egypt. These were called Qubaatfl. A few 
of these sheets were, once, sent by someone to the holy Prophet S 
as a present. He gave one of them to Dihyah Kalbi, telling him to 
divide it into two parts, and use one part to make a shirt for himself 
and give the other to his wife to wear as a head covering But since 
it was very thin, the sacred Prophet 0 advised Dihyah Kalbi to tell 
her to cover its inside surface with another cloth to make sure that 
her body or hair were not seen by others. 

It shows that dresses made of a thin fabric were permitted to 
women provided that these were worn with a lining and did not 
remain trasparent. 

Ostentation in Dress 

.12$ ft atls 4, jfai iiii tffo j ^ ^ jj 

(1640/275) It is related by Abdullah ibn Abbas 4h that the 
Prophet m said: "Whoever will wear a dress of display or fame 
in the world, Allah will make him wear the dress of ignominy in 
the Hereafter. (Abu Dawood, Musnad Ahmad and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: It denotes an apparel that may be worn to make an 
impression on others by exhibiting one's wealth or superiority It 
naturally, applies, also, to people who wear headgears or robes are 
peculiar to theologians or spiritual mentors and try to show 
themselves off as men of piety and learning. It all, in the final 

O. Meaning a shirt ~ " " 

©. Plural of Qubti 



532 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 

analysis, depends on the intention, and if a person attires himself 
with the object of making a display of his wealth or importance, it 
will be sinful and the above Tradition will be applicable to him, 
while if the same garment is used by him without such an aim or 
purpose, it will not only be unlawful, but, also, a means of earning 
the countenance of the Lord, in certain situations. 

Besides, as we do not know what lies in the hearts, it will be 
wrong for us to criticise anyone on the assumption that his clothes 
are intended for ostentatious display. 

What is more important, however, is that we keep an eye on our 
own intention and on the clothing we use, and, this, indeed, is the 
main object of warning contained in the above narrative. 

Vanity 

The proud and the arrogant among the Arabs, in the days of the 
holy Prophet S, had a way of being wasteful in dress, and it was 
considered a mark of distinction and nobility. If they put a 
Tahbund, they kept it so long that it rubbed against the ground as 
they walked, and a similar tendency was evident in other clothes 
too like a shirt or tiara. It fed their vanity and made them look big 
and important. The sacred Prophet 0 has condemned it strongly 
and given a severe warning to those who do so. 

(1641/276) It is related by Abdullah ibn Umar4^> that the 
Prophet S said: "Whoever will keep his dress unduly long 
owing to pride or vainglory, Allah will not even look towards 
him on the Day of Last Judgement." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

% JL^IJPS^ &Cs^£~4}& (MIY/tVV) 

3 *jb y \ .< jj) yf* *B > # f>- 

(1642/277) Abu Saeed Khudri related that he heard the 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 533 

Messenger of Allah S say: "The (best) way for a faithful 
Believer to wear the lower dress is that it extennds up to the 
middle of the calves, and it, also, is not sinful if it extends up to 
the ankles, but in case it is lower (than that) then he is in Hell 
i.e., he is going to end up there in the Hereafter." The narrator 
tells that the Prophet m said it thrice, and, then, remarked: 
"Allah will not even look at him, (on the Day of Resurrection) 
who will walk dragging his trousers along the ground on 
account of conceit." (AbuDawood) 

Commentary: In the two aforementioned Traditions a dreadful 
admonition has been administered to those who show undue pride 
through their clothes. On Lie Day of Final Requital, when everyone 
will be pathetically aspiring for a benevolent glance from the 
All-Merciful, and in dire need of it, the Lord will not even care to 
look at such men. 

Abu Saeed Khudri's report, further, tells that the right thing for 
a truthful Believer is that his lower garment does not reach below 
the middle of the calves, and it is, also, permissible if it goes down 
up to the ankles. It must anyhow, not be lower which is a grave sin 
and the chastisement of Hell await the erring bondsman who 
behaves like that. The warning, nevertheless, will hold good only 
when it is done out of haughtiness and vainglory as the next 
Tradition candidly shows. 

J^^$'j^#\& (ntr/rvA) 

(1643/278) It is related by Abdullah ibn Umar that the 
Prophet 0 said: "Whoever will lower his garment much 
because of vanity, Allah will not look at him on the Day of 
Rekconing." The narrator adds that, on hearing it, Abu Bakr ^> 
said: "O Messenger of Allah &! My lower garment hangs down 
if I am not careful [about it]." "You are not of those ./ho do so 
out of self-conceit," observed the Prophet (Bukhari) 

Commentary: It, disticntly, shows that there is no sin if the 



534 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



tahbund or paijama { of anyone reaches below the ankles without 
his knowing it. The authorities have held that it is forbidden to 
keep one's lower garment or trousers lower than the ankles due to 
pride, while if it is done simply out of fashion or habit, it is 
undesirable, and if it is unitentional then no blame attaches to the 
wearer and he will not be called to account for it on the Last Day. 

Forbidding Gold And Silk to Men 

(1644/279) It is related by Abu Musa Ash'ari 4*> that the 
Prophet W> said: "Gold and clothes of silk are allowed to the 
women of the community of my followers, and forbidden to 
men." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: As we learn from other Traditions, it is the clothes 
that are made from silk, or in which this fibre is predominant that 
are forbidden to men, otherwise they are allowed to wear dresses 
made from all other fabrics including the garment which, without 
being silken is embroided with silk or has a silken border. 

Forbidding Bright Red Colour to Men 

jf^l jlijJ Alipj y» l& J4 (H to/YA») 

, v * * 

(1645/280) Narrated Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'Aas 4^ that 
(once) the Prophet iH was sitting that a man happened to pass 
by who was wearing both the clothes of a bright red colour. He 
made the salutation to the Prophet 0 but he did not return the 
greetings." (Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Commentators have explained that the clothes of 
the person concerned were of a bright red colour which were not 
proper for men to wear, and the Holy Prophet Hi did not 
acknowledge his greeting to express his displeasure. It is on this 
ground that some authorities have held that it is prohibited for men 



O. Trouser 01 long drawers. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



535 



to wear clothes of a bright red colour while others are of the view 
that it is undesirable. 

Anyway, the disinclination of the sacred Prophet S to 
acknowledge the salutation is enough to show how greatly 
displeased he felt on seeing such a dress. 

Men Should Not Dress Like 
Women, Nor Women Like Men 

. Jt^> ; ,L^Jl ^ Ol^Jl} *UJl< JUf> ^ j^iliii 

( 1 646/28 IV Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas 4& that the Messenger 
of Allah m cursed men who effect a likeness with women (in 
dress, manners, deportment etc.,), and women who effect a 
likeness with men. (Bukhari) 
Commentary: In it, dress has not been mentioned specifically, and 
likeness, as a whole, has been condemned. The most obvious form 
of it, however, is that men dressed themselves up as women, and 
women as men, and, thus, made a mockery of their sex. 

In the next Tradition, clothing has been specified by name. 

^ «ijj> . j*> ^ j4> : sf^ji j jjjji Lfl jj; j^, 

(1647/282) It is related by Abu Hurayrah ^ that the Messenger 
of Allah $1 cursed men who wore the clothes of women, and 
women who wore the clothes of men." (Abu Dawood) 

White Clothes Are Preferable For Men 

(1648/283) It is related by Samurah 4^ that the Prophet S 
said: "Wear white clothes: these are neat, clean and good; and 
clothe your dead with a white sheet (for burial)." 

(Tirmizi, Nasai, Musnad Ahmad Ibn Majah) 



536 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



(1649/284) Abu Darda ^» related us, that the Messenger of 
Allah % said: "The best colour for meeting the Lord in your 
graves and in your mosques is pure white." (Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: What it denotes is that it was better that when a 
person appeared before the Almighty, in his grave, he was covered 
with a white shorud. And when he appeared before Him in the 
mosque, he was dressed in white clothes. 

According to many other reports, however, the Prophet 0, 
sometimes, wore clothes of different colours, such as, green, light 
blue and yellow. He, also, used to pyt on a sheet with red stripes, 
and a black tiara. The afore-mentioned observation, thus, is by way 
of an advice and not a command. It also, is, meant only for men 
while coloured garments have been preferred for women as is 
evident from the practice of the pious wives of the holy Prophet m 
as well. 

ItisNotProperForThe 
Well-To-Do To Live Miserably 

'4 j> ft ^ 0* ^ U <J^ w J** r-'J 

^>3 '^3 ^3 p\j 'jte JUJ» '$ # tii 

.*A'f 3 JX2»jk\ $ ^jfl ^ ^ 3* 

(1650/285) It is related by Abul Ahwas (a Taba'ee), on the 
authority of his father, (Maalik ibn Fazlah^b), who said: 
"(Once), as 1 went to the Messenger of Allah 0, I was wearing 
clothes of very inferior quality. On seeing me, he enquried: 'Do 
you possess some wealth?" 'Yes', 1 replied. '(Allah has been kind 
to me)'. 'What sort of wealth do you have?' he asked. 'Allah has 
favoured me with every kind of wealth. I have camels, cows, 
bullocks, goats and sheep, and 1 have horses and slaves: 'When 
Allah has bestowed wealth upon you, the effects of His 
benevolence should, also, be seen on you, i.e., from the way you 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



537 



live." (Musnad Ahmad and Nasai) 

(1651/286) Amr ibn Shu'ayb related to us, saying his father, 
Shu'ayb, told htm, on the authority of his grandfather, Abdullah 
ibn 'Amr ibn al-'Aas that the Messenger of Allah % said: 
"It is pleasing to Allah that if there is His favour on anyone, its 
effects should be visible on him." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Just some people wear expensive clothes for 
fashon's sake or to make a display of their wealth or superiority, 
some miserly persons live wretchedly out of stinginess or bad taste, 
though they are well off. The Traditions we have just seen contain 
the exhortation for these niggardly people that if there was the 
favour of the Lord on anyone, it should be reflected in his way of 
living. It, too, is a form of giving thanks to Allah. 

Live Well Without Being Vain And Wasteful 

ft \'pj& 3 ijo^ij \'J£ jj^j 4* %\ JU 

(1652/287) Amr ibn Shu'ayb related to us, saying his father, 
Shu'ayb, told him, on the authority of his grandfather, Abdullah 
ibn 'Amr ibn al-Aas 4k>, that the Messenger of Allah $k said: "It 
is allowed to eat well, spend on others in charity, have clothes 
made for yourselves and wear them provided there is no 
wastefulness and vanity in your heart." 

(Musnad Ahmad. Nasai, and Ibn Majah) 

Commentary: There need be no misunderstading about what has 
been said in it regarding food, dress etc. It is perfectly legitimate 
for a person to eat and drink what he likes and wear clothes of his 
choice, of course with the stipulation that it does not touch the 
limits of extravagance and self-conceit. 

Imam Bukhari, also, has quoted the following narrative oT 
Abdullah ibn Abbas: 



538 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



"Eat what you like, and wear what you like provided that it is 
free from two things: extravagance and vainglory." 

Do Not LookClumsy Or Awkward 

i>3 faj 4*'& lsWi Ji5y>> ( \ n or/r aa> 

^33 L,\j ^ U lik A*; 6^ ^ & 

(1653/288) Narrated Jabir "(One day), as the Messenger of 
Allah i& visited me, he saw an uncouth person whose hair were 
dishevelled. He remarked: 'Could he not find anything to dress 
his hair?' On the same occasion, he saw another person who was 
wearing very dirty clothes, and. upon it, he remarked: 'Could he 
not find anything to wash his clothes?"'(Musnad Ahmad and Nasai) 

Keeping The Hair Neat And Tidy 

fa > i^-j jtf ja f+ & 'J- o ^ °™ ai) 

(1653/289) 'Ata ibn Yassar related that one day the 
Messenger of Allah 0 was sitting in the Mosque, a person 
came whose hair (both) of the head and the beard were most 
untidy and disarranged. The Prophet S made a sign to him 
with his hand, indicating that he should go and have the hair of 
his head and beard trimmed. The man did as told, and when he 
returned, the Prophet % observed: "Was it not better for you 
(that you went out and had the hair made neat and orderly) than 
that anyone of you came with his hair dishevelled and looking 
(wild), as if he was the Devil? " (Malik) 
Commentary: These Traditions candidly refute the notion that is 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 539 

quite popular among some of the asceties that earnest bondsmen of 
the Lord should pay little attention to their appearance, and to be 
neat and properly dressed was a sign of world liness. Such people, 
are sadly uninformed, and they know nothing of true spirit and 
reality of the teachings of the holy Prophet and the Shari'ah he 
brought. Excessive care for one's dress or appearance, of course, in 
undesirable, as the Tradition to follow will show. 

The substance of the Prophet's precepts and instructions in this, 
as in all the other fields, is that moderation should be the rule, and 
abnormal behaviour, both by way of excess or deficiency, should 
be avoided. 

The above-mentioned Traditions, obviously, were for people 
who fell short of normal standards of tidiness and kept themselves 
dirty and dishevelled. 

On the other hand, those who attach an undue importance to 
dress and outward appearance should lake guidance from the 
narrartives we are now going to discuss. 

Simplicity And Destitution, 
Too, is An Aspect of Faith 

(1654/290) It is related by Abu Umamah 4s> that (once) the 
Messenger of Allah S said: "Do you not listen (to me)? Do you 
not listen (to me)? (Listen carefully, and remember) : Simplicity 
and destitution, too, is an aspect of faith." He said it repeatedly. 

(Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It shows that simplicity and preference for poverty, 
also, is produced by an inner spiritual feeling, and it. too, is a 
branch or colouring of Faith. 

Reward on Simplicity in Dress 

cr> jj J* 1^1 f>; ft Sipj a* jji; ft Jj ^135 j.oji ^s) 



540 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



(1655/291) It is related by Mu'az ibn Anas that the 
Messenger of Allah S said: "Whoever is in a position to wear 
expensive clothes, but refrains from it, and uses a simple dress 
out of meekness and humility, Allah will call him (to Himself), 
before all the creatures, on the Day of Resurrection, and tell him 
to put on whatever raiment of Faith he likes." (Tirmizi) 
Commentary: The glad tidings are for the bondsmen whom Allah 
has blessed with wealth and they can easily manage to wear good 
and costly clothes, but prefer not to do so out of regard for the 
feelings of the less forutnate brethren. It, indeed, is a most noble 
sentiment, and as this Tradition tells, the Almighty will appreciate 
it on the Day of Judgement and reward the bondsman by telling 
him to choose and wear the suit of clothes he liked for the dresses 
got ready for the dwellers of Heaven. 

Note: Some persons may be inclined to feel that while in the 
narratives of Abul Ahwas and 'Amr ibn Shu'ayb, people are 
exhorted to live and dress well if it is easily within their means, in 
the above Tradition, the tidings of a magnificent reward in the 
Hereafter are given to those who wear simple clothes in spite of 
being well-off financially, and, again, in Abu Umamah's report. It 
is emphasised that to wear plain clothes and live simply is an 
aspect of Faith. But these Traditions appertain to different sets of 
circumstances and should not be supposed to condtradict each 
other. 

What has been said in the narratives of Abu Ahwas and 'Amr 
bin Shu'ayb is intended for men who live poorly or are ill-clad 
owing to stinginess or want of good taste though they are 
well-to-do and can maintain a much better standard of living. It is 
for such people that the exhortation is that if there is the favour of 
the Lord on anyone, his clothing and manner of living ought to be 
testimony to it. As for the narratives of Abu Umamah and Mu'az 
bin Anas, these are addresed to people who attach an undue 
importance to their clothes and appearance and are very particular 
about what they wear and how they look as if the worth and value 
of a man depended wholly on it. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



541 



Where training and instruction is concerned, it is essential that 
people are spoken to according to their states and circumstances. 
Whoever will not keep it in mind while studying the teachings of 
the reformers will, sometimes, find them confusing and 
self-contradictory. 

Dress of The Prophet iH 

The holy Prophet iH, himself, observed the rules and 
proprieties laid down in the preceding Traditions, and wore clothes 
that were common in his days and among his people. He wore the 
tahbund, mantle and Kurt a, and used to cap or Amamo}, to cover 
his head. His clothes, generally, were of a very ordinary kind, but, 
sometimes, he would, also, put on a high priced Jubba 2 , made in 
another country or region, and with a silken border or ornamented 
with needle-work. Occasionally, he, also, used the fine Yemeni 
mantles that were popular among the well-dressed people of his 
time. One can, thus, say that not only by word, but, also, by deed, it 
was indicated by the Prophet $1 that enough latitude had been 
given in dress, as in food and drink, and one could wear any kind 
of cheap or expensive clothes, provided that Allah-given laws were 
duly observed. Within the prescribed limits, people were allowed 
to use their national costumes as well. Hence, we find that even 
men of piety and high religiousness in the Ummah who took 
utmost care to follow the example of the Holy Prophet in all 
the spheres of life, did not deem it necessary to wear clothes 
exactly as he did. 

Man has been clothing himself in different ways, in different 

regions, since the earliest days, and the style in dress has, also, 

been changing with the passage of time. Geographical and social 

conditions play a vital role in determining the dress of a people. It 

is, therefore, not possible that all men, everywhere, wore the same 

clothes. There can be no universal dress. The Shari'ah, accordingly 

has not prescribed a particular attire, suit or dress to Muslims. It 

has, simply, laid down certain broad priciples which can be 

observed easily by everyone, and in every place. 

O. A turban or tiara. 
©. A cloak or gown. 



542 



Meaning and Message of the Tradit ions Part VI 



y&> ICS Lite »3j c^>t J*^^' > ( ^ 0 v/r <u) 

( 1657 '292) Abu Buidah 4& related to us. Sayyidah 'Ayshah 

A> showed to us a thick two folded mantle and a tahbund of a 
coarse fibre, and said that the Prophet & had died in those two 
clothes. (He was wearing them at the time of his death)." 

(Bukhari and Muslim) 

%\ Jj> jk\ J^.j J\ cJ\3 UL* ^ < n o a/ x <\ r > 

(1658/293) It is related by Umm Salmah ii that among 
the clothes, the Messenger of Allah S liked kurta more." 

(Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: The holy Prophet's liking for kurta, probably, was 
because it was lighter than a cloak or mantle and served well as a 
dress. 

In some other Traditions, it is stated that the sleeves of the 
Prophet's kurta extended up to the wrists, while downward, it 
remained above the ankles. 

J^> $\ J\ ydJl & J* J* > (M^/TIl) 

(1659/294) Narrates Anas ^ that the Prophet $1 was fond of 
wearing the hibara mantles." (Bukhari) 
Commentary: Hibara mantles were made in Yemen. These were 
of cotton, with red or green stripes, and were considered of an 
average class among the loose, sleeveless cloaks. What Sayyidina 
Anas 4& wants to tell, is that as for the mantles, the Messenger of 
Allah % liked to use the hibara ones. 

(1660/295) Mughira ibn Shu'bah 4&> narrated that the 
Messenger of Allah (once), wore a Roman cloak which had 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



543 



narrow sleeves. 



(Bukhari and Muslim) 



Commentary: In some other versions of it, the cloak has been 
described as Syrian, perhaps, because, in those days. Syria formed 
a part of the Romah Empire, and the articles manufactured in it 
were called both, Roman and Syrian. 

Be that as it may, the real significance of the above Tradition is 
that, from it, we learn that it was permissible to use foreign goods, 
i.e., goods made by other people or communities, and sacred 
Prophet iH, himself, did so. 

J-ULt il* dJr >i \£\ c~i> tUJ-l j* 0 1 1 W Y *n) 

^Ji o^j tyij LSI* liJlp JiIp diiT jJLj JL* ill 



(1661/286) Asma ibnt Abu Bakr if ^ j related to us as she 
took out and showed (to us) a Cyrian^ cloak made of Tailasan 2 , 
the collar of which was made of silk brocade and the edges of 
both the openings, in the front and at the back, too, were 
adorned in the same way, saying: This is the claok of the 
Messenger of Allah fiH. It was with (my sister) Sayyidah 
Ayshah if* if (the Prophet's wife), and I took it when she 
died. (It came to my possession by way of inheritance, on her 
death). The Messenger of Allah $H used to wear it, and, now we 
wash it for (the cure of) the sick and they are restored to health 
through it." (Muslim) 



Commentary: It shows that the Prophet $H wore a Cyrian cloak 
(which was, somehow, connected with Cyrus), and whose collar 
and openings had a border of silk brocade, as the fashion was in 
those days. 

In some other narratives, it is, further, told that a silken border 
of the width of two to four fingers is permitted in male dresses, but 
not more. The borders of the Cyrian cloak would, surely, have been 
with that limit. 

O. Relating to Cyrus or Chosroes, the title of the ancient Kings of Persia. 
©. A woolen cloth, generally, of a balck colour. 




((A~*9ljj) 




544 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 

Another notable thing we learn from it is that, in th era of the 
Companions itself, the washing of the clothes of the Messenger of 
Allah were given to the sick to drink or were sprinkled over 
them in the hope that it would lead to recovery. 

p^tj %\ ^\ cJl3 Jti # j^i* j£ ( m Y/ Y ^ V) 

(1662/297) 'Amr ibn Hurayrah related, "1 saw the Prophet 
delivering a sermon from the pulpit. At that time, he was 
wearing a black turban, the end of which was hanging between 
the shoulders." (Muslim) 

(1663/298) It is related by Abdullah ibn Umar that the 
Messenger of Allah 0, (also), used to wear a white cap." 

(Tabarani) 



Jii ^ est i>'A* Cr^ pjfi CJJ 

# u; A r» ijlii jtl j& & &s 

%\ JU> jjij j£ viftoa > wUJi ijw i^c* 

(1664/299) It is related, on the authority of Abdullah ibn Abbas 
4&, "When the Khwarij 1 rose up [in rebellion], I went to 
Sayyidina Ali and he told me to go (and try to pacify them)." 
Abdullah ibn Abbas tells that, "At that time, 1 was wearing a 
fine Yemeni dress." The narrator, Abu Zumail, adds that 
Abdullah ibn Abbas was a very handsome person, and, also, had 
a powerful voice. "When I approached the Khwarij," Abdullah 
ibn Abbas 4fc went on to relate, "They greeted my saying 
Marhaba, 2 and, then, saracstically remarked: 'How about the 

O. Plural of Kharji and meaning a seceder, a schismatic, a rebel. In the Islamic 
usage, it denotes a sect of Muslims who do not reckon Hazrat Ali among the 
legal successors of the holy Prophet. 

©. Meaning "Hail; Allah bless you" 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 545 

beautiful clothes? (Is ft not contrary to the good example of the 
Messenger ot Allah & and repugnant to the spirit of piety o 
7* T Ttl d T )r (Abdul ' ah ibn Abbas told us *at) "IJpon it 

Front I y ° ° bjCCt t0 my C, ° theS? 1 have ™ the 
Prophet m weanng very good clothes." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: It shows that the Prophet ft, occasionally used to 
wear good and expensive clothes. The objection of the KhwariJ 
that to use a good dress was inconsistent with the practice of the 
ho y Prophet ft and opposed to the ideal of nghLusness wa 
based only on ignorance. It, of course, is most deplorable if one 
does so out of pride or haughtiness, as we have already seen, but if 
he ntentton is to make manifest a boon conferred by the Lord or 

os ^ftf gl ° US a "T COnsideration WhiDd it, to wear nice and 
costly clothes ts not only lawful, but, also, a virtuous act, deserving 

P onhT^ °r i0nal ^ ° f g ° 0d Cl0thes * ^ -red 

Prophet m was i m grateful acknowledgement of the favour of the 

Lord and for showing regard to the feelings of those who had 

offered the dress to him as a gift, and , further to show, by his own 

example, that it was not forbidden to wear an expensive dress. 

The Prophet & Began With The 
Right Side When Putting on A Dress 

The inherent superiority of the limbs on the right side of the 
body over those on the left has been explained already in 
connection with the rules and proprieties of eating and drinking It 
was, thus, customary with the Holy Prophet ft that when he wore 
a dress, he began with the right side. 

( 'S 0) Narrated Abu Hurayrah * "When the Messenger of 
Allah m put on a kurta, he began with the right side." 

Commentary: The mentioning of kurta, in it, is purely incidental 
otherwise n applies to all the dresses. incidental, 
In another Tradition, related by Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 4* it 
is stated that the Pron het ft said: "When , h™. j, wom £„X 
«f sacred ablut.on pertormed before prayed ™m,QTwuami 



546 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 

is performed, the beginning should be made with the right side (of 
the body)." 

The Prayer of The Prophet H At 
The Time of Wearing A New Garment 

'ij* % JU» > &j J* 0* 0 vn/r ^ ) 

(1666/301) Abu Saeed Khudri related to us that when the 
Messenger of Allah 0 put on a new dress, a fi/rfom. s/iirt or 
cloak he would make this supplication: 

Priase and gratitude be to the Lord Who gave me this (turban, 
shirt or cloak) to wear. O Allah! I beg to Thee the good of it and 
the good of the purpose for which it is intended. (May this dress 
be a source of goodness to me, and 1 gain the good object for 
which it is worn, e.g., I worship Thee, and give thanks to Thee 
on wearing it). And 1 beg to Thee refuge from its mischief and 
from the mischief of the purpose for which it is intended 

(Tirmizi) 

Commentary: Another short supplication the Prophet S used to 
make at the time of donning a new garment has been quoted earlier 
on the authority of Sayyidina All 4b. Moreover, in a Tradition 
reproduced in Sunan Abi Dawood, it is stated that all the sins of the 
past and the future of anyone will be forgiven who will recite this 
supplication while putting on a new dress: 

Praise be to Allah who clad me with this garment, and gave it to 
me solely out of His kindness, and without an effort on my part. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 547 

Wearing Shoes 

( ,667/3 °2) Sayyidina Jabir related to us that (once), as the 
Prophet m was starting on an expedition of Jihad, I heard him 
telling the people: Take more shoes (with you) for as long as 
man is wearing the shoes, he remains like a rider." (Muslim) 
Commentary: It is common experience that a person who walks 
with the shoes on, walks faster and tires less than him who walks 
barefooted. This is what is meant by the remark that "he remains 
like a rider". 

In our own days, the special boots of the soliders are, in fact, 
considered to be a part of their uniform. 



(1668/303) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger 
of Allah m said: "When anyone of you is putting on his shoes, 
he should begin with the right foot, and when he is taking them 
off, he should begin with the left foot. (In brief), the right foot 
should come first when the shoes are put on, and last when they 
are taken off." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Shoes are good for the feet. The right limb is 
perferred over the left so the right shoe must be put on first. 

Wearing A Ring or Seal 



548 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



(1 669/304) Sayyidina Anas 4$> related that when the Messenger 
of Allah m resolved to despatch letters to Chosroes (of Persia), 
Caesar (of Rome), and Negus (of Abyssinia), (inviting them to 
accept Islam as their faith), it was brought to his notice that 
kings did not acknowledge letters that did not bear the seal. 
Upon it, the Messenger of Allah & had a seal made which was 
a ring of silver, and, on it, was engraved: Muhammad 
Rasulullah, (Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah). (Muslim) 
(In another version of the same event, appearing in Bukhari, it is 
stated that the seal carried three lines. In one line was engraved 
'Muhammad', in the second, 'Rasul', and, in the third, 'Allah'). 
Commentary: In the 6th Century A.H., on return from 
Hudaibiyah, the holy Prophet 0 had sent letters to some of the 
foremost rulers of the day, conveying to them the Call of Islam. 
The incident refered to in the above Tradition had taken place at 
that time. When it was pointed out to the Prophet & that the kings 
attached little importance to letters which- did not bear the seal, he 
had a silver ring made, on the raised part of which the words, 
'Muhammad', 'Rasul', and 'Allah', were carved. This was the ring or 
seal which, according to some reports, the Prophet H used to wear 
on little finger of the left hand, and, according to others, in the little 
finger of the right hand. Or, in other words the holy Prophet m 
sometimes, wore the ring in the left, and, sometimes in the right 
hand. 

fa &%\ JU> ato 13 j# & 2 ijbtf p 

»Jj) % 
(1670/305) It is related by Abdullah ibn Abbas 4& that (once), 
on seeing a person wearing a gold ring, the Prophet & took it 
of his finger, and threw it away, remarking: "The condition of 
some of you is that they wear the burning charcoal of Hell- (a 
gold ring), of their own will and choice." After the holy Prophet 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 549 



had . left, someone told the person (from whose finger the 
Prophet ill had taken out the ring and thrown it away) to pick it 
up, and put it to some other use. (He could sell it or give it to 
some lady in the family). But he replied: "By the Lord, I shall 
not pick up the ring after the Prophet $1 has thrown it away. 

(Muslim) 

Commentary: It shows that like all the other gold ornaments, the 
wearing of a gold ring, too, is forbidden to men. Another thing we 
learn, from it, is that, in special cases, a more effective form of 
correction and reform can, also, be that if article forbidden in the 
Shari'ah is with anyone, it should be taken possession of and 
thrown away or destroyed. 

Beard, Moustache And Other 
Personal Characteristics 

pbj & to > Jta J* ^ ^ ( n Y wr . n) 

^ 3 jOHi yjllil Jalj Stf^j iW» Sjkfi 

(jj-^j jbUl el j j) 

(1671/306) It is related by Abu Hurayrah 4&> that the Messenger 
of Allah said: "These five things are the natural needs of a 
right-minded person and the dictates of the Religion of Nature 
(Islam): circumcision, removal of the hairs under navel, cutting 
(or trimming) of moustaches, paring of nails, and plucking the 
hairs of the armpits. (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In some other Traditions these acts are described as 
'personal characteristics' and 'way" of the Prophets'. Since these were 
the requirements of human nature, the teachings and regular 
practice of all the Prophets could, evidently, be nothing but the 
same. The common factor is cleanliness and purification which is 
instincitve to all men of a sound and healthy disposition. 

(( ^. ..^ .ib' ^jfs jrj i 6' afcft j 

(1672/307) Sayyidina Anas 4§& narrated that for cutting (or 
trimming) of the moustaches, and paring of nails, and removal 
of the hairs of the armpits and below the navel, the limit has 



550 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



been laid down for us thai we should not leave these acts 
undone for more than forty days. (Muslim) 
Commentary: The following narrative of Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah 
has. again, been quoted in Baiqhaqi's Sha'b-uI-Iman: from Kanzul 
'Ummai. "The Prophet 0 used to clip his nails and trim the 
moustaches on every Friday, before coming for the congregational 
prayers." 

The way confirmed by the Practice of the holy Prophet m 
therefore, is that these acts are carried out once a week, while the 
limit, as the above Tradition tells, is forty days. According to some 
authorities, even prayer (salah) will be endangered imperfect if it is 
offered by anyone who does not observe the limit. 

\'Ji£\ ^3 &\ jii j\s 'j** $ j*o~{ vt/t • A) 

(1673/308) It is related by Abdullah ibn Umar that the 
Messenger of Allah % said: "Cut the moustaches very short, 
and leave the beard." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: From some other reports it appears that the practice 

of the ealier Prophets, too, was that they grew the beards and 

clipped the moustaches. 

The beard is a sign of manliness and dignity, and, even in the 

Western countries where people, generally, remain clean-shaven, it 

is looked upon with respect. 

Would that be the Muslims realised that to grow the bread was 

the regular practice of their own and all the other Prophets, and a 

symbol of adherence to their path while to shave it was the way of 

non-believers. 

In this Tradition, the commandment signifies only the leaving 
of the beard, without mentioning to what length it should be left to 
grow. One may, thus, be led to imagine that the beard should not 
be touched, at all, and the scissors were not to be applied to it in 
any case. But, as the Tradition related by Sayyidina Abdullah ibn 
'Amr al-'Aas shows (which we are going to reproduce below, 
from Tirmizi), the sacred Prophet H used to have his beard clipped 
a little, both lenghtwise and beardthwise so that it looked neat and 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



551 



orderly. 

About the narrator of this Tradition, Sayyidina Abdullah ibn 
'Amr ibn al-'Aas 4&>, himself, it is reported that his pactice was to 
have the hair of his beard cut off which were of a greater length 
than a fist. The same was the case with some other Companions as 
well. 

In the light of all these reports, we can conclude that what the 
Tradition under discussion means is that the beard should be 
grown. It should neither be shaved nor cut too short. 

The legist-doctors have held that it is improper to trim the 
beard shorter than the fist, but no such limitation is found in any of 
the Traditions. In all probability, the legists have been guided by 
the fact that while it is confirmed by many reports that the holy 
Companions used to grow their beards up to the length of a fist, 
there is nothing to show that they, also, kept them shorter. 

44,1 t>' J^V^JJ Ij+s-'J- (HYi/r.^) 

(1674/309) It is related by Amr ibn Shu'ayb 4*\ on the 
authority of his father, Shu'ayb, and he, on the authority of his 
grandfather, Abdullah ibn 'Amr al-'Aas 4*>, that "The Messenger 
of Allah 0 used to have his beard trimmed a little, both in 
length and in breadth." (Tirmizi) 

^ jii^jdp^^ii Jpj^3>;>^l J, (HVo/n •) 

(1 675/3 1 0) It is related by Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger 
of Allah $|> said: "Whoever has hair should show respect to 
them." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: What showing "respect" to the hair means is that 
they should be washed and combed and oil should be applied to 
them as needed. The same was the practice of the Holy Prophet 0. 
always allowed the hair to grow on his head which, sometimes, 
reached up to his ears, and, sometimes, even lower. The Prophet 
H washed his hair regularly, arranged them with a comb, and 
applied oil to them. He is never reported to have his head shaven 



552 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



except on the occasion of the Hajj and the Umrah. 

(1676/31 1) Nafe', the servant of Abdullah ibn Umar related 
to us, on the authority of his master, that he heard the Prophet 
forbidding Qaza'. On being asked what Qaza meant, Nafe' 
said: "It means that a part of the head of a child was shaved and . 
a part was left unshaved." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: In Abdullah ibn Umar's 4*> narrative, quoted in 
Sahih Muslim, it is stated that, once, the Messenger of Allah 0 
saw a child, some hair of whose head were shaved while the rest 
had been left alone. The Prophet HI forbade it and remarked that 
either the whole head should be shaved or not at all. To shave a 
part of the head and leave the other unshaven was revolting to the 
eye and would make the child look hideous. Anyhow, the Prophet 
A has forbidden it. We can conclude about the other customs and 
practices of the same kind, also, on the basis of this commandment. 

Using Henna by Women 

(1677/312) It is related by Sayyida Ayshah if* that (as) 

Hind ibnt Utba begged the Messenger of Allah 0 to take the 
6a/'/ 1 from her, the Messenger of Allah & said: "I shall not 
take the ba'it from you until you changed the appearance of your 
hands (by applying henna). (At present), your hands are looking 
like those of a beast." (Abu Dawood) 

Commentary: Hind ibn Utba was the wife of Abu Sufiyan. She 
had embraced Islam and taken the first ba'it on the day of the 
Victory of Makkah, along with many other women of the Quraysh. 

The request for ba'it mentioned in the above Tradition was, 
O. A solemn pledge of allegiance given to a leader by his followers and binding 
them to absolute obedience. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



553 



perhaps, made at a later time, and it was, then, that the Prophet 0 
had told her to go and apply henna to her hands. 

The viewpoint of the Shari'ah that, within permissible limits, 
women ought to make use of adornments etc., intended to beautify 
the complexion and improve general appearance is made plain by 
the afore-mentioned saying. It will be conducive to the promotion 
and strengthening of the sentiments of love and liking between 
them and their husbands. 



SA TR AND HI JAB 



The question of satr and hijab enjoys an importance of its own 
in the social design of life. It is one of the things that distinguish 
man from the quadrupeds. The sense of modesty and shame, 
essentially, is a human attribute. No other living being has been 
enduced with it. The animals, thus, do not try to hide any part of 
their body or act of theirs as the human beings, instinctively, do. 

In any case, satr and hijab are, basically, the requirements of 
human nature. That is why, all the nations and communities, 
however much they may differ from each other in creed, culture 
and ideology, are agreed that man should not go about unclothed. 

It, again, is an accepted fact that the position of the woman is 
higher, as compared to man, in this regard. Or, as one would say, 
just as human beings are superior to all other living beings, in 
matters of satr and hijab, women take precedence over men for the 
reason that their physical structure possesses a much greater sexual 
appeal, and if their privities are not properly covered, it can give 
rise to numerous evils. Hence, the Lord Creator, also, has endowed 
women with a greater sense of modesty and shame. 

Moreover, as Divine Guidance was perfected for mankind, 
through the teachings of the Last of the Messengers, the Prophet 
Muhammad ft, in the other spheres of life, both collective and 
individual, in the field of satr and hijab, too, his advice and 
instructions are ultimate and conclusive. 

The fundamental principles and commandments relating to it, 
have been set forth in the Qur'an. 

In the opening verses of Surah Al-A'raf, which deals with the 
creation of Adam and the bringing of the world into existence, it is 
told that the command to conceal your shame had been given to 
mankind even at that stage, and it had been warned against the 
danger of being seduced by Satan who would try to pull it down 
from the lofty station of humanity to the level of the beasts by 
tearing off from its robe and manifesting its shame. 

Likewise, in Surah An-Nur and Surah At-Ahzab, guidelines 
have been provided, particualrly, with regard to the screening and 
veiling of women. It is stated, for instance, that they should stay in 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 

their homes which are the right place for them, and in case they 
have to go out for some need, which is permitted, they should 
cover themsleves properly with a veil etc., and, also, observe the 
prescribed limits about adornments and vails in the presence of 
relations and visitors other than the husbands. Men, on their part, 
are commanded not to enter the homes of relatives and friends 
without announcing their presence and obtaining the permission. 
Men and women should, further, not stare at each other, but lower 
their gaze if they came face to face. 

People who are blessed with a sound, healthy outlook and good 
judgement will agree that these commandments not only fulfil the 
inherent conditions of modesty, but, also, provide an effective 
check against the Satanic and sensual ills and evils which debase 
life and lead to woeful consequences. 

Necessary Satr 

( 1 678/3 13) It is related by Jarhad ibn Khuwailid that the 
Prophet m said: "Do you know that the thigh, (too), is included- 
. in satr?" (It is not permitted to expose it, also?" 

(Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 
Commentary: About the organs of the human body that are, 
genarally, called the private parts, even those who do not believe in 
Allah or follow any religion feel that they should not remain 
uncovered. But, from the above Tradition, we learn that satr 
includes not only the private parts and the area surrounding them, 
but, also, the thigh which, too, must be kept covered with the 
garments. It, so to speak, marks the completion of the guidance 
concering satr. 

(1679/314) It is related by Sayyidina Ali 4& that the Messenger 
of Allah m said to him: "Oh Ali! Do not reveal your thigh, nor 
look at anyone's thigh, living or dead. "(Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah) 



V^)4*%\Jj>&\ Jii Jlij^^i^ (HA./n*) 



556 Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 

(1680/315) It is related by Abu Saeed Khudri ^ that the 
Messenger of Allah 0 said: A man must not cast a glance at 
the satr of any other man, nor a woman at the satr of any other 
woman." ( Muslim ) 
Commentary: It shows that , in the Islamic Shari'ah, it is not 
permitted to look at the parts of the body of the same sex that are to 
be concealed. This, of course, is what modesty means. Occasions 
on which it may be necessary to do so, evidently, are an exception. 

Hiding Nakedness Even When Alone 

The sacred Prophet 0, also, stressed that even when a person is 
alone and no one is seeing him, he should not, unnecessarily, 
undress himself or stay naked. 

A 3*> irf <ks * & j** ®?&\ 

(1681/316) It is related by Abdullah ibn Umar 4fc that the 
Messenger of Allah A said: O people! Abstain from nakedness, 
(also in privacy. Do not bare the satr even when you are alone). 
The angels are always with you, and they never leave you except 
at the time of defacation or couplatton between husband and 
wife. So, observe modesty and be respectful in their presense 
(too)." (Tirmizi) 
Commentary: It shows that the angles, Ike the 'recording', ones, 
who are with man, at all times, part company with him when he 
becomes naked for the fulfilment of a natural urge. 

(1682/317) It is related by Bhaz ibn Hakeem, on the authority of 
his father, Hakeem, and he, on the authority of his father, 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 5 5 7 

Muawiya ibn Haidah that the Messenger of Allah S said" 
"Guard private parts of your body (Do not bare them before 
anyone) except your wife and (lawful) slave-girl." (Muawiya ibn 
Haidah related) "I, thereupon, asked the Messenger of Allah S: 
"What about the situation in which a man is alone and no one is 
seeing him?' Allah is more deserving of it and He has a greater 
claim to it that the bondsman observe modesty in His presence ' 
the Prophet ft replied." (Tirmizi, Abu Dawood and Ibn MajahJ 

Observing ffijab By Women 

J*&fOX## <mr/ru) 

(1 683/3 18) It is related by Abdullah ibn Mas'ud 4fe that the 
Prophet m said: "Woman is satr. fJust as satr should be 
concealed, in the same way, a woman should remain at home 
and in hijab). When she goes out, the devils cast coquettish 

glances at her." L. . 

(Tirmizi) 

Commentary: In Arabic, the word Aurah denotes a thing or a part 
of the body it is essential to keep covered and to expose which is 
undesirable. In the above Tradition, the phrase, Al-Mara'atu Aurah 
has been used which denotes that it is the peculiarity of a woman 
that she remained in hijab. 

The observation that when a woman goes out, the devils cast 
coquettish glances at her signifies that, as far as possible, women 
should stay in their homes, and, thus, remain protected from the 
mischief of the devils and their followers and disciples If and 
when they go out for a valid reason, they are to cover themselves 
with a cloak and take care not to display their adornment. This is 
the meaning and intention of the Qur'anic verse: 

And stay in your homes Bedizen not yourselves with the 
bedizenment of the Time of Ignorance. (A! Ahzab, 33:33) 

Casting Amorous Glances 



558 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Part VI 



(1684/319) Narrated Hasan Basri t^fk "It has been related 
to me that the Messenger of Allah 0 said: The curse of Allah 
is on him who sees, and on him who is seen." (Baihaqi) 
Commentary: It shows that whoever looks at a Naa-mahram ] 
woman or at the satr of anyone to look at which is forbidden, is 
accursed of Allah, and so, also, is the woman who shows herself or 
deliberately gives an opportunity to be seen. 

Seeing a Naa-Mahram Woman by Chance 

Jl>>i J^dfo juUu^ Jlj±j> <nAo/rr.) 

(1685/320) Jareer ibn Abdullah related: "(Once), I enquried 
from the Messenger of Allah & about seeing by chance. (What 
was 1 to do if my glance fell, unintentionally, on a Naa-Mahram 
woman or on the satr of anyone)?" "Turn your eyes away from 
her (or it)", the Prophet H replied. (Muslim) 

(1686/321) Sayyidina, Buraidah related to us that, once the 
Messenger of Allah S said to Sayyidina Ali 4*>. "O A!i (If you 
see a Naa-Mahram woman by chance), do not look at her twice. 
Your first glance (which is unintentional) is lawful, (and will 
not be called to account), but the second is not." 

(Musnad Ahmand, Tirmizi and Abu Dawood) 

ij j*k fcS* J\ 'A ^ 

(1687/322) Abu Umamah 4& related, that the Prophet H said: 
"The believing man whose glance falls on a beautiful woman, 
and, then, he lowers his gaze, (and does not look at her again), 
Allah will bless him with worship, the sweetness of which he 
will feel throughout his life." (Musnad Ahmad) 

Commentary: It tells that, in return for foregoing an illegitimate 
O. One who is not, as regards marriage, within the forbidden degrees, i.e., with 
whom marriage is allowed by the Shari'ah. 



Book of Monetary and Mutual Dealings 



559 



pleasure, the Almighty will bestow upon the bondsmn the exquisite 
spiritual boon of the sweetness of worship in this very world, even 
before the Day of Resurrection and Final Judgement. 

Getting Seized With An Evil 
Desire on Seeing A Woman 

It is with human beings that he is tempted to eat good food, and 
attracted to a cool place in heat. In the same way, he may become 
excited on seeing a beautiful woman. The Prophet i$& has 
prescribed a treatment for this malady too. 

ifcJi jtfJtf & 3 0^ ^ 

(1688/323) It is related by Jabir 4p> that the Messenger of Allah 
said: "(Sometimes), it happens that a woman comes like the 
Devil. (Her carriage and department are tempting and she can 
lead men into evil). So, if anyone of you has such an experience 
and feels attracted to a woman, he should go to his wife and 
satisfy his sexual urge with her. It will cure him of the impure 



Forbidding Meeting A 
Non-Mahram Woman In Privacy 

The ProphetiH hasalso disallowed man to meetastrangerwomanak 

3^3 I'M J+$y&r*& o o 



(1689/324) It is related by Sayyidina Umar <&> that the 
Messenger of Allah HI said: "It can never be that a non- 
mahram man met a woman when they were alone, and a third, 
(the Devil), was not present (at that time or place')." (Tirmizi) 

Commentary: The purport of the above Tradition is that when a 
non-mharam man will be alone with a woman, the Devil will, 
surely, try to play his tricks and lead them astray. It will, therefore, 
be safer and wiser not to give him such an opportunity. 



desire. 



(Muslim) 




560 



Meaning and Message of the Traditions Pan VI 



(1690/325) 'Uqbah ibn 'Aamir related that the Messenger of 
Allah m said: "You should avoid going to a non-mahram 
woman, (and be very careful in that regard)." Someone, 
thereupon enquired: "What about the near relatives of the 
husband, such as, his brother? (Does the command apply to 
them as well)?" They are very deadly," the Messenger of Allah 
®& replied. (Bukhari and Muslim) 

Commentary: Among the relatives of the husband, his father and 
sons are mahram for the wife, but apart from them, at the other 
relatives, including his real brother, are non-mahram. For them, it 
is extremely unsafe to come freely into her house and mix with her. 

' * * -* 

(1691/326) It is related by Jabir ^ that the Prophet % said: 
"Do not, (particularly), go into the houses of women whose 
husbands have gone (on a journey etc.,) for (the effects and 
influences (of) the Devil are always present in everyone and 
running through him (imperceptibly) like the blood in the 
veins." "In you, too, Messenger of Allah 0?" We asked. "Yes; 
in me, too," he replied. "But there is the special favour of the 
Almighty upon me, (in this matter), owing to which I remain 
safe and protected." (Tirmizi) 
Commentary: There is, naturally, a greater danger of falling a 
prey to the inducements of the Devil when non-mahram men come 
into a close contact with women whose husbands have gone on a 
journey or are not living with them for some other reason. The holy 
Prophet Ufa has, thus, warned against it, in particualr, and said that 
no one should imagine himself protected against the temptations of 
Satan who takes holdof our minds suddenly and without our knowing it. 

It is worthy of note here that the Holy Prophet has not 
described freedom from the evil designs of the Devil as his own 
virtue or attainment, but an exceptional favour of the Lord. It, 
indeed, is the highest state of self-surrender. 

. apOIj aS\j ^ uJ^ j J* fc> $\ 



561 



GLOSSARY 

MEANING AND MESSAGE OF TRADITIONS 



A ma I 
Ahadith 
Ahl Kitab 

Allahu Akbar 

Asr 

Azan 

Ansar 

Azl 

Azat 

Bay'ah 

Bid'ah 

Barzakh 

Du'a 

Eeman 

Eed 

Fajr 
Fard 
Ghusl 
Hijrah 

Hadith 

Hadith (Saheeh) 
Hadith (Da'eet) 
Hadith (Mursal) 
Hadith (Marfoo 1 ) 
Hadith (Mawdoo') 
Hadith (Qudsi) 

Hajj 

Durood 
Chlsht 
Hijib 

Halal 
Ha ram 



jUail 



Jj' 
i*Jl 

Or 
[fit 

^* 



Us 



(plofamal) deeds, 
pi of Hadith. 

people of the Book This tern, is used by the QuVSn for 
Jews and Chnst,ans who follow a revealed religion 
Allah is the Greatest, 
the afternoon salah. 
the call lo salah. 

m and Muhajir from Makkah. 
coitus interruptus. 
eternity. 

covenani of allegiance, 
innovation. 

interv enin g period between death and resurrection 
whether in grave or otherwise. surrcction 

supplication. 

faith, belief in Islam. 

festival Day marking the end of month of fasting is eed 
ul-fitr ( 1 st Shawwa.) and day of sacrifice is edd SazhS ' 
the dawn salah. 

absolute obligation, an enjoined duty. 
Bathing to remove legal impurity 

S„" 0 ,H I he Pr ° phet ' S # m, « rati °" "> Madinah 
markmg the begiumg of the Islamic calendar. 

Prophet | d0m8 ° r PraCl ' Ce ' ° r Silent a PP roval ° f «he 
a sound Hadith. 
a weak Hadith. 

incompletely transmitted Hadith. 
Hadith traced back to the Prophet &. 
an invented Hadith 

That which Allah has said to the Prophet » through 
=all ons or dream and he has retold it Tn S s °T a 

SKSfLl" " u;umben, on ewry Mus,im wh ° has *» 

S^HaSh °" CC m ' ife time in ,he momb of 

a prayer for the Holy Prophet * to the blessed by Alfah 
optional salah in the forenoon. 

vejl worn' or observed by women, seclusion of women, 
lawful. 

unlawful, forbidden. 



562 



Isha 
Istidraj 

Istikharah 

Istighfar 

Istinja 

Iqamah 

Imam 

lshraq 

lstisqa 

Iftar 

1'likaf 

I In am 

Iddah 

Ikhlas 
Jihad 

Jawami al-Kilam 
Jizyah 

Jannah 
Jahannum 
Khazecra 
Kalimah 

Khatim ul-Anhiya 

Kusuof 

Khusoof 

Khutbah 

Muhajir 

Musaddiq 

Muhaimin 

Maghrib 

Mi Hat 

Meezan 

Miswak 

Muqtadi 

Mahr 



.to 



night salah before retiring. 

to give respite to a sinner to defer his punishment and let 
him innolue in more sins, so that he may be punished 
ultimately a severe punishment 

seeking guidance from Allah through salah to tackle a 
situation or deed in the right way. 
to seek forgiveness of Allah, 
abstertion, cleansing of body after relieving oneself, 
words of azan called to signal the standing up of the 
congregation for salah An additional phrase is repeated 
twice and the words are called relatively quickly, 
leader of the congretation. 

optional salah a little after sunrise. 

a prayer (through salah) for rain during drought 

breaking fast after sunset during Ramadan. 

seclusion for the purpose of worshiping Allah. Men do it 

in the mosque and women at home. There are different 

kinds of it, for instance, the last ten days of Ramadan. 

the state which a pilgrim assumes during Hajj and Umrah 

imposing certain restrictions on him. 

waiting period for a divorced woman or widow after 

which she may remarry. 

sincerity 

war waged solely for the sake of Allah against enemies of 
Islam. 

brief expressions most comprehansive in meaning. 

the tax imposed on non-Muslims under state protection 

in Muslim countries. 

Paradise. 

Hell. 

kind of dish of meat, flour and spices. ^ 
expression, expression of belief & Jj-j -U~ «I» » «» 1 
The Seal of Prophets, the last of Prophets. (Prophet 
Muhammad 
Solar eclipse, 
lunar eclipse. 

sermon. Friday or eed sermon delivered from the minbar 
(pulpit) 

The Companions of the Prophet & who had migrated to 

Madinah during the Prophet's & life time. 

he who confirms or bears witness to a truth 

one who supervises. 

sunset, the salah after sunset. 

faith, religion, creed. 

scale. 

a piece of tree's branch or root used as tooth cleaner 

the worshippers who follow the Imam in congregational 

salah. 

dower 



563 



La ilaha illAllahu 




1 here is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the 


Muhammadur 




Messenger of Allah. 


RasoolAllah 




La'nah 






Laylatul Qadr 




Nif?ht of flfiwpr on** elf the rirM niohtc in 111** lact t^n -r 
M1 & Hl l -" unv ui uji. uuu 1 1 L^J ] Lz> 11] Ult JdM ILil uaYS 

of Ramadan when the Quran was revealed and which the 
worshipper has to search for 


Nikah 




Marriage. 


Sunnah 




the norm of the Prophet ft, his words and deeds. 


Salah 




prayer (five times a day), fajr, zuhr, asr. maghrib and 
isha 


Shari'ah 




sacred law of Islam based on Qur'an and sunnah. 


Sawm 




fasting. 


Sahabah 




Companion of the I'rophct 


Sa'ee 




seven rounds between Safa and Marwah at Makkah 
during the pilgrimage 


Sahr or Suiiooi 




meal taken before dawn to commence fasting. 


Satr 




veil, parts of body that need be covered - for men from 
navel down to knee and for women f rom head to feet. 


Salaam 


r 


greetings, peace. 


Zakah 




■./m n\ , jjui 1 1 iwauun. n yvim.ni ui vaiue oi propenv given 
in charity to the poor (as the due of Allah) each year by 
those who qualify the mimimuin stipulated wealth 


Surah 




chapter of the Qur'an. 


Ta'bud 


JLJU 


absolute worship. 


Tabi'ee 




one who has seen a Companion or conversed with one 


Tawaf 




circumambulation of the ka'bah 


Sajdah 




prostration. 


raka'ah 




(pi. raka'at) unit of salah made up of standing, bowing 
and two prostrations. 


ruku' 




bowing down in salah 


tashahhud 




the recital in the silling posture in salah. 


tasawwuf 




sufisim, adherence to sufisni. 


takbeer 




to call out AllaJui Akbar. 


tahleel 




to say *V *J» V (There is no God but Allah). 


tasbeeh 




to glorify Allah. 


tilawah 




to recite the Qur'an. 


tahajjud 




optional salah late in the night on getting up from sleep 
for it. 


tayammum 




dry ablution. 


talbiyah 




to recite Labayk: J^^J "i < < 1, ^ ,_JLJ 


tawbah 


>y 


repentance. 


Qiblah 




the direction of the ka'bah which worshippers face in 
salah. 


Zuhr 




the noon salah when the sun begins to decline. 


l!mmah 




a people or nation, community, who have received a 
message. 


Nan 


J* 


additional, optional supererogatory . 



564 






Qiya man 


LaLi 


The Day of Resurrection. 


Si rat 




„ — L.,,),, tiiat all will hav/f* 1^ i»rn^ flTt£r 

a narrow Dnoge inai an win nave iu tiu^s aii&i 




resurrection. 


Kawthar 


y £ 


the pond and the river by this name in Paradise. 


Zaqqoom 




a tree growing in Hell wnicn is tne rooa oi me pcopic ui 




Hell. 


Ghassaq 




rubbish and impurity pouring oi me oouies ui muac 




condemned (to Hell). 


Sufi 




-ull.nr,mt trv Ciificni a caint who ha^ roa^hcd the end 01 




the path. 


1 1 fi ^ m 

J U 1 1 J 141 




see Tasawwuf. 


Zuhd 




having no love for the mundane benefits. 


Zikr 


/i 


remembrance of Allah. 


Wudu 




ablution 


Si Yr 3 k 


■/ 


same as miswak. 


waqf 




religious endowment. 


witr 




v -H «U« ,., n L:L (U rp » r^Lrl'al cSllsih 111 ti"if* flipllt H iter ISHQ 

OuQ, tllC wa|lD Inree roKadl Saicin in uic »igm lane* 


sal ah. 


wajib 




obligatory (slightly less than fard). 


>aiiuui iiajan 




tworaka'at salah to seek fulfilment of need. 


salat ul Khawaf 




A particular way ot onenng ujngregdiionai piayci in 




battlefield 


Salat lit Tasbeeh 


-It A .L /» 


th<» talTh nf olnrificaiion a four raka'at salah (optional) 


performed in a particular way 


SaUaqah 




charity. 


Sadqatul fitr 




_ n ;., 11 ri t»ft*»r crtmnlH i no fa^tinp before sal&h OT 

a cuamy given diicr vuiiipicnng noting, fv*"*- • >u,w " v 




bed ul-lilr. 


Janazah 




funeral . 


Meeqat 




1 he place oeyonu wnicn a pilgrim Lammi jjiu^ttu 




without having assumed the ihram. 


Rami 




>i*a iiimminn jiT n^KVilAc at ilip limar in M i n a DV the 

tne tiirow mg oi puDuics <u mc jhuoj m | » ,i|,u ^ j 




pilgrims. 


Jimar 




i»t ,f inmraht' ii\rf»*» ctnnp nillars at Mina* at which 
(pi. oi jamranj. in ret siunc jnufit> «i ivnun m "*> iv " 




pilgrims throw pebbles.